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3G & 2G Phone MW Hazards Experiments
Bodies, brains and cells affected in form and function by mobile phone radiation

Pablo Andueza Munduate

Mobile phones generate microwave radiation that, as is more evident with each day that passes and more investigation is done, causes numerous changes in the exposed subjects: from electrophysiological changes to biochemical changes, from histopathological changes to developmental changes. ...

For electromagnetic radiation although some scientist believe that no other mechanism apart of heating is plausible to have effect on biology, the evidences for the contrary are growing.

Telecommunications, specifically as is treated in this section 2G (GSM modulation) and 3G (UMTS) mobile phone systems, are widely extended and used in the world at the time of this writing. Most 2G phones use the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard, which pulses 890–960 MHz and 1710–1880 MHz (GSM900 and GSM1800, respectively) signals with 217 Hz, whereas most 3G phones use the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System’s (UMTS), W-CDMA2 air interface standard, which operates at a higher frequency range of 1900–2170 MHz and work without periodic pulsed modulation.

In the following it will reviewed various of the subsections presented in the chats below which are dedicated to some kind of the detected ambits of damage each one, mentioning various of the papers with their major results. It must be taken into account that all intensities used (although not mentioned in this introductory text for not to be excessively extended and technical) are normal exposures situations or, in much of the cases, well below the official guidelines proposed limits (SAR 1.6 – 2.0 W/kg). More papers than those cited in this text will be available always (with more updates) in the charts below.

Let's start with the reviewing of studies that test influence of mobile phones in various brain related issues.

Brain – Changes in EEG

Brain waves are one of the aspects of brain functioning that are altered by mobile phone radiation.

It can be interesting to note that it's now know [1] that when a dialing mobile phone is placed on the ear, its radiation, although unconsciously, is electrically detected by the brain.

In [2] during 3 min In Vitro Exposure of Neural Networks to a GSM-1800 signal it has been discovered a 30% reversible decrease in firing rate and bursting rate of neurons. In [3] it has found evidence that 5 min exposure with an intensity at 10% of the ICNIRP guideline exposure limits provokes statistically significant differences in both theta and alpha waves.

Also 5 min exposure but to some more higher intensity (although well below the recommended limits) provokes alpha hemisphere dominance change and the changes depend on the side of exposure [4]:

" .. this happened due to the RF exposure by the participants in during session because alpha synchrony would decrease during the trials .. This might be the indicative of inhibitive activity in one hemisphere increasing unilaterally in response to the task and desynchronizing the hemispheres temporarily .. Also there are significant different of Alpha PAR in 5 minutes exposure to RF and continue in 5 minutes after the exposure."

In a study with a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design [5] is detected a power decrease of alpha band during and after thr exposure to a GSM mobile phone during 26 min in an eyes-closed condition.

In the case of a 3G mobile phone 15 min exposition on the contrary [6] increased activity of the alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands was found in nearly every brain region.

The frequency at which the radiofrequency signal is modulated is important factor that determines what effects are notorious, in [7] exposure to RFR modulated at 8 Hz resulted in significant decrease in Theta band power and exposure to RFR modulated at 16 Hz resulted in a significant decrease in the beta-1 band power during sleep.

In a Long term study [8] with exposure to from 30 to 120 days of 1 hour daily telephony, quantitative analysis of EEG revealed a clear shift from high frequency (beta) to lower frequency (delta).

A series of studies by C.K. Smitha and N.K. Narayanan that use fractal dimension [9], wavelet analysis [10] and other techniques to measure the internal complexity of the EEG signal (that in the viewpoint of this website is equal to their information management capacity) shows changes in EEG while using mobile phone that indicate the reduction of the signal complexity.

Another study by other authors [11] also found that the approximate entropy (ApEn) function which is the measure of complexity in information process was significantly lower in group of subjects who were exposed to mobile phone EMF.

Brain – Changes in Hippocampus

Some of the electrophysiological changes have been found in the hippocampus.

For example, a long-term experiment of 6 hour daily exposure [12] shown irregular firing patterns of hippocampal neurons from the exposed rats, and they exhibited decreased spiking activity after 6-9 weeks. And another posterior experiment [13] by the same authors confirms previous findings that long-term exposure (in this case 50 days, 6 hours daily) alters spiking rates in hippocampus; it was found also that the hippocampal neurons showed irregular firing patterns and more spikes with shorter interspike interval during the whole experiment period.

Apart of this kind of changes, changes in morphology of hippocampal neurons have been also found.

In [14] histopathological examination revealed increased numbers of pyknotic neurons with black or dark blue cytoplasm and stereological and analyses revealed fewer pyramidal neurons.

In [15] it has found that after exposure to various daily calls during 28 days the CA3 region of hippocampus:

" ... revealed few congestion and signs of hemorrhage with enlarged perivascular spaces; apparent shrinkage neurons and deformation of their nuclei .. Presence of shrunken cells with condensed and increased electron density of both cytoplasm and nucleoplasm .. The mitochondria were swollen, vacuolized and had reduced number of distorted cristae .. The synapses had fewer synaptic vesicles in their presynaptic terminals, synaptic clefts widened and postsynaptic densities were reduced in thickness."

In CA1 region of hippocampus the morphological changes included mitochondrial degenerations, fewer synapses, and shorter postsynaptic densities in the radiated rats [16].

Brain – Changes in Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

Another target that has been found to be altered by exposure to those radiations is the blood-brain barrier permeability, that is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system.

In [18] damaged blood-brain barrier permeability, which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation, was observed in the hippocampus and the cortex.

In [19] it was found that most increased ratio of albumin extravasations is most effective in a specific range of power (SAR 0.1-0.5 mW.kg) and less effective in much more intense radiations (in the range of 50-500 mW.kg), that demonstrate that this effect is not a thermal nor a linear effect.

At very much lower intensities of 0.012 W/kg [20] effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood–brain barrier permeability of rats, 7 days after one occasion of 2 h of exposure, are shown that possess a statistically significant increased albumin extravasation.

Anyways a curious result is reported in [21] where in female rats no albumin extravasation was found after exposure, but only in male rats.

Brain - Oxidative Stress Production

Oxidative stress, that is the increased production of oxidizing species or the significant decrease in the effectiveness of antioxidant defenses, is also found to be a consequence to the exposure to mobile phone radiation of the brain or brain components. For example, in [22] it's detected a decreased total antioxidant status in the amygdala and cerebellum of rats.

In another experiment with rat brains [23] oxidative stress is detected:

" Increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation indicate extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and the cerebral cortex."

In [24] is concluded that the oxidative stress is the main factor that activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways in the brain, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK, which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in a process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death.

Decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered in [25] showing a compromised antioxidant defense. In [14] an increase in malondialdehyde and glutathione levels and a decrease in catalase levels was found.

Brain – Changes in Monoamine Neurotransmitters

Apart from oxidant/antioxidant imbalance other of the biochemical changes that are very often detected in the brain are related to monoamine neurotransmitters.

In [26] significant changes in concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and medulla oblongata of adult rats is found. And in [27] is concluded that low-intensity microwave radiation alters levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters at mRNA and protein levels and that it may cause learning and memory disturbances.

Also in another study, in this case in combination with iron overload [28], EMF exposure causes the alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus.

It can be noted that experimentally applied low level light (with non-thermal intensities) through ears channels also changes monoamine levels in brain [29].

Brain – Histopathological and Ultra-Structural Changes

Changes in the microscopic anatomy (microanatomy) of neurons and in their distribution is detected by some investigations.

For example in [18] 28 days of EMF exposure induced cellular edema and neuronal cell's organelle degeneration in rats.

In [30] after a single exposure of 8 h it's shown that the cell population in cerebellar internal granular region was significantly decreased, and also that there is a reduction in the cerebellar external granular layer thickness.

In [31] 8h daily exposure during 60d causes alterations such as congestion of the cerebral blood vessels and presence of numerous spongiform vacuoles in the neuropil of the brain tissues of the rats.

In a long term exposure experiment [32] that began with prenatal exposure (later we will see how harmful is to fetus the exposure to mobile phones radiation) and with 80d postnatal 30 min daily exposure, it’s show a decreased weekly weight gain, decreased pyramidal neuron numbers and increased ischemic neuron numbers at cortex region of brain, and also an increased vascular dilatations and increased amount of ischemic hippocampal neurons.

There are some studies that have found so much different kind of effects at the same time that they can be considered themselves as a mixture of the effects that are being finding in brain, for example in [17] it can be read that after 60 days 2 hours daily exposure:

" ... significant increments in conjugated dienes, protein carbonyls, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress index along with a significant reduction of total antioxidant capacity levels were evident after exposure. Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level were enhanced. the relative brain weight of young rats was greatly affected, and histopathological examination reinforced the neuronal damage."

Brain – Behaviour Changes

The above mentioned brain effects and others can trigger behavior changes in exposed subjects, this is in fact what the papers mentioned in this section have discovered.

For example, zebrafish daily exposure for 1 hour during 14 days [25] causes that significantly decreased the time they spent near social stimulus zone and that increased total distance they traveled. Exposure also elicits anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half, freezing bouts and duration, and decreased distance traveled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish also spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning.

In [23] after 4 hour daily exposure of rats to mobile phone during 15 days a significant change in behavior, i.e., more anxiety and poor learning was shown on them. In [13] during the weeks 4–5 of the experiment, the average completion time and error rate of the exposure group were longer and larger, and in [33] the amount of time needed by rats to locate the hidden platform and the time spent exhibiting freezing behavior is increased.

In another experimental setup [34] exposed rat also shown some behavioral changes like a reduced percentage of entries into the open arm, or percentage of time spent on the open arm, and distance traveled on the open arm.

In an up to 60 days 1 hour daily exposure setup [35] shown that rats are gradually affected in a behavioral model of depression like forced swim test, tail suspension test and locomotor activity. They have a significantly increased immobility and a decreased locomotor activity in comparison with control group.

A long-term study design with, in this case, mouses [36] looking for changes in spatial and non-spatial memory, shows gradually accumulating statistically significant impairments of both types of memory, with more pronounced effects on the spatial memory.

Spatial memory is also shown to be affected in other experimental setups by other authors [16,37] indicating that the exposed mice has deficits in the consolidation and/or retrieval of the learned spatial information.

And another study [38] shown that short-term memory is affected in exposed mice and proposes that the primary EMF target may be the information transfer pathway connecting the entorhinal–parahippocampal regions which participate in the object recognition task memory task.

A study by Caramets el at. [39] have demonstrated that irradiating ant colony for some hours changes the ants behaviour:

" ... ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated."

Another study by the same author confirms that an acute exposure is sufficient to provoke this ant's lower quality orientation towards their attractive alarm pheromone [40].

And another study demonstrated that 1h exposure to mobile phone call of Drosophila melanogaster leads to disturbances in their locomotor activity [41]:

" ... the larvae exposed to emissions of 1 h sending-rings tended to crawl in short, random and scattered paths, whereas control larvae crawled parallel to the wall of the petri dish. exposure to the cellphone talking mode induced significant reduction in the movement speed of adult Drosophila .. The speed of flies exposed to sending mode showed a negative regression with the time of exposure .. The flies exposed to receiving-talk mode were significantly slower than the controls at all tested time intervals. the flies exposed to 1 or 2 h sending-talks exhibited irritated zigzag locomotor paths and hyperactivity."

Very similarly but only 1 minute exposure provokes significant changes in the locomotion of the 2 different species of fishes tested in another study [42].

Also unicellular organisms like parameciums are evidently affected, in multiple ways, by only 1 min exposure [43]:

" physiology was affected: they became broader, their cytopharynx appeared broader, their pulse vesicles had difficult in expelling their content outside the cell, their cilia less efficiently moved, and trichocysts became more visible. all these effects might result from some bad functioning or damage of the cellular membrane."

More effects that results in behavior changes are also found in honeybees [44]:

" honeybees in their normal case produced sounds at lower frequencies around 450 Hz, and with lower intensity 0.3 normalized amplitude. but, when they were disturbed by the presence of a mobile phone, they produced sounds with higher frequencies that reached 1.5 KHz, and with higher intensity that reached 0.7 normalized amplitude."

With the above mentioned data it is clear that electromagnetic fields from mobile phone technology can affect brain functioning and in last instance the behaviour of exposed subject.

In the next four sections we will see how fetuses are very sensitive to radiation absorbed by mothers, and their posterior development is conditioned by the effects that this exposure have provoked.

Prenatal Exposure – Histopathological and Structural Effects

As in studies focused to test brain changes, there is a battery of experiments that have discovered changes on the microscopic anatomy of the different tissues of exposed subjects.

In a study designed to examine this kind of effects after 1h daily 8 days exposure applied in the prenatal period on ovarian follicle development and oocyte differentiation of rats [37], the follicle count results revealed a statistically significant decrease in primordial and tertiary follicle number, while atretic follicle numbers have increased. And, a histopathological examination, revealed severe follicle degeneration, vasocongestion, and a low level of increased stromal fibrotic tissue and cytoplasmic vacuolization in granulosa cell.

Also 1 hour daily prenatal exposure on rats revealed that the spinal cord have vacuolization in gray matter and occasional myelin thickening, white matter infiltration among the nerve fibers, marginal irregularity between white and gray matter and infiltration of gray matter inside white matter [45].

Testis, another of the evidently electromagnetically more sensitive parts (that is, with effects that we are now capable to see with current measures; it can exists other kind of changes that are not habitually taken in consideration for now that can be very significant like for example water's capacity to order- see section [141]) are object of numerous studies (see section “Sperm, testis, sex hormones: Various changes” on tables). In this section is mentionable a study that apart from lower sperm motility and vitality it has found immature germ cells in the seminiferous tubule lumen, and an altered seminiferous tubule epithelium and seminiferous tubule structure of the testis of 60 days old prenatally exposed rat [46].

Chicks exposed prenatally, otherwise, also reveal histopathological and structural changes, for example when their metanephros tubules are observed[47].

Structural changes has been also found in the parotid gland of male albino rats following prenatal exposure where areas of hemorrhage and degeneration of the acini and dilated ducts are detected [48]. Liver isn't also free of change [49] where it has been found marked hydropic degeneration in the parenchyma, vacuolization in the mitochondria, expansion in the endoplasmic reticulum, and necrotic hepatocytes. Also, pathological changes in cell morphology in the thymic and splenic tissues has been demonstrated in [50], and in [51] is detected a significant reduction in number of secondary and Graafian follicles with an increase in atretic follicle number.

Lens of chickens also has been detected to be susceptible to mobile phone emissions in a histopathological form; after being exposed to them in the prenatal period for 72 min daily during 9-12 days, it has been found structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of a posterior aberrant nuclear layer [52].

A variety of effects are detected in this experiment [53] with chickens:

" ... histopathological changes under were observed in the liver, kidneys, lung, heart, and spleen. hyperaemia was found commonly in the liver, kidneys, lung, and heart. mononuclear cell infiltration was also observed widely in the liver, kidneys, and lung .. Degeneration in hepatocytes and tubular epithelium, tubular dilatation, atelectasiae, emphysoema, interalveolar interstitial thickening in the lung, haemorrhage, myocardosis in the heart, extramedullar haematopoiesis in splenic tissues were the other changes."

And this another [54] study also found changes in chickens' liver histology, like degeneration of hepatocytes, disruption of architecture, and accumulation of lipid droplets and lack of sinusoids.

In [55] 24 hours daily prenatal exposure of rats resulted in that the histological examination of renal tissue showed mild dilatation of the Bowman’s capsules (60%), tubular lumen dilatation and integration loss and desquamations and mild degenerations due to distention, especially in distal tubule epitheliums. Furthermore, glomerular vacuolization-induced deformations and dilatation were higher by 45%.

In [56] also 24 hours daily prenatal exposure of rats causes histopathological changes in liver, where it's found intense degeneration in hepatocytes with cytoplasmic eosinophilic structures, pyknotic nuclei, and fibrosis.

Rat brains’ hippocampus showed that there are morphological differences in pyramidal cells off the cornu ammonis after prenatal exposure compared with non-exposed hippocampus [57].

Also rabbit's brain tissues are histologically affected with only 15 min daily exposure in prenatal period [58] showing mildly positive hyperaemia, neuronal necrobiosis, mononuclear cells and gliosis (a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system that in most cases involves the proliferation or hypertrophy of several different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes).

Prenatal Exposure – Embryonic Development Changes

Apart from the previously described microscopically detected changes there are also detected a more macro-scale changes, that is, embryonic development changes.

In an experiment [59] with rats exposed to 6, 12 or 24 hours daily during the prenatal period it has been found that increasing the duration of EMF exposure resulted in a significant reduction of resting cartilage levels.

Less hours exposure design (1 or 2 hours daily) experiment, also on rats, shown that number of live embryos were significantly reduced with an increasing number of dead and reabsorbed embryos in the 2 h/day 2nd-week exposure group in compared to control group. Moreover, malformation, haematoma, and oedematous fetuses in experimental groups were observed unlike control fetuses. A significant decrease in live fetuses and a significant decrease in body mass of fetuses at gestation day 20, unlike control group. Meanwhile postnatal observations showed haematoma, congestion, short tail, malformation and growth restriction and delay in some growth markers [60].

Also 1 hour daily prenatal exposure to mobile phone like radiation of rats results in changes in spinal cord where rotarod test results revealed a significant increase in EMF group rat pups motor functions, with pathological changes in the spinal cord were it's observed morphological impairment and atrophy [45]. While a 30 min, 1 day exposure setup [61] revealed that body weights and fetal body length of fetuses were decreased and also revealed the existence of skeletal system abnormalities that include short and curved tails absent of 13th rib and wavy ribs and absent of caudal vertebrae.

An experiment with chickens found that exposed prenatal subjects shown increased mortality, gross malformations and developmental anomalies, and decrease in wet body weight and length when compared with the control group [54], this study also found various histopathological changes that have been mentioned in the previous section.

An interesting study that also take in consideration the male active part (with their paternal sperm) and if they are exposed to electromagnetic field or not (as same as female subjects) to create groups to compare effects on embryos of Xenopus laevis (a frog specie) [62] found:

" In our present study (control group; 2.2% abnormal, 0.0% dead); with the normal female + RF exposed male combination, the long-term exposure of adult males to GSM-like radiation at 900 MHz (RF: 2 W) for 5 week/8 h/day resulted in normal, abnormal and dead embryo ratios of 88.3%, 3.3% and 8.3%, respectively (p < 0.001) .. RF exposed female + normal female combination led to normal, abnormal and dead embryo ratios of 76.7%, 11.7%, and 11.7%, respectively (p < 0.001) .. RF exposed female + RF exposed male combination led to normal, abnormal and dead embryo ratios of 73.3%, 11.7%, and 15%, respectively (p < 0.001)."

In [51], pregnant rats have significantly lower pregnancy rates in 2h/daily exposed group compared to the control group and there is a significant decrease in number of pups in the 2h/daily exposure group compared to control and 1h/daily groups.

It is very interesting to note experiments like [63] where it is found that the duration of exposition varies in a great manner the detected effects (and possibly one of the reasons of why some experimental setups don't find an effect):

" significantly altered number of differentiated somites. in embryos irradiated during 38 h the number of differentiated somites increased, while in embryos irradiated during 158 h this number decreased ... The lower duration of exposure led to a significant decrease in a level of DNA strand breaks in cells of 38-h embryos, while the higher duration of exposure resulted in a significant increase in DNA damage."

Another kind of variation can be seen in [64] where exposing 1 hour daily but along different day numbers (7, 10 or 14) have different results; an increase in whole body weight and whole body length in 7 and 10 days treated embryos was seen compared to the controls, however the increase was only significant in 10 days treated embryos (P=0.012) for both weight and length, on the other hand 14 days treated embryos showed a non significant decrease in whole body weight and whole body length compared to the controls.

Prenatal Exposure – Biochemical Changes

Changes are provoked also on biochemistry (the chemical processes within and relating to living organisms) of the fetuses of exposed mothers.

In [65] the experimental procedure showed that thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations decreased markedly and corticosterone levels increased in blood plasma of chicks exposed to EMF during embryogenesis.

In an experiment with rabbits [66] some chemical indicators are demonstrated to be changed after prenatal exposure of male rabbits; on the blood, on the concentrations of Uric acid, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Alanine transaminas and Malondialdehyde, and for female rabbits on the concentrations of Urea, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Aspartate aminotransferase and Malondialdehyde.

The livers of rats born to mothers exposed to electromagnetic field, 24h/day during 20 days, have also shown [56] some biochemical changes like a significant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde accompanied by a significant fall in glutathione and increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase.

Various biochemical changes are described in the brain of rats after prenatal exposure [67].

Prenatal Exposure – Brain and Behaviour Changes

Finally in relation to effects on fetuses, in this section it will be addresses results from experiments that search for possible changes in brain function or microstructure, or for behavioral changes of pups when developed.

In [68] prenatally 10 hours daily exposed chickens shown changes in behavior with significantly slower aggregation responses, lower belongingness, and weaker vocalization and also displayed a statistically significant smaller cerebellum size.

Also chick's cerebellums when prenatal exposure is, in this case, of 1 hour daily [69] shown that total Purkinje cell numbers, calculated using stereological analysis, were significantly lower and that some pathological changes such as pyknotic neurons with dark cytoplasm were observed under light microscopy (more histopathological changes in other organs can be found along the various sections of this text).

Purkinje cells are electrophysiologically altered after prenatal exposure which induce decreased neuronal excitability, the most prominent changes include also: after hyperpolarization amplitude, spike frequency, half width and first spike latency [70].

Similarly to Purkinje cells, the Pyramidal cells are subject to at least two kind of alterations: the number of them and their excitability.

Pyramidal cell lost in the cornu ammonis of the experimental group female rat pups is described in this [71] paper.

And some electrophysiological changes of hippocampal pyramidal cells of rats offsprings are described in [72]:

" whole cell recordings in hippocampal pyramidal cells did show a decrease in neuronal excitability .. A decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection .. An increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP)."

Also in the same experiment [72] learning and memory performance showed that prenatal phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention.

Prenatally exposed rat pup’s learning behavior is altered in a form that statistical analysis revealed a significantly higher latency in terms of finding the maze arm and significantly lower avoidance latency [57]. Another experimental setup [73] show that step-through latency was significantly decreased, and percent time spent in the correct quadrant decreased.

Another study in this case with mice [74] revealed that:

" mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays .. (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming .. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex."

In [62] it was also observed that the offsprings of female adult Xenopus laevis (a frog specie) exposed to RF-EMR during oogenesis exhibited a more aggressive behavior compared to the control group.

In the following sections, the effects are tested not on fetuses but in the subjects exposed to electromagnetic radiation themselves, this of course is a more general situation that is normally of the maximum interest also.

The next first two sections correspond to two specific parameters (apoptotic index and oxidative stress) that are measured in various of the papers addressed in this text.

Apoptotic Index Changes

The apoptotic index, is defined as the percentage of morphologically identified apoptotic cells and apoptotic bodies. Apoptosis is a process of controlled cell deletion by which the numbers of cells in a variety of tissues are regulated in physiological and pathological conditions.

Numerous of the experiments measure this apoptotic index (or number of apoptotic cells) apart from measures more specific to the experiment. Almost all of those that measure this found that the index is increased after exposure.

As an example here a list of the papers mentioned in this text that also found this effect: [24,37,46,53,55,58,59,97,108,119]

Oxidative Stress Production

As is defined, Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and the biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. This could lead to a variety of secondary pathological symptoms in mid term.

Numerous of the papers cited in this text apart from their more specific measures also detect this parameter by one or another method, here is a list of them: [50,60,64,66,77,79,80,81,84,91,97,98,108,119].

And all the, already mentioned, oxidative stress symphtoms specifically detected in brain [14,22,23,24,25,58].

Also there are mentionable some studies that specifically measure oxidative stress, between them it can be highlighted this study [75] where there are used very very low intensities (various orders of magnitude below the exposure limits recommended by the official guidelines) to expose Japanese quails embryos:

" The exposure resulted in a significant persistent overproduction of superoxide and nitrogen oxide in embryo cells during all period of analyses. As a result, significantly increased levels of TBARS and 8-oxo-dG followed by significantly decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were developed in the exposed embryo cells. Conclusion: Exposure of developing quail embryos to extremely low intensity RF-EMR of GSM 900 MHz during at least one hundred and fifty-eight hours leads to a significant overproduction of free radicals/reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage of DNA in embryo cells. These oxidative changes may lead to pathologies up to oncogenic transformation of cells."

One of the method used to detect oxidant stress is to check antioxidant enzyme levels, is what is done in the following study [76], but apart from this some influence in circadian rhythm is also detected; apart from decreased melatonin levels it is clear that the levels of melatonin were significantly decreased when RF exposures were given at GMT 23:00 and 3:00 when the levels should have been at the highest results, moreover results also showed decreased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), two important antioxidant enzymes, in exposed rats, especially at 3:00 GMT (RF 3). In addition, the circadian rhythm of GSH-Px and SOD were disrupted in RF-exposed rats, with a distinct disorder of peak phase (from GMT 2:39 to 7:35 or from GMT 5:03 to 3:12 respectively).

Another method is to detect levels of some specific free radicals, for example, in another experiment [77] in all four tissue samples (brain, liver, heart, kidney) of irradiated mouses a statistically significant increase (p < 0.0025) of hydroxyl radicals concentration was found.

Oxidant stress has been found to be directly correlated with the number of calling minutes [86,87], some probes also detect that until certain time some antioxidant defense mechanisms are activated [88] or that vitamin C is a good protector against this provoked oxidant stress [89,90].

Other Biochemical Changes

Apart from oxidant stress and its biomarkers there are been found a variety of other biochemical parameters that are affected by mobile phone exposure.

In [92] it has found higher levels of amylase, lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde in saliva of high users of mobile phones when compared in that of less mobile users.

Mobile phone like radiation have shown to provoke a statistically significant increase in the skin hydroxyproline (an amino-acid) level [93].

A study that test brain, liver and kidneys tissues of rats exposed 1 hour daily during 60 days detected that sera activity of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, creatinine and corticosterone were significantly increased and that these alterations were corrected by the withdrawal of the radiation emitter [94].

Another study with rats with 2 hours daily expose during 30 days resulted in that male and female mean serum levels of estrogen showed a significant decrease, and that in male rats mean serum levels of progesterone were significantly increased [95].

Vitamin A levels, among others, is modified after the exposure of 1 hour daily during prenatal and postnatal period (with a total o 6 weeks) [77]:

" brain and liver glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as liver vitamin A and β-carotene concentrations decreased in the EMR groups, although brain iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations increased in the EMR groups. In the 6th week, selenium concentrations in the brain decreased in the EMR groups."

3 hours daily exposure in Female hamsters may cause progesterone suppressing and cortisol releasing after 10 days, and after 60 days hyperglycemia is evident also [78].

A test on human saliva after exposure shown that apart from oxidative stress indices increases salivary flow, total protein and albumin, and amylase activity were decreased [79]. Also, apart from oxidative stress a higher Interleukin-1β levels (that plays a central role in the cytokine network and is one of the inflammatory cytokines that introduces prostaglandin E1, matrix metalloproteinase-3, NO, and other substances to intervertebral discs) has found in intervertebral discs of rats [81].

Proteome Changes

Various studies have, as their objective, the intention to detect possible changes in the set of the normally expressed proteins in a given type of cell or organism, at a given time, under defined condition.

In a study where human B lymphoblastoid cells are exposed during one complete day [82] and after measure their protein levels:

" differential expression of 27 proteins was found, which were related to DNA damage repair, apoptosis, oncogenesis, cell cycle and proliferation. expression of RPA32 was significantly down-regulated while the expression of p73 was significantly up-regulated."

Brain proteome tested in a very long experimental period (244 days) but at very very low exposure intensities, well below recommended limits, found a plethora of protein level changed [83]:

" [exposure] altered significantly the expression of 143 proteins in total (as low as 0.003 fold downregulation up to 114 fold overexpression). Several neural function related proteins (i.e., Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Alpha-synuclein, Glia Maturation Factor beta (GMF), and apolipoprotein E (apoE)), heat shock proteins, and cytoskeletal proteins (i.e., Neurofilaments and tropomodulin) are included in this list as well as proteins of the brain metabolism (i.e., Aspartate aminotransferase, Glutamate dehydrogenase) to nearly all brain regions studied."

Is mentionable also a series of studies on lens by Shuang Ni et al. [84,85], that although they use intensities bigger than those emitted by mobile phones (about 2-3 times bigger) they found effects, after 30 to 90 minutes of one unique exposure to mobile phone, like significant decrease in the expression of the four proteins studied: SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx1 (and the previous expression of the correspondent mRNA genes) [84] or significantly increased expressional levels of VCP and USP35 proteins with significantly decreased expressional level of protein SRP68 [85].

One of the most susceptible parts to electromagnetic radiation are reproductive organs (there is a specific section with this issue below), tests of rats exposed to 1 to 4 hours daily during 30 days shown changes in heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-1, and other proteins related to misfolding of proteins and/or stress [96].

Hispatological and Ultre-Structural Changes

Apart from biochemical changes various studies center their attention in detect possible changes in structures forms and organization, visible through electron microscopy and diverse staining methods.

In [97] after 1h daily exposure during 38 days structural changes and capillary congestion in the myocardium of rats were detected and transmission electron microscopy showed altered structure of Z bands, decreased myofilaments and pronounced vacuolization in the same tissue.

Female rats exposed to 2h daily exposure shown numerous histopathological changes in their ovarian and uterine tissues [98]:

" ... in the ovary were included vacuolation in interstitial, granulosa, luteal cells and ooplasm. Other histopathological changes are disorientation of corona radiata, disruption and thinning of the zona pellucida. Cellular nucleus changes similar to fragmentation of the nucleus indicate the start of a degeneration process at Graafian follicles as well as micronuclei formation in oocyte nucleus and in some luteal cells. Histopathological changes in uterine tissue confined to increase height of luminal epithelium cells, sever apoptosis of glandular and luminal epithelium cells, and sever eosinophils, polymorphonucleocyte lymphocytes and macrophage's infiltration in myometrium and endometrium layers. Vascular congestion points out for the existence of inflammatory response changes in the endometrium."

In another experiment [99], also with exposed rats groups, it's showed numerous histopathological changes regarding, in this case, to the salivary gland damage including acinar epithelial cells, interstitial space, ductal system, vascular system, nucleus, amount of cytoplasm and variations in cell size. The same authors have done another experiment in similar conditions [100] to detect changes in nasal mucosa and mucociliary and they shown ciliary disorganization and ciliary loss in the epithelial cells, epithelial metaplasia, alteration of normal chromatin distribution and karyolysis in nuclei, changes in the basal cells, and lymphocytic infiltration. In both experiments the longer period exposed group have more profound changes.

Other histological changes were detected in rat's hippocampus [101,102], cerebellar cortex [103], kidney [104][105] or lung [106] tissues. Mild to severe inflammatory changes in the portal spaces of the liver of rats as well as damage in the cells of islet of Langerhans were observed in other [107] research.

Changes in Sperm, Testis and Sex Hormones

As mentioned earlier some of the, already established, more sensitive to changes (or more easily detectable) organs of living bodies are those related to reproductive system.

In line with the previous section dedicated to histopathological changes, in [108] it has been found that after 1 hour daily 30 days exposure rats testis display vacuoles in seminiferous tubules basal membrane and edema in the intertubular space, while seminiferous tubule diameters and germinal epithelium thickness were both smaller. Another experiment [109] show a wide interstitium, detachment of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia from the basal lamina, a vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of seminiferous epithelium, and peripheral tubules showed reduced thickness of seminiferous epithelium and maturation arrest in the spermatogenesis among others. A previous similar long-term experiment by the same authors describe us a variety of effects also [110]:

" animal weight was lower at first, second and fourth month. the mean testis weight was significantly reduced in all months except fourth month and the mean testis volume was significantly reduced in the first three months.the mean seminiferous tubule density per unit area was significantly lower value. the mean seminiferous tubule diameter was significantly reduced except the second month. the mean number of Sertoli cells and Leydig cells were significantly reduced. mean serum testosterone level were significantly lower. microscopic changes: 1. the interstitium appeared wide 2. Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were detached from the basal lamina. 3. vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of seminiferous epithelium. most of the peripheral tubules showed maturation arrest in the spermatogenesis. seminiferous tubules scored between 8 and 9 using Johnson testicular biopsy score count."

Meanwhile ultra-structure of adult bovine sperm have been shown to be extremely sensitive even to only an acute 5 minutes exposure to a mobile phone, with a large amount of changes detected in this setup [111].

In [112] significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage was found.

Testosterone levels are also shown to be affected in various experiments [109,110,113,114].

In a statistical study [115] it is shown that daily duration of talking on the cell phone was significantly associated with sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count.

In this experiment [116] various sperm parameters changes, apart from increases of sperm DNA fragmentation there are also detected changes in sperm motility, sperm linear velocity, sperm linearity index, and sperm acrosin activity. While in [117] lower number of spermatozoa with progressive movement and higher number of spermatozoa with non–progressive movement are detected. Sperm motility is also proved to be reduced in [118].

And also are specifically detected two effects that are recurrently provoked by externally applied microwave electromagnetic fields on other tissues: Oxidative stress and apoptotic index increases [119].

Cancer Promotion

Various statistical studies indicate that there is a relationship between use of mobile phones and certain cancers. In this line in a paper by Moon et al. [120] founds that tumors position may coincide with the more frequently ear used on callings, and that tumor volume have strong correlation with amount of mobile phone usage. Various statistical studies by Hardell et al. also underscore a correlation [121,122], and a study by Coreau et al. [123] add additional data that support previous findings concerning the possible association between heavy mobile phone use and brain tumours.

It must be said that a statistical relation with cancer is not totally elucidated because of some complications in the uptake of data, anyways in the view of the editor of this web cancer is only the last symptom, not always reached, of a more important (although without death consequences) general degenerative and stress symptoms of the uncontrolled and excessive exposure to radiofrequency sources, that is more important because are affecting all of us (although some people say "I'm well, this is all a nonsense", etc.. this is a fallacy because they aren't comparing their current situation with a control situation without exposures).

Other kind of papers may show a more direct case relationship between mobile phone and cancer, an example can be found in [124] where the four cancer patients subject of study regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones position. Moreover pathology of all cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology.

Another study [125] with cancer patients (n = 63) has show that the use of mobile phones for ≥3 hours a day show a consistent pattern of increased risk for the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma, and that this increase was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time.

An experiment [126] that compare buccal cell preparations of users of mobile phones during previous 3-5y and non-users of mobile phone detected that:

" The frequency of micronuclei (13.66x), nuclear buds (2.57x), basal (1.34x), karyorrhectic (1.26x), karyolytic (2.44x), pyknotic(1.77x) and condensed chromatin (2.08x) cells were highly significantly increased in mobile phone users whereas the binucleated cells (4.03x) and repair index (8.36x) showed significant decrease. DNA damage and nuclear anomalies scored in BMCyt assay are indicative of genetic damage that has not been repaired and this may predispose the mobile phone users to malignancy and cytotoxicity ramifications."

A recent long period (2 years) exposure study on rats [127] also confirm a relationship of mobile phone radiation with the development of cancer.

DNA Damage

Various studies have also show a DNA damage as a consequence of mobile phone usage, some studies are specifically oriented to test this possibility, others have discovered this in a parallel tests that runs while other tests more specific to the object of the study are executed. Various of this latest kind of experiments are already mentioned in their respective sections and their results on DNA damage will be summarized in the following lines.

In [24] radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain, in [52] the DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant. In [116] significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation percent was discovered and in [112] an increase in DNA strand break in Seminiferous tubules of testis was also discovered.

As mentioned there are other study designs that are specifically constructed to detect DNA damage. In this paper [128] it's found that the levels of DNA damage were significantly increased following exposure in the listen, dialed and dialing modes, and especially in the two later cases. And in [140] talking on a mobile phone for 15 or 30 min significantly increased single-strand DNA breaks in the cells of hair roots close to the phone.

Another kind of damages are found in [129] where:

" phone EMFs can remarkably cause disturbance on ct DNA structure. DNA samples, immediately after exposure and 2 h after 45 min exposure, are relatively thermally unstable .. have more fluorescence emission attributable to expansion of the exposed DNA structure .. increment in the surface charge and size of DNA .. displacement of electrons in DNA by EMFs may lead to conformational changes of DNA and DNA disaggregation."

In [130] it has been found some recovery mechanisms at work when the increased oxidative DNA damage to brain after 10 days of exposure is decreased following 40 days of exposure, but those increased or stimulated DNA repair mechanisms, most probably, have secondary effects on cells.

Effects on plants growth

Finally, and not less importantly, mobile phone radiation have been shown that also affects plants in various studies, and maybe it's appropriate firstly to address a study that is not included in this section but in the section dedicated to the study of mobile phone mast effects [131], but the study is interesting because its follow trees health along years in numerous urban points and where health is deduced by visual comparison, because is evident. The study is [132] and there are also some complementary photos of the study elsewhere [133].

An experiment that uses DECT phones show that exposed plants have seem to be affected concerning their biomass and leaf structure and their leaves are thinner and possess fewer chloroplasts [134].

In [135] maize seedlings exposed to 4 hours daily exposure have shown significant growth and biochemical alterations, in the first case the detected alterations are the reduction in the root and coleoptile length, with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth. And the detected biochemical changes are interferences with starch and sucrose metabolism with some enzymes with increased activity.

An interesting study demonstrate changes in soybean seedling growth in a non-linear mode [136]; the effects depend on the intensity but not directly from less to more but in the following form: at maximum intensity of the experiment resulted in diminished growth of the epicotyl, at medium potency there is no effect, an at minimum potency growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the growth of roots was stimulated.

Non linear effects are also shown in another experiment that uses two kind of phone emitters (2G and 3G) on leguminous plants and with both are reported significant increments in germination percentage, seedling length, proteins, lipid and Guaiacol content, in all exposure times but seedling length significantly decreased only when the exposure was of 30 min (and not 2,4, or 8 hours). Anyways in all cases the causes are non-natural processes like a stress condition induced by the exposure to mobile phones [137].

Some effect on germination rate are also detected in [138] and another study points out that electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones affect seeds in the state of dormancy more than the state of germination [139].

More papers and latest discoveries will be always available in the charts below references.

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98. Alchalabi, Ali SH, et al. "Histopathological changes associated with oxidative stress induced by electromagnetic waves in rats' ovarian and uterine tissues." Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction 5.4 (2016): 301-310.

99. Aydogan, Filiz, et al. "The effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats." American journal of otolaryngology 36.1 (2015): 39-46.

100. Aydoğan, Filiz, et al. "The effects of 2100‐MHz radiofrequency radiation on nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance in rats." International forum of allergy & rhinology. Vol. 5. No. 7. 2015.

101. El Raouf, Hoda H. Hussein Abd, and Mona H. Mohammed Ali. "Histological changes in albino rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field emitted from mobile phones." Egyptian Journal of Histology 38.2 (2015): 253-265.

102. Mohamed, Abir Khalil. "The possible rescue effect of vitamin E or Silymarin on lung tissue of male albino rats exposed to electro-magnetic field." Egypt. J. Hosp. Med 57 (2014): 470-481.

103. Azmy, Abeer M., and Maha A. Abd Allah. "Histological study of prolonged exposure to mobile phone radiations on young male albino ratsʼ cerebellar cortex and the role of ginkgo biloba supplementation." J American Sci 9.11 (2013): 156-66.

104. Ulubay, Mahmut, et al. "Effects of prenatal 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposures on the histology of rat kidney." International journal of radiation biology 91.1 (2015): 35-41.

105. Mugunthan, N., et al. "Exposure of mice to 900 - 1900 MHz radiations from cell phone resulting in microscopic changes in the kidney." International Journal of Current Research and Review 6.16 (2014): 44.

106. Luo, Hai-shui, et al. "Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro." Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army 37.4 (2012): 313-317.

107. Mortazavi, S. M. J., et al. "GSM 900 MHz Microwave Radiation-Induced Alterations of Insulin Level and Histopathological Changes of Liver and Pancreas in Rat." Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering (2015).

108. Odacı, Ersan, and Cansu Özyılmaz. "Exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field for 1 hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis." International journal of radiation biology 91.7 (2015): 547-554.

109. Mugunthan, N., et al. "Effects of chronic exposure to 2g and 3g cell phone radiation on mice testis-a randomized controlled trial." International Journal of Current Research and Review 7.4 (2015): 36.

110. Mugunthan, N., J. Anbalagan, and S. Meenachi. "Effects of long term exposure to a 2G cell phone radiation (900-1900 MHz) on mouse testis." International Journal of Science and Research 3.9 (2014): 523-529.

111. Heidari, Mohammad Hassan, et al. "New Electromagnetic Radiations Effects on Ultra Structure of Adult Bovine Sperm." Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences 3.4 (2016).

112. Kumar, Sanjay, et al. "Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario." (2014).

113. Sepehrimanesh, Masood, et al. "Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model." International journal of biometeorology 58.7 (2014): 1657-1663.

114. Chen, Lili, et al. "[Chronotoxicity of 1800 MHz microwave radiation on sex hormones and spermatogenesis in male mice]." Wei sheng yan jiu= Journal of hygiene research 43.1 (2014): 110-115.

115. Zhang, Guowei, et al. "Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China." Environment international 91 (2016): 116-121.

116. Zalata, Adel, et al. "In vitro effect of cell phone radiation on motility, DNA fragmentation and clusterin gene expression in human sperm." Cell J (Yakhteh) 9.1 (2015).

117. Gorpinchenko, Igor, et al. "The influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality." Central European journal of urology 67.1 (2014): 65.

118. Ghanbari, Masoud, et al. "The effects of cell phone waves (900 MHz-GSM band) on sperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity in rats." Cell J (Yakhteh) 7.1 (2013).

119. Liu, Qi, et al. "Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats." Reproductive health 12.1 (2015): 1.

120. Moon, In Seok, et al. "Association between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use." Tumor Biology 35.1 (2014): 581-587.

121. Hardell, Lennart, and Michael Carlberg. "Mobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma–Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009." Pathophysiology 22.1 (2015): 1-13.

122. Carlberg, Michael, and Lennart Hardell. "Decreased survival of glioma patients with astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) associated with long-term use of mobile and cordless phones." International journal of environmental research and public health 11.10 (2014): 10790-10805.

123. Coureau, Gaëlle, et al. "Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study." Occupational and environmental medicine 71.7 (2014): 514-522.

124. West, John G., et al. "Multifocal breast cancer in young women with prolonged contact between their breasts and their cellular phones." Case reports in medicine 2013 (2013).

125. Akhavan-Sigari, Reza, et al. "Connection between cell phone use, p53 gene expression in different zones of glioblastoma multiforme and survival prognoses." Rare Tumors 6.3 (2014).

126. Gandhi, Gursatej, Prabhjot Singh, and Gurpreet Kaur. "Perspectives Revisited-The Buccal Cytome Assay in Mobile Phone Users." Int J Hum Genet 15.4 (2015): 173-182.

127. Wyde, Michael, et al. "Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure)." bioRxiv (2016): 055699.

128. Liu, Chuan, et al. "Mobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: a protective role of melatonin." International journal of radiation biology 89.11 (2013): 993-1001.

129. Hekmat, Azadeh, Ali Akbar Saboury, and Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi. "The toxic effects of mobile phone radiofrequency (940MHz) on the structure of calf thymus DNA." Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 88 (2013): 35-41.

130. Sahin, Duygu, et al. "The 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G-mobile phone and the DNA oxidative damage in brain." Journal of chemical neuroanatomy (2016).

131. EMMIND › Applied Fields - Hazards › Microwave Hazards → (Phone, Wi-Fi) › Phone Base Station MW Hazards

132. Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia, et al. "Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations." Science of The Total Environment 572 (2016): 554-569.

133. Trees in Bamberg and Hallstadt in the radiation field of 65 mobile phone base stations. Examples from a documentation about 700 trees (2006-2016)

134. Stefi, Aikaterina L., Lukas H. Margaritis, and Nikolaos S. Christodoulakis. "The effect of the non ionizing radiation on cultivated plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.)." Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 223 (2016): 114-120.

135. Kumar, Arvind, et al. "EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism." Protoplasma (2015): 1-7.

136. Halgamuge, Malka N., See Kye Yak, and Jacob L. Eberhardt. "Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station." Bioelectromagnetics 36.2 (2015): 87-95.

137. Sharma, Sapna, and Leena Parihar. "Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Nodule Formation in the Leguminous Plants." Current World Environment 9.1 (2014): 145-155.

138. Hussein, Rim A., and Magda A. El-Maghraby. "Effect of Two Brands of Cell Phone on Germination Rate and Seedling of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health 2.4 (2014): 85-90.

139. Akbal, Ayhan, et al. "Effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones on germination, root growth, and root tip cell mitotic division of Lens culinaris Medik." (2012).

140. Çam, Semra Tepe, and Nesrin Seyhan. "Single-strand DNA breaks in human hair root cells exposed to mobile phone radiation." International journal of radiation biology 88.5 (2012): 420-424.

141. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Water - Coherence Domains

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Applied Fields - Hazards
3G & 2G (GSM) Phone MW Hazards Experiments

3G & 2G Phone radiatión effects on Brain: Various Changes Go to submenu

(F) Full or (A) Abstract

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Author(s)
Aavailable in HTMLChanges in pyramidal and granular neuron numbers in the rat hippocampus 7 days after exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence900 MHz1h/25dCommentary icon2019-(1)Ayşe İkinci Keleş, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Ersan Odacı
Aavailable in HTMLInvestigation of the neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone on rat spinal cord exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field ("chemical remedy")900 MHz1h/28dCommentary icon2019-(1)Ahmad Yahyazadeh, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak
Favailable in PDFThe Protective Role of Garlic Aqueous Extract (Allium sativum) against 950MHz Electromagnetic Field Induced Rats Brain Damage ("chemical remedy")950 MHz1h/21dCommentary icon2019-(14)H. M. Shoman, R. A. El Sayed, N. A. El-Tahawy, E. M. Nasef
Favailable in PDFThe Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Protein Expression of Human Astrocytes900 Mhz, 1800 Mhz2h-72hNo comments yet icon2019-(10)Muizudin Mahyudin, Wan Nor Hanis Wan Ahmad, Siti Munirah Md. Noh, Noorul Izzati Hanaf, Mohd Zafran Abdul Aziz, Siti Hamimah Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Sushil Kumar Vasudevan
Aavailable in HTMLThe chronic effect of pulsed 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation on amino acid neurotransmitters in three different areas of juvenile and young adult rat brain1800 MHz (217Hz mod.) - 0.02 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.843 W/kg)1h/30-120dCommentary icon2018-(1)Nawal A. Ahmed, Nasr M. Radwan, Heba S. Aboul Ezz, Yasser A. Khadrawy, Noha A. Salama
Favailable in PDF and HTMLHippocampal lipidome and transcriptome profile alterations triggered by acute exposure of mice to GSM 1800 MHz mobile phone radiation: An exploratory study1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.022-0.366 W/kg)2h/1dCommentary icon2018-(18)Adamantia F. Fragopoulou, Alexandros Polyzos, Maria-Despoina Papadopoulou, Anna Sansone, Areti K. Manta, Evangelos Balafas, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Aikaterini Skouroliakou, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu, Alexandros Georgakilas, Dimitrios J. Stravopodis, Carla Ferreri, Dimitris Thanos, Lukas H. Margaritis
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubHistological study of the effect of cellular phone electromagnetic wave on the neonatal rat cerebellar cortex (in Corean)0.0045 mW/cm21h/21dCommentary icon2018Jung Mi Han, Jae Hyung Park, Sung Min Nam, Da Eun Lee, Sung Chuel Ahn, Jin Seok Seo, Jong Hwan Lee, Sang Seop Nahm, Nong Hoon Choe, Byung Joon Chang
Aavailable in HTMLRadiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure effects on amygdala morphology, place preference behavior and brain caspase-3 activity in rats900 MHz - 0.146 mW/cm2-/28dCommentary icon2018-(1)Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan, Nirupam Mohapatra, Pamala John, Nalini K., Raju Suresh Kumara, Satheesha B. Nayakc, P. Gopalakrishna Bhat
Aavailable in HTMLLong term exposure to cell phone frequencies (900 and 1800 MHz) induces apoptosis, mitochondrial oxidative stress and TRPV1 channel activation in the hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats900 MHz, 1800 MHz1h/260dCommentary icon2018-(1)Kemal Ertilav, Fuat Uslusoy, Serdar Ataizi, Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe effect of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on brain vessels900 MHz (GSM)7min/1dCommentary icon2017-(3)M.A. Malikova, A.O. Kaliaev, A.A. Sukhoruchkin, A.S. Bakhmetev
Favailable in PDFHistopathological, immunohistochemical, and stereological analysis of the effect of Ginkgo biloba (Egb761) on the hippocampus of rats exposed to long-term cellphone radiation ("chemical remedy")- - (SAR 0.89 W/kg)4h/30dCommentary icon2017-(28)Fikret Gevrek
Favailable in PDFEffects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900MHz and 2100MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway (hippocampus)900 MHz (GSM), 2100 MHz (UMTS) - SAR (0.66 W/kg (brain), 0.27 W/kg (brain))2h/5-50dCommentary icon2017-(10)Çiğdem Gökçek-Saraç, Hakan Er, Ceren Kencebay Manas, Deniz Kantar Gok, Şükrü Özen, Narin Derin
Favailable in PDF and HTMLImpact of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on brain neurotransmitters in mice during growth and development period1800 MHz (GSM)1.5-3h/28dNo comments yet icon2017-(5)Fengming Li, Jin Chang, Yinggang Lv, Dianguo Xu, Jianhua Chen, Xuewen Sun
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of 900-MHz radiation on the hippocampus and cerebellum of adult rats and attenuation of such effects by folic acid and Boswellia sacra ("chemical remedy")900 MHz1h/21dCommentary icon2017-(9)Elfide Gizem Kivrak, Berrin Zuhal Altunkaynak, Isinsu Alkan, Kiymet Kubra Yurt, Adem Kocaman, Mehmet Emin Onger
Favailable in HTMLLong-term exposure to a continuous 900 MHz electromagnetic field disrupts cerebellar morphology in young adult male rats900 MHz - (SAR 0.01 W/kg (body))1h/45dCommentary icon2017-(7)A. Aslan, A. İkinci, O. Baş, O.F. Sönmez, H. Kaya, E. Odacı
Favailable in PDFCerebellar histopathological and histochemical alterations induced by electromagnetic field exposure of mice900-1800 MHz - 0.5 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.78 W/kg)45min/30dCommentary icon2017-(15)Somaia A. Negm, Amr M. Abd El-Hady, Noha N. Yassen, Alhusain Nagm
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffect of Low Level Subchronic Microwave Radiation on Rat Brain900-2450 MHz - (SAR 0.00059-0.00066 W/kg)2h/65dCommentary icon2016-(10)Pravin Suryakantrao Deshmukh, Kanu Megha, Namita Nasare, Basu Dev Banerjee, Rafat Sultana Ahmed, Mahesh Pandurang Abegaonkar, Ashok Kumar Tripathi, Pramod Kumari Mediratta
Aavailable in HTMLAge-dependent acute interference with stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation1800 MHz8h/3dCommentary icon2016-(1)Falin Xu, Qiongdan Bai, Kai Zhou, Li Ma, Jiajia Duan, Fangli Zhuang, Cuicui Xie, Wenli Li, Peng Zou, Changlian Zhu
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffects of Long Term Exposure of 900-1800 MHz Radiation Emitted from 2G Mobile Phone on Mice Hippocampus- A Histomorphometric Study900-1800 MHz (2G) - (SAR 1.6 W/kg)48m/30-180dNo comments yet icon2016-(6)N. Mugunthan, K. Shanmugasamy, J. Anbalagan, S. Rajanarayanan, S. Meenachi
Aavailable in HTMLPernicious effects of long-term, continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field throughout adolescence on hippocampus morphology, biochemistry and pyramidal neuron numbers in 60-day-old Sprague Dawley male rats900 MHz1h/39dCommentary icon2016-(1)Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Hatice Hancı, Orhan Baş, Ali Aslan, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Alpgiray Turgut, Haydar Kaya, Soner Çankaya, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Ersan Odacı
Aavailable in HTMLDeleterious impacts of a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats900 MHz1h/30dNo comments yet icon2015-(1)Arzu Şahin, Ali Aslan, Orhan Baş, Ayşe İkinci, Cansu Özyılmaz, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Serdar Çolakoğlu, Ersan Odaci
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Smartphones on Learning Ability and Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Mice--Commentary icon2015-(6)Yu-Jin Choi, Yun-Sik Choi
Favailable in PDFExposure to 900MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats900 MHz (CW) - 1 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.016-2 W/kg (body-head))3h/14-28dCommentary icon2015-(10)Jun Tang, Yuan Zhang, Liming Yang, Qianwei Chen, Liang Tan, Shilun Zuo, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen, Gang Zhu
Favailable in PDFFrequent cellular phone use modifies hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response to a cellular phone call after mental stress in healthy children and adolescents: A pilot study2G & 3G5minNo comments yet icon2015-(7)Styliani A. Geronikolou, Aikaterini Chamakou, Aimilia Mantzou, George Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubDoes the Brain Detect 3G Mobile Phone Radiation Peaks? An Explorative In-Depth Analysis of an Experimental Study(3G) - (SAR 0.69 W/kg (head))15min/1dCommentary icon2015-(11)Suzanne Roggeveen, Jim van Os, Richel Lousberg
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of Low-Intensity Microwave Radiation on Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Their Key Regulating Enzymes in Rat Brain900-1800 MHz - (SAR 0.59 W/kg)2h/30dCommentary icon2015-(1)Kanu Megha, Pravin S. Deshmukh, Alok K. Ravi, Ashok K. Tripathi, Mahesh P. Abegaonkar, Basu D. Banerjee
Favailable in PDFThe effects of mobile phones on apoptosis in cerebral tissue: an experimental study on rats1900-2100 MHz - (SAR 0.004-0.28 W/kg (brain))7 x 5min/28dCommentary icon2014-(9)A. Yilmaz, N. Yilmaz, Y. Serarslan, M. Aras, M. Altas, T. Özgür, F. Sefil
Aavailable in HTMLBiochemical Modifications and Neuronal Damage in Brain of Young and Adult Rats After Long-Term Exposure to Mobile Phone Rasdiationsunknow freq. - (SAR 1.13 W/kg)2h/60dCommentary icon2014-(1)Tarek K. Motawi, Hebatallah A. Darwish , Yasser M. Moustafa, Mohammed M. Labib
Favailable in PDFEvaluation of oxidant stress and antioxidant defense in discrete brain regions of rats exposed to 900 MHz radiation900 MHz (GSM) - 0.146 mW/cm2 (SAR 1.58 W/kg)1h/28dCommentary icon2014-(7)S. N. Narayanan, R. S. Kumar, V. Kedage, K. Nalini, S. Nayak, P. G. Bhat
Favailable in PDFLong term and excessive use of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation alter microRNA expression in brain900 MHz (GSM) (SAR 0.19-0.14 W/kg (1g-brain))3h/365dCommentary icon2014-(21)Suleyman Dasdag, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Nurten Erdal, Ozlem Izci Ay, Mustafa Ertan Ay, Senay Gorucu Yilmaz, Bahar Tasdelen, Korkut Yegin
Favailable in PDFEffects of cell phone radiation on migration of granule cells in rat cerebellum900-1800 MHz30min, 2h, 8h/1dCommentary icon2014-(8)Hiva Mohammadi Bolbanabad, Mohammad Reza Kaffashian, Daryoush Fatehi, Ayoob Rostamzadeh
Favailable in PDFEffects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain900 MHz4h/15dCommentary icon2014-(8)Nidhi Saikhedkar, Maheep Bhatnagar, Ayushi Jain, Pooja Sukhwal, Chhavi Sharma, Neha Jaiswal
Favailable in PDFThe effect of pulsed electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in four different areas of rat brain1800 MHz (GSM) - 0.02 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.84 W/kg)1h/30, 60, 120dCommentary icon2013-(7)H.S. Aboul Ezz, Y.A. Khadrawy, N.A. Ahmed, N.M. Radwan, M.M. El Bakry
Favailable in PDFEffect of 3G Cell Phone Exposure with Computer Controlled 2-D Stepper Motor on Non-thermal Activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK Stress Pathway in Rat Brain2115 MHz (3G) - (SAR 0.26 W/kg)2h/60dCommentary icon2013-(14)Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Ramovatar Meena, Jayprakash Nirala, Jitender Kumar, H. N. Verma
Favailable in PDFInVitro Exposure of Neuronal Networks to a GSM-1800 Signal1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 3.2 W/kg)3min/1dCommentary icon2013-(8)Daniela Moretti, Andre Garenne, Emmanuelle Haro, Florence Poulletier de Gannes, Isabelle Lagroye, Philippe Léveque, Bernard Veyret, Noelle Lewis
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of long-term electromagnetic field exposure on spatial learning and memory in rats916 MHz - 1 mW/cm26h/50dCommentary icon2013-(1)Dongmei Hao, Lei Yang, Su Chen, Jun Tong, Yonghao Tian, Benhang Su, Shuicai Wu, Yanjun Zeng
Favailable in PDFEffects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on sector CA3 of hippocampus in albino rats- A light and electron-microscopic study900-1800 MHz (GSM)25-100 (missed calls) x 45sec/28dCommentary icon2013-(6)Khursheed Faridi, Aijaz Ahmed Khan
Favailable in PDFEarly Postnatal Mobile Phone (900 MHz) Exposure Affects Superoxide and Catalase Enzyme Activity in Rat Brain Tissue (in Farsi)--Commentary icon2013-(9)Mohammad Reza Bigdeli, Mehdi Rahnama
Favailable in HTML and EpubEffects of electromagnetic radiation on spatial memory and synapses in rat hippocampal CA1900 MHz (GSM)- (SAR 0.52-1.08 W/kg)2h/30dCommentary icon2012-(8)Yuhong Li, Changhua Shi, Guobing Lu, Qian Xu, Shaochen Liu
Favailable in PDFEffect of Exposure of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation on Rat Brain900 MHz (2G) - (SAR 1.09 W/kg (head))4h, 8h/60dCommentary icon2012-(6)M. R. Usikalu, S. O. Rotimi, A. E. Oguegbu
Favailable in PDFThe effects of long term exposure of magnetic field via 900-MHz GSM radiation on some biochemical parameters and brain histology in rats900 MHz (GSM)30min/80d + prenat.Commentary icon2012-(13)Saadet D. Celikozlu, M. Sabri Ozyurt, Ali Cimbiz, Melda Y. Yardimoglu, M. Kasim Cayci, Yusuf Ozay
Favailable in PDF"Non-thermal" Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier in Fischer rats by exposure to microwaves915 MHz (CW, GSM, & others)- SAR 0.0002-2 W/kg)2 to 910min/1dCommentary icon2012-(39)Bertil Persson, Lars Malmgren, Arne Brun, Jacob Eberhardt, Henrietta Nittby, Leif Salford
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats900-1800 MHz (CW) - (SAR 0.0042-0.0014 W/kg)20min/1dCommentary icon2011-(1)Bahriye Sirav, Nesrin Seyhan
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism837 MHz - (SAR 0.9 W/kg (head))50min/1dCommentary icon2011-(14)Nora D. Volkow, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Paul Vaska, Joanna S. Fowler, Frank Telang, Dave Alexoff, Jean Logan, Christopher Wong
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffect of Ginseng on Calretinin Expression in Mouse Hippocampus Following Exposure to 835 MHz Radiofrequency ("chemical remedy")835 MHz - (SAR 1.6 W/kg (average))5h/5dCommentary icon2011-(11)Bijay Aryal, Dhiraj Maskey, Myeung-Ju Kim, Jae-Won Yang, and Hyung-Gun Kim
Favailable in PDF900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.9 W/kg)2h/45dCommentary icon2011-(16)Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Sanjay Kumar, Jitendra Behari
Favailable in PDFIncreased blood–brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.00012-0.12 W/kg)2h/1dCommentary icon2009-(10)Henrietta Nittby, Arne Brun, Jacob Eberhardt, Lars Malmgren, Bertil R.R. Persson, Leif G. Salford
Favailable in PDFEffects from 884 MHz mobile phone radiofrequency on brain electrophysiology, sleep, cognition, and well-being884 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 1.4 W/kg)3h/1dCommentary icon2009-(4)Bengt B. Arnetz, Lena Hillert, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, Arne Lowden, Niels Kuster, Sven Ebert, Clementine Boutry, Scott Douglas Moffat, Mats Berg, Clairy Wiholm
3G & 2G Phone radiatión effects on Brain: EEG Changes Go to submenu

(F) Full or (A) Abstract

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Title

Frequency and Intensity

Exposure time and number of Exposure days

Commentary

Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Author(s)
Favailable in PDFEffect of Mobile Phone Radiation on EEG Wave900-1800 MHz-No comments yet icon2019-(5)D. S. Bhangari, A. C. Bhagali, R. V. Kshirsagar
Aavailable in HTMLImpact analysis of mobile phone electromagnetic radiations on human electroencephalogram(GSM, WCDMA) - (SAR 0.67-1.14)-Commentary icon2019-(1)Suman Pattnaik, Balwinder Singh Dhaliwal, S. S. Pattnaik
Favailable in PDF and HTMLDecreased spontaneous electrical activity in neuronal networks exposed to radiofrequency 1,800 MHz signals1800 MHz - (SAR 0.01-9.2 W/kg)15min/17-28dNo comments yet icon2018-(11)Corinne El Khoueiry, Daniela Moretti, Rémy Renom, Francesca Camera, Rosa Orlacchio, André Garenne, Florence Poulletier De Gannes, Emmanuelle Poque-Haro, Isabelle Lagroye, Bernard Veyret, Noëlle Lewis
Favailable in PDF and HTMLMobile Phone Chips Reduce Increases in EEG Brain Activity Induced by Mobile Phone-Emitted Electromagnetic Fields ("physical remedy")-30min/1dNo comments yet icon2018-(11)Diana Henz, Wolfgang I. Schöllhorn, Burkhard Poeggeler
Favailable in PDFEnergy Changes in Brain Under Mobile Phone Radiation(GSM, CDMA) - (SAR 1.12 W/kg, 0.84 W/kg)5min/1dCommentary icon2016-(6)C. K. Smitha, N. K. Narayanan
Favailable in PDFImpacts of radio frequency interference on human brain waves and neuro-psychological changes1800 MHz5min/1dNo comments yet icon2015-(6)Y. Q. He, S. W. Leung,; Y. L. Diao, W. N. Sun, Y. M. Siu, P. Sinha, K. H. Chan
Favailable in PDFRadiofrequency signal affects alpha band in resting electroencephalogram900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.49-0.70-0.93 W/kg (10g-1g-peak))26min/1dCommentary icon2015-(8)Rania Ghosn, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Laurent Hugueville, Antoine Ducorps, Jean-Didier Lemaréchal, György Thuróczy, René de Seze, Brahim Selmaoui
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEEG Changes Due to Experimentally Induced 3G Mobile Phone Radiation(3G) - (SAR 0.69 W/kg (head))15min/1dCommentary icon2015-(13)Suzanne Roggeveen, Jim van Os, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Richel Lousberg
Favailable in PDFBrain Dynamics under Mobile Phone Radiation Using Various Fractal Dimension Methodsunknow freq. - (SAR 1.3-0.98 W/kg)5 + 5min/1dCommentary icon2014-(15)C.K. Smitha, N.K. Narayanan
Favailable in PDFBrain Dynamics under Mobile Phone Radiation – A Wavelet Power Approachunknow freq. - (SAR 1.3-0.98 W/kg)5 + 5min/1dCommentary icon2014-(6)C.K. Smitha, N.K. Narayanan
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubNon-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats900 MHz (8-16 Hz modulated) - (SAR 0.245 W/kg (1g))1h/30dCommentary icon2013-(7)Haitham S. Mohammed, Heba M. Fahmy, Nasr M. Radwan, Anwar A. Elsayed
Favailable in PDFClassification of brainwave asymmetry influenced by mobile phone radiofrequency emissionunknow freq. - (SAR 0.69 W/kg)5min/1dCommentary icon2013-(8)R.M. Isa, I. Pasya, M.N. Taib, A.H. Jahidin, W.R.W. Omar, N. Fuad, H. Norhazman, S.B. Kutty, S.F.S. Adnan
Favailable in PDFDetecting Effects Of Mobile Phone EMF On Electric Potentials Of The Brain(GSM)30min/1dCommentary icon2012-(4)I.A. Menon, A.A. Menon, N. Channa, I.H. Kalwar
Favailable in PDFLong-term low-level electromagnetic radiation causes changes in EEG of freely-moving rats900 MHz - 0.02 mW/cm2
(SAR 1.165 W/kg)
1h/30d, 60d, 120dCommentary icon2011-(9)H.S. Mohammed, N.M. Radwan, Nawal A. Ahmed
Favailable in PDFMobile phone emission modulates event-related desynchronization of alpha rhythms and cognitive–motor performance in healthy humans902 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.5 W/kg)45min/1dCommentary icon2011-(8)Fabrizio Vecchio, Paola Buffo, Silvia Sergio, Daniela Iacoviello, Paolo Maria Rossini
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on performance and electrophysiology in adolescents, young adults and older adults(2G & 3G)-/1dCommentary icon2011-(1)S. Leung, R.J. Croft, R.J. McKenzie, S. Iskra, B. Silber, N.R. Cooper, B. O’Neill, V. Cropley, A. Diaz-Trujillo, D. Hamblin, D. Simpson
Aavailable in HTMLMobile phone emission modulates inter-hemispheric functional coupling of EEG alpha rhythms in elderly compared to young subjects(GSM)45min/1dCommentary icon2010-(1)F. Vecchio, C. Babiloni, F. Ferreri, P. Buffo, G. Cibelli, G. Curcio, S. van Dijkman, J.M. Melgari, F. Giambattistelli, P.M. Rossini.
3G & 2G Phone radiatión effects on Behavior and Locomotion Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFEffect of Electromagnetic Field on Some Behaviour Modality of Honeybee Colonies (Apis mellifera) in Field Conditions937.5 MHz24h/150dCommentary icon2019-(4)Ivana Tlak Gajger, Marinko Vilic, Perica Tucak, Kresimir Malaric
Aavailable in HTMLMobile phones, user behaviour, radiation effects and cognitive performance--Commentary icon2019-(1)Jo Fowler
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubDataset on significant role of Candesartan on cognitive functions in rats having memory impairment induced by electromagnetic waves ("chemical remedy")900 MHz (GSM) - 0.16 mW/cm224h/35dCommentary icon2018-(5)Mohamad Nasser, Pia Chedid, Ali Salami, Mariam Khalifeh, Said El Shamieh, Wissam H. Joumaa
Aavailable in HTMLRadiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure and sleep in adolescents--Commentary icon2018-(1)Alba Cabré, Martine Vrijheid, Elisabeth Cardis, Maties Torrent, Mònica Guxens
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of short and long term electromagnetic fields exposure on the human hippocampus--Commentary icon2017-(7)Omur Gulsum Deniz, Suleyman Kaplan, Mustafa Bekir Selçuk, Murat Terzi, Gamze Altun, Kıymet Kübra Yur, Kerim Asla, Devra Davis
Favailable in PDFTicks and radio-frequency signals: behavioural response of ticks (Dermacentor reticulatus) in a 900 MHz electromagnetic field900 MHz - 0.00007 mW/cm215m/1dCommentary icon2017-(11)Blažena Vargová, Juraj Kurimský, Roman Cimbala, Michal Kosterec, Igor Majláth, Natália Pipová, Piotr Tryjanowski, Łukasz Jankowiak, Viktória Majláthová
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubNeurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 1.34 W/kg)1h/14dCommentary icon2016-(10)Abhijit Nirwane, Vinay Sridhar, Anuradha Majumdar
Aavailable in HTMLDoes the cellphone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation during ringing or talking modes induce locomotor disturbance in Drosophila melanogaster?-1h, 2h/1dCommentary icon2016-(1)Mervat A. Seada, Samar E. Elkholy, Wesam S. Meshrif
Favailable in PDFCell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.9 W/kg)3 min /1dCommentary icon2015-(9)David Lee, Joshua Lee, Imshik Lee
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of Short-Term GSM Radiation at Representative Levels in Society on a Biological Model: The Ant Myrmica sabuleti--Commentary icon2014-(1)Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Guy A. E. Vandenbosch, Vladimir Volski
Favailable in PDFSpatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload900 MHz - (SAR 0.05-0.18 W/kg)1h/21dCommentary icon2014-(10)Karima Maaroufia, Laurence Had-Aissouni, Christophe Melon, Mohsen Sakly, Hafedh Abdelmelek, Bruno Poucet, Etienne Save
Aavailable in HTMLTransient and cumulative memory impairments induced by GSM 1.8 GHz cell phone signal in a mouse model1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.11 W/kg)1.5h/66d, 148dCommentary icon2013-(1)Maria P. Ntzouni, Aikaterini Skouroliakou, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, and Lukas H. Margaritis
Aavailable in HTMLAnalysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats900 MHz (GSM) - 0.14 mW/cm2-/28dCommentary icon2013-(1)Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan, Raju Suresh Kumar, Jaijesh Paval, Vivekananda Kedage, M. Shankaranarayana Bhat, Satheesha Nayak, P. Gopalakrishna Bhat
Favailable in PDFProtective effect of Loranthus longiflorus on learning and memory of rats exposed to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) ("chemical remedy")900-1800 MHz (GSM)(5 min call/5 min off) 1h/60dNo comments yet icon2013-(4)Hemant Nagar, Dilip Kumar Tiwari, Gaurav Dwivedi, Rishi Kant Tripathi, Jitendra Jena
Favailable in PDFLoranthus longiflorus protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic radiation on rat ("chemical remedy")900-1800 MHz (GSM)(5 min call/5 min off) 1h/60dNo comments yet icon2013-(4)Hemant Nagar, Dilip Kumar Tiwari, Gaurav Dwivedi, Rishi Kant Tripathi, Jitendra Jena
Favailable in PDFThe Effect of Cell Phone Radiations on the Life Cycle of Honeybees--Commentary icon2013-(7)Nashaat El Halabi, Roger Achkar, Gaby Abou Haidab
Favailable in PDFFood collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation900 MHz (GSM)-Commentary icon2012-(18)Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Zoheir Rachidi, François Bellens, Philippe De Doncker
Favailable in HTML and Epub916 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects rat behavior and hippocampal neuronal discharge916 MHz - 1 mW/cm26h/10d, 45dCommentary icon2012-(5)Dongmei Hao, Lei Yang, Su Chen, Yonghao Tian, Shuicai Wu
Favailable in PDFChanges in Paramecium caudatum (Protozoa) near a switched-on GSM telephone900 MHz (GSM)2min/1dCommentary icon2011-(10)Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Olivier Debeir, Roger Cammaerts
Favailable in PDFShort-term memory in mice is affected by mobile phone radiation1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.22 W/kg)90min/17d, 31dCommentary icon2011-(7)M.P. Ntzouni, A. Stamatakis, F. Stylianopoulou, L.H. Margaritis
Favailable in PDFWhole body exposure with GSM 900 MHz affects spatial memory in mice900 MHz - (SAR 0.41-0.98 W/kg brain)2h/3d + 3h45m/1dCommentary icon2010-(9)A.F. Fragopoulou, P. Miltiadous, A. Stamatakis, F. Stylianopoulou, S.L. Koussoulakos, L.H. Margaritis
Prenatal Exposure to 3G & 2G Phone radiation effects on pups Histology Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFThe effect of electromagnetic radiation on the development of skin ultrastructural and inmunohistochemical evaluation with P63900 MHz1h/21dCommentary icon2018-(8)Leyla Bahar, Ayhan Eralp, Yilmaz Rumevleklioglu, Sema Erden Erturk, Mehmet Yuncu
Favailable in PDFEffect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from 2G and 3G Cell Phone on Developing Liver of Chick Embryo – A Comparative Study(2G, 3G)75min/12dCommentary icon2017-(5)Mary Hydrina D’Silva, Rijied Thompson Swer, J. Anbalagan, Bhargavan Rajesh
Favailable in PDFDisruption of the ovarian follicle reservoir of prepubertal rats following prenatal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field900 MHz - (SAR 0.01 W/kg body)1h/9dNo comments yet icon2016-(10)Sibel Türedi, Hatice Hancı, Serdar Colakoglu, Haydar Kaya, Ersan Odacı
Favailable in PDFEffects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality900 MHz - (SAR 0.024 W/kg body)1h/9dCommentary icon2015-(12)E. Odacı, H. Hancı, E. Yuluğ, S. Türedi, Y. Aliyazıcıoğlu, H. Kaya, S. Çolakoğlu
Favailable in PDFEffects of Cell Phone Radiations on the Metanephros Tubules in a Chick Embryo Model(GSM), (GSM)+Wifi15min, 30min/15dCommentary icon2015-(5)Sabah Rehman, Shadab Ahmed Butt, Naureen Waseem, Hina Kundi, Abdul Rasool Qamar
Aavailable in HTMLStructural changes in the parotid gland of male albino rats following prenatal and postnatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation900 MHz30min/14d, 28dCommentary icon2015-(1)Amira Fathy, Rehab A. Rifaai, Ahmed Said, Saadia Ragab
Favailable in PDFThe effects of prenatal long-duration exposure to 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old newborn male rat liver900 MHz - (SAR 0.027 W/kg body)1h/9dCommentary icon2015-(7)Zehra Topal, Hatice Hanci, Tolga Mercantepe, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Osman Nuri Keles, Haydar Kaya, Sevdegül Mungan, Ersan Odaci
Favailable in PDFPathological effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat kidney900 MHz - (SAR 0.024 W/kg body)1h/9dCommentary icon2015-(9)E. Odacı, D. Ünal, T. Mercantepe, Z. Topal, H. Hancı, S. Türedi, H.S. Erol, S. Mungan, H. Kaya, S. Çolakoğlu
Favailable in PDFThe effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development900 MHz24h/20dCommentary icon2014-(5)Recep Bedir, Levent Tumkaya, İbrahim Şehitoğlu, Yıldıray Kalkan, Adnan Yilmaz, Osman Zikrullah Şahin
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study900-1800 MHz (2G) - (SAR 2 W/kg)72min/9-12dCommentary icon2014-(10)Mary Hydrina D’Silva, Rijied Thompson Swer, J. Anbalagan, Rajesh Bhargavan
Favailable in PDFApoptosis resulted from radiofrequency radiation exposure of pregnant rabbits and their infants1800 MHz (GSM)15m/7dCommentary icon2011-(8)Goknur Guler, Elcin Ozgur, Hikmet Keles, Arin Tomruk, Sevil Atalay Vural, Nesrin Seyhan
Prenatal Exposure to 3G & 2G Phone radiation effects on embryonic Development Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of Electromagnetic Field on the Development of Chick Embryo: An In Vivo Study1800 MHz - 0.1-1.. mW/cm220 min/10-15dCommentary icon2019-(18)Najam Siddiqi, Nasser Al Nazwani
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe effect of prenatal exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic field on calcineurin and bone development in rats1800 MHz (GSM)6h, 12h, 24h /pregnancyCommentary icon2016-(10)Adem Erkut, Levent Tumkaya, Mehmet Sabri Balik, Yildiray Kalkan, Yilmaz Guvercin, Adnan Yilmaz, Suleyman Yuce, Erkan Cure, Ibrahim Sehitoglu
Favailable in PDF and HTMLDifferent periods of intrauterine exposure to electromagnetic field: Influence on female rats' fertility, prenatal and postnatal development1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.048 W/kg)1h, 2h/ 7d, 14d, 21dCommentary icon2016-(10)Ali S.H. Alchalabi, Erkihun Aklilu, Abd Rahman Aziz, F. Malek, S.H. Ronald, Mohd Azam Khan
Favailable in PDFThe effect of 900 and 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation and nicotine sulfate administration on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis900-1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 1 W/kg body)4h, 6h, 8h/1dCommentary icon2015-(13)Ayper Boga, Mustafa Emre, Yasar Sertdemir, Kubra Akillioglu, Secil Binokay, Osman Demirhan
Favailable in PDFEffects of Mobile Phone 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Field on the Development of Chick Embryos – A Pilot Study1800 MHz - (SAR 0.47-1.10 W/kg body-head)50min/1dCommentary icon2015-(5)Najam Siddiqi, Muthusami John C, Syed M Saud, Ayesha Shafaq, Marwan Zaki
Favailable in PDFThe Effects of 900 Megahertz Electromagnetic Field Applied in the Prenatal Period on Spinal Cord Morphology and Motor Behavior in Female Rat Pups900 MHz1h/7dCommentary icon2013-(9)Ersan Odacı, Ayşe İkinci, Mehmet Yıldırım, Haydar Kaya, Metehan Akça, Hatice Hancı, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Ali Aslan, Mukadder Okuyan, Orhan Baş
Prenatal Exposure to 3G & 2G Phone radiation effects on pups Biochemical parameters Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFEffects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Waves from 3G Mobile Phones on Oxidative Stress in Fetal Rats(2G-3G)8h / pregnancyCommentary icon2018-(5)Indra Fauzi Sabban, Galih Pangesti, Hendry Trisakti Saragih
Favailable in HTMLExposure to mobile phone (900–1800 MHz) during pregnancy: tissue oxidative stress after childbirth900-1800 MHz2h/20dNo comments yet icon2017-(-)Mohammad Hossein Bahreyni Toossi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Maryam Mohammad Mahdizadeh Feyzabadi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mahdiyeh Hedayati, Razieh Mosallanejad, Farimah Beheshti, Zeynab Alizadeh Rahvar
Favailable in PDFMonochromatic red light of LED protects embryonic cells from oxidative stress caused by radiofrequency radiation ("physical remedy")900 MHz (GSM) - 0.00124 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.017 W/kg)158hCommentary icon2016-(7)Olexandr Tsybulin, Evgeniy Sidorik, Sergiy Kyrylenko, Igor Yakymenko
Favailable in PDFPlasma thyroid hormones and corticosterone levels in blood of chicken embryos and post hatch chickens exposed during incunbation to 1800 MHz electromagnetic fields1800 MHz (GSM) - 0.01 mW/cm210 x 4min/1-18dNo comments yet icon2014-(9)Krzystof Pawlak, Andrzej Sechman, Zenon Nieckarz
Favailable in PDFEffects of Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to GSM-Like Radiofrequency on Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Infant Rabbits, an Experimental Study1800 MHz (GSM)15min/7d, + 15min/7-14dCommentary icon2013-(9)Elcin Ozgur, Gorkem Kismali, Goknur Guler, Aytac Akcay, Guzin Ozkurt, Tevhide Sel, Nesrin Seyhan
Favailable in PDF and HTMLOverproduction of free radical species in embryonal cells exposed to low intensity radiofrequency radiation900 MHz - (SAR 0.000003 W/kg)38h, 120h, 240hCommentary icon2013-(7)A. Burlaka, O. Tsybulin, E. Sidorik, S. Lukin, V. Polishuk, S. Tsehmistrenko, I. Yakymenko
Prenatal Exposure to 3G & 2G Phone radiation effects on pups Brain and Behavior Go to submenu

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Aavailable in HTMLAlteration of adaptive behaviors of progeny after maternal mobile phone exposure(SAR 0.7-2.6 W/kg)-Commentary icon2018-(1)Nicolas Petitdant, Anthony Lecomte, Franck Robidel, Christelle Gamez, Kelly Blazy, Anne-Sophie Villégier
Aavailable in HTMLMaternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts--Commentary icon2017-(1)Laura Birksa, Mònica Guxens, Eleni Papadopoulou, Jan Alexander, Ferran Ballester, Marisa Estarlich, Mara Gallastegi, Mina Ha, Margaretha Haugen, Anke Huss, Leeka Kheifets, Hyungryul Lim, Jørn Olsen, Loreto Santa-Marina, Madhuri Sudan, Roel Vermeulen, Tanja Vrijkotte, Elisabeth Cardis, Martine Vrijheid
Favailable in PDF and HTMLSocial behavioral testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging in chicks exposed to mobile phone radiation during development900 MHz (GSM) - 0.003 mW/cm210h/15dCommentary icon2016-(8)Zien Zhou, Jiehui Shan, Jinyan Zu, Zengai Chen, Weiwei Ma, Lei Li, Jianrong Xu
Favailable in PDFMaternal exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field provokes neuronal loss and pathological changes in cerebellum of 32-day-old female rat offspring900 MHz - (SAR 0.01 W/kg body)1h /8dNo comments yet icon2015-(6)Ersan Odacı, Hatice Hancı, Ayşe İkinci, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Ali Aslan, Arzu Şahin, Haydar Kaya, Serdar Çolakoğlu, Orhan Baş
Favailable in PDFNeurodegenerative changes and apoptosis induced by intrauterine and extrauterine exposure of radiofrequency radiation1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.018 W/kg)15min/7d, 14dCommentary icon2015-(6)Göknur Güler, Elcin Ozgur, Hikmet Keles, Arin Tomruk, Sevil Atalay Vural, Nesrin Seyhan
Aavailable in HTMLMaternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring900 MHz (pulsed)6h/ gestational periodCommentary icon2014-(1)Moazamehosadat Razavinasab, Kasra Moazzami, Mohammad Shabani
Favailable in PDFPyramidal Cell Loss in the Cornu Ammonis of 32-day-old Female Rats Following Exposure to a 900 Megahertz Electromagnetic Field During Prenatal Days 13–21900 MHz - 0.0265 mW/cm21h/8dCommentary icon2013-(9)Orhan Baş, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Ali Aslan, Ayşe İkinci, Hatice Hancı, Mehmet Yıldırım, Haydar Kaya, Metehan Akça, Ersan Odacı
Favailable in PDFMaternal mobile phone exposure adversely affects the electrophysiological properties of purkinje neurons in rat offsprings900 MHz (pulsed) - (SAR 0.5-0.9 W/kg)6h/ gestational periodCommentary icon2013-(11)M. Haghani, M. Shabani, K. Moazzami
Aavailable in HTMLThe Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a 900 Megahertz Electromagnetic Field on Hippocampus Morphology and Learning Behavior in Rat Pups900 MHz1h/8dCommentary icon2013-(9)Ayşe İkinci, Ersan Odacı, Mehmet Yıldırım, Haydar Kaya, Metehan Akça, Hatice Hancı, Ali Aslan, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Orhan Baş
Favailable in PDFMobile phone exposure during pregnancy disrupts learning and memory in rat ofsprings (in Farsi)--Commentary icon2013-(11)Mohammad Shabani, Tayebeh Khezri Fard, Mobin Aghapour, Shahrnaz Parsania
Favailable in PDF and HTMLFetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice800-1900 MHz - (SAR 1.6 W/kg)9h, 15h, 24h/18dCommentary icon2012-(8)Tamir S. Aldad, Geliang Gan, Xiao-Bing Gao, Hugh S. Taylor
Aavailable in HTMLThe influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain-30min, 90min, 3h/20dCommentary icon2012-(1)Ji Jing, Zhang Yuhua, Yang Xiao-qian, Jiang Rongping, Guo Dong-mei, Cui Xi
Prenatal Exposure to 3G & 2G Phone radiation effects on pups (Various changes) Go to submenu

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Aavailable in HTMLMaternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy, Pregnancy Duration And Fetal Growth In Four Birth Cohorts--Commentary icon2019-(1)Ermioni Tsarna, Marije Reedijk, Laura Ellen Birks, Mònica Guxens, Ferran Ballester, Mina Ha, Ana Jiménez-Zabala, Leeka Kheifets, Aitana Lertxundi, Hyung-ryul Lim, Jorn Olsen, Llúcia González Safont, Madhuri Sudan, Elisabeth Cardis, Martine Vrijheid, Tanja Vrijkotte, Anke Huss, Roel Vermeulen
Favailable in PDFMobile Phone and its Effect on Foetal Cardiotocography Pattern(SAR 0.99 W/kg)10min/1dNo comments yet icon2018-(5)Zaheera Saadia, Robina Farrukh
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field emitted during embryogenesis on chick development and hatchability1800 MHz-Commentary icon2018-(1)K. Pawlak, Z. Nieckarz, A. Sechman, D. Wojtysiak, B. Bojarski, B. Tombarkiewicz
Favailable in HTMLEffects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development935 MHz - 0.13-1.4 mW/cm22-4h/3dCommentary icon2016-(7)Hong Chen, Zaiqing Qu, Wenhui Liu
Aavailable in HTMLLasting hepatotoxic effects of prenatal mobile phone exposure900 MHz24h/20dCommentary icon2016-(1)A. Yilmaz, L. Tumkaya, K.A. Akyildiz, Y. Kalkan, A.F. Bodur, F. Sargin, H. Efe, H.A. Uydu, Z.A. Yazici
Favailable in PDFEffects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 1.0 W/kg)8h/35dNo comments yet icon2016-(8)Ayper Boga, Mustafa Emre, Yasar Sertdemir, İbrahim Uncu, Secil Binokay, Osman Demirhan
Aavailable in HTMLCan prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field affect the morphology of the spleen and thymus, and alter biomarkers of oxidative damage in 21-day-old male rats?900 MHz - 0.05 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.025 W/kg body)1h/9dCommentary icon2015-(1)H. Hancı, S. Türedi, Z. Topal, T. Mercantepe, İ. Bozkurt, H. Kaya, Ş. Ersöz, B. Ünal, E. Odacı
Favailable in PDFEffects of 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field of mobile phone on oogenesis in adult female rats1800 MHz (GSM)1h, 2h/15dCommentary icon2014-(3)Ali Saeed Hammoodi Alchalabi, Erkihum Aklilu, Abd Rahman Aziz, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman Khan, F. Malek, H.A. Rahim
Favailable in PDFGSM 900 MHz cellular phone radiation can either stimulate or depress early embryogenesis in Japanese quails depending on the duration of exposure900 MHz (GSM) - 0.00025 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.00003 W/kg)38h, 158hCommentary icon2013-(26)Olexandr Tsybulin, Evgeniy Sidorik, Olga Brieieva, Lyubov Buchynska, Sergiy Kyrylenko, Diane Henshel, Igor Yakymenko
Favailable in PDFEffect of Electromagnetic Mobile Radiation on Chick Embryo Development900-1800 MHz - (SAR 2 W/kg)1h/7d, 10d, 14dCommentary icon2012-(9)Fatma Al-Qudsi, Solafa Azzouz
Favailable in PDFEffects of thirty minute mobile phone irradiation on morphological and physiological parameters and gene expression in pregnant rats and their fetuses1800 MHz (SAR 2 phones X 1.01 W/kg)30min/1dCommentary icon2011-(11)Ashraf El-Sayed, Hoda S. Badr, Rania Yahia, Salem M. Salem, Asmaa M. Kandil
Effects of 3G & 2G Phone radiation on Plants Growth Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDF and HTMLOxidative stress and an animal neurotransmitter synthesizing enzyme in the leaves of wild growing myrtle after exposure to GSM radiation1800 MHz (GSM)30min/21dCommentary icon2018-(10)Aikaterina L. Stefi, Dido Vassilacopoulou, Lukas H. Margaritis, Nikolaos S. Christodoulakis
Favailable in PDF and HTMLTo Investigate the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiations on Flavonoids of Lettuce Species2G, 3G30min, 2h, 4h, 6hNo comments yet icon2016-(7)Vishwasini Sharma, Leena Parihar
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation on capsicum annuum seed germination and subsequent sapling growth — A time study(GSM)-Commentary icon2016-(1)Ardhendu Kundu, Bhaskar Gupta, Amirul I. Mallick, Satya K. Pal
Favailable in PDFLow-amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic field exposure causes delayed and reduced growth in Rosa hybrida900 MHz - (SAR 0.0072 W/kg)-Commentary icon2016-(10)Alexandre Grémiaux, Sébastien Girard, Vincent Guérin, Jérémy Lothier, František Baluška, Eric Davies, Pierre Bonnet, Alain Vian
Favailable in PDFEMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism1800 MHz - (SAR 1.69 W/kg)30min, 1h, 2h, 4h/7dCommentary icon2015-(7)Arvind Kumar, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy R. Batish, Shalinder Kaur, Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Aavailable in HTMLReduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station900 MHz (GSM & CW)2h/4d, 5dCommentary icon2015-(1)Malka N. Halgamuge, See Kye Yak, Jacob L. Eberhard
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffect of Two Brands of Cell Phone on Germination Rate and Seedling of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)-5-30min/-Commentary icon2014-(6)Rim A. Hussein, Magda A. El-Maghraby
Favailable in PDFEffects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Germination and Early Growth of Different Bean Species1805-1850 MHz - 0.48-1.45 mW/cm24h(on)/ 4h(off) or 24h(on)/ 24h(off)Commentary icon2014-(10)Hsuan-Yu Chen, Chiachung Chen
Favailable in PDFEffect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Nodule Formation In the Leguminous Plants850-1850 MHz (2G) & 900-1900 MHz (3G)30min-8h/ 1dCommentary icon2014-(11)Sapna Sharma, Leena Parihar
Favailable in PDFEffects of Electromagnetic Waves Emitted by Mobile Phones on Germination, Root Growth, and Root Tip Cell Mitotic Division of Lens culinaris Medik1800 MHz - (SAR 0.76 W/kg)48h/1dCommentary icon2010-(8)Ayhan Akbal, Yasar Kiran, Ahmet Sahin, Dilek Turgut-Balik, Hasan H. Balik
Biochemical changes provoked by 3G & 2G Phone radiation: Oxidative Stress Go to submenu

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Author(s)
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubProbing the origins of 1800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation induced damage in mouse immortalized germ cells and spermatozoa in vitro1800 MHz - (SAR 0.15-1.5 W/kg)4h/1dCommentary icon2018-(17)Brendan J. Houston, Brett Nixon, Bruce V. King, R J. Aitken, Geoffry N. De Iuliis
Aavailable in HTMLAloe arborescens juice prevents EMF-induced oxidative stress and thus protects from pathophysiology in the male reproductive system in vitro ("chemical remedy")--No comments yet icon2018-(1)Przemyslaw Solek, Lena Majchrowicz, Marek Koziorowski
Favailable in PDF and HTMLExposure to 2100 MHz electromagnetic field radiations induces reactive oxygen species generation in Allium cepa roots2100 MHz1-4h/1dCommentary icon2017-(5)Shikha Chandel, Shalinder Kaur, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy Rani Batish, Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Aavailable in HTMLIn vitro non-thermal oxidative stress response after 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation1800 MHz - (SAR 1.6 W/kg)10-60m/1dCommentary icon2017-(1)Ana Marija Marjanovic, Ivan Paviric, Blanka Tariba, Alica Pizent, Ivancica Trosic
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of radiofrequency field exposure on glutamate-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells1950 MHz (3G)-No comments yet icon2016-(1)Jeong-Yub Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Nam Kim, Jong Hwa Kwon, Myung-Jin Park
Favailable in PDFEffects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione andnitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure900 MHz - (SAR 0.3 W/kg (head))1h/1dCommentary icon2016-(5)Meric Arda Esmekaya, Mehmet Zahid Tuysuz, Arın Tomruk, Ayse G. Canseven, Engin Yücel, Zuhal Aktuna, Semih Keskil, Nesrin Seyhan
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubCircadian rhythmicity of antioxidant markers in rats exposed to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency fields1800 MHz - 0.2 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.05 W/kg)2h/32dCommentary icon2015-(17)Honglong Cao, Fenju Qin, Xueguan Liu, Jiajun Wang, Yi Cao, Jian Tong, Heming Zhao
Favailable in PDFEvaluation of selected biochemical parameters in the saliva of young males using mobile phones1800 MHz (GSM & CW)- (SAR 1.09 W/kg)15m, 30min/1dCommentary icon2014-(5)Khalid M. Abu Khadra, Ahmad M. Khalil, Mahmoud Abu Samak, Ahmad Aljaberi
Favailable in PDFAntioxidant Profile of Saliva among Young Men Using Mobile Phones900-1800 MHz (GSM)-Commentary icon2014-(6)Khalid M. Abu Khadra, Ahmad M. Khalil, Mahmoud Abu Samak, Ahmad Aljaberi
Favailable in PDFEffect of Mobile Phone Usage Time on Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Salivary Immunoglobulin A--Commentary icon2014-(5)Fateme Arbabi-Katali, Saeedeh Salimi, Ali Vaziry-Rabiee, Mohammad Noraeei
Aavailable in HTMLCell oxidation–reduction imbalance after modulated radiofrequency radiation1800 MHz - (SAR 1.6 W/kg)10min, 30min, 1h/1dNo comments yet icon2014-(1)Ana Marija Marjanovic, Ivan Pavicic, Ivancica Trosic
Favailable in PDFHigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation and the production of free radicals in four mouse organs900 MHz - (SAR 0.45-1.6 W/kg (body))3h/14dCommentary icon2014-(6)Jan Barkal, Pavel Stopka, Jana krizová, Jan Vrba, Frantisek Vozeh
Favailable in PDFVitamin C Protects Rat Cerebellum and Encephalon from Oxidative Stress Following Exposure to Radiofrequency Wave Generated by BTS Antenna Model ("chemical remedy")900 MHz - 0.67 mW/cm24h/45dCommentary icon2014-(6)Abolfazl Akbari, Gholamali Jelodar, Saeed Nazifi
Favailable in PDFThe Prophylactic Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress Indexes Following Exposure to Radio Frequency Wave Generated by a BTS Antenna Model in Rat Liver and Kidney ("chemical remedy")900 MHz - 0.67 mW/cm24h/45dCommentary icon2014-(5)Abolfazl Akbari, Gholamali Jelodar, Saeed Nazifi
Favailable in PDFEffects of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress in Erythrocytes Following Exposure to Radiofrequency Waves Generated by a BTS Antenna Model ("chemical remedy")900 MHz - 0.67 mW/cm24h/45dCommentary icon2014-(5)Abolfazl Akbari, Gholamali Jelodar, Saeed Nazifi
Biochemical changes provoked by 3G & 2G Phone radiation: Various Go to submenu

(F) Full or (A) Abstract

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Frequency and Intensity

Exposure time and number of Exposure days

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Author(s)
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of exposure to electromagnetic field from mobile phone on serum hepcidin and iron status in male albino rats-30-60min/1dCommentary icon2018-(1)Nanees F. El-Maleky, Reham H. Ebrahim
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of Electromagnetic Radiation of Mobile Phones on Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats900-1300 MHz1-5h/28dCommentary icon2018-(5)Ali Sani, Maryam Muhammad Labaran, Bilkisu Dayyabu
Favailable in PDFEvaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats890-915 MHz - (SAR 0.96 W/kg)2h/70dCommentary icon2017-(5)Murat Çetkin, Can Demirel, Neşe Kızılkan, Nur Aksoy, Hülya Erbağcı
Favailable in PDFEffect Of Electromagnetic Radiation On Vital Organs In Rats900 MHz - (SAR 1.1 W/kg)2h/90dCommentary icon2017-(4)Samta Sharma, Anjali sharma, Sangeeta Shukla
Favailable in PDFBiochemical effects of electromagnetic waves on rats2100 Mhz (3G) - (SAR 1.25 W/kg (body))10min / prenatal + 35dNo comments yet icon2016-(16)Doaa Abdelrahman Hamed Ibrahim
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffect of Cell Phone Use on Salivary Total Protein, Enzymes and Oxidative Stress Markers in Young Adults: A Pilot Study--Commentary icon2015-(4)Arnadi Ramachandrayya Shivashankara, Jasmi Joy, Venkatesh Sunitha, Manoj P. Rai, Suresh Rao, Shafeeque Nambranathayil, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga
Aavailable in HTMLFourier Self-Deconvolution Analysis of β-Sheet Contents in the Amide I Region of Hemoglobin Aqueous Solutions under Exposure to 900 MHz Microwaves and Bioprotective Effectiveness of Sugar and Salt Solutions ("chemical remedy")900 MHz4h/1dCommentary icon2015-(1)Emanuele Calabròa, Salvatore Magazù
Favailable in PDFEffects of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation on Skin Hydroxyproline Contents900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 1.32 W/kg (body))20min/21dCommentary icon2014-(7)Semra Tepe Çam, Nesrin Seyhan, Cengiz Kavaklı, Ömür Çelikbıçk
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of exposure and withdrawal of 900-MHz-electromagnetic waves on brain, kidney and liver oxidative stress and some biochemical parameters in male rat900 MHz - 2.5 mW/cm21h/60dCommentary icon2014-(1)Merhan Mamdouh Ragy
Favailable in PDFEffects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation ("Chemical remedy")900 MHz12 x 10min/30dCommentary icon2014-(8)Behnaz Hajiuon
Aavailable in HTMLLiver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring900-1800 MHz1h/28d, 35d, 42dCommentary icon2014-(1)Hasan Çetin, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Ömer Çelik, Murat Yüksel, Nural Pastacı, Mehmet Okan Özkaya
Favailable in PDFIs Human Saliva an Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Using Mobile Phones?--Commentary icon2013-(6)Yaniv Hamzany, Raphael Feinmesser, Thomas Shpitzer, Aviram Mizrachi, Ohad Hilly, Roy Hod, Gideon Bahar, Irina Otradnov, Moshe Gavish, Rafael M. Nagler
Favailable in PDFBiochemical Changes in The Intervertebral Discs After Electromagnetic Radiation: An Experimental Study900-1800-2450 MHz - 1.04 mW/cm2 (SAR 1.04 W/kg)1h/30dCommentary icon2012-(9)Olcay Eser, Ahmet Songur, Veli Çaglar, Huseyin Vural, Ergun Karavelíoglu, Hakan Mollaoglu, Fehmi Ozguner
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of Exposure to Cellular Phones 950 MHZ Electromagnetic Fields on Progesterone, Cortisol and Glucose Level in Female Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)950 MHz3h/10d, 60dCommentary icon2011-(6)Reza Seyednour, Vahid Chekaniazar
Proteome changes provoked by 3G & 2G Mobile Phone radiation Go to submenu

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Frequency and Intensity

Exposure time and number of Exposure days

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Author(s)
Favailable in PDFImmulogical Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation of the Cellular Phone Among Young Females--Commentary icon2018-(7)Talib Jawad Kadhim, Munther Hamza Rathi, Qatralnada Ahmed Khalaf
Favailable in PDFThe effect of exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation on epidermal growth factor, caspase-3, Hsp27 and p38MAPK gene expressions in the rat eye1800 MHz - (SAR 0.06 W/kg)2h/56dCommentary icon2018-(5)E. D. Eker, B. Arslan, M. Yildirim, A. Akar, N. Aras
Favailable in PDF and HTMLElectromagnetic Radiation Disturbed the Photosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at the Proteomics Level1800 MHz - 0.42 mW/cm224h/1dCommentary icon2018-(8)Chao Tang, Chuanjun Yang, Hui Yu, Shen Tian, Xiaomei Huang, Weiyi Wang, Peng Cai
Aavailable in HTMLProteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure900 MHz1h, 2h, 4h/30dCommentary icon2017-(1)Masood Sepehrimanesh, Nasrin Kazemipour, Mehdi Saeb, Saeed Nazifi, Devra Lee Davis
Aavailable in HTMLAnalysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation900 MHz1h, 2h, 4h/30dCommentary icon2014-(1)Masood Sepehrimanesh, Nasrin Kazemipour, Mehdi Saeb, Saeed Nazifi
Aavailable in HTMLStudying the protein expression in human B lymphoblastoid cells exposed to 1.8-GHz (GSM) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) with protein microarray1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 2 W/kg)24h/1dCommentary icon2013-(1)Chen Zhijiana, Li Xiaoxue, Zheng Wei, Lu Yezhen, Lou Jianlin, Lu Deqiang, Chen Shijie, Jin Lifen, He Jiliang
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation on protein expression in human lens epithelial cells1800 MHz - (SAR 2-4 W/kg)2h/1dCommentary icon2013-(1)Shuang Ni, Yibo Yu, Yidong Zhang, Kairan Lai, Ke Yao, L. Zhang, W. Wang
Favailable in PDF and HTMLStudy of Oxidative Stress in Human Lens Epithelial Cells Exposed to 1.8 GHz Radiofrequency Fields1800 MHz - (SAR 2-4 W/kg)30min, 60min, 90min/1dCommentary icon2013-(9)Shuang Ni, Yibo Yu, Yidong Zhang, Wei Wu, Kairan Lai, Ke Yao
Favailable in PDFBrain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation900 MHz (GSM) & 1880-1900 MHz (DECT) - (SAR 0.17-0.37 W/kg & 0.012-0.028 W/kg (body))3h, 8h/245dCommentary icon2012-(25)Adamantia F. Fragopoulou, Athina Samara, Marianna H. Antonelou, Anta Xanthopoulou, Aggeliki Papadopoulou, Konstantinos Vougas, Eugenia Koutsogiannopoulou, Ema Anastasiadou, Dimitrios J. Stravopodis, George Th. Tsangaris,Lukas H. Margaritis
Aavailable in HTMLPotential Protection of Green Tea Polyphenols Against 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation-Induced Injury on Rat Cortical Neurons ("chemical remedy")1800 MHz24h/1dCommentary icon2011-(1)Mei-Li Liu, Jian-Qiang Wen, Yu-Bo Fan
Favailable in PDF and HTMLMobile phone radiation might alter protein expression in human skin900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 1.3 W/kg)1h/1dNo comments yet icon2008-(6)Anu Karinen, Sirpa Heinävaara, Reetta Nylund, Dariusz Leszczynski
Histopathological and Ultrastructural changes provoked by 3G & 2G Phone radiation Go to submenu

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Frequency and Intensity

Exposure time and number of Exposure days

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Author(s)
Aavailable in HTMLThe Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Mitochondria: An Ultra-structural and Biochemical Study1800 MHz - (SAR 1.10 W/kg)50min/10dNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Najam Siddiqi, Naseer Salem Al Nizwani, Zoya Shaikh, Asem Shalaby, Yahyah Tamimi
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of Acute and Chronic Exposure to 900 Mhz Electromagnetic Field on the Rat Liver Microarchitecture900 MHz24h/1d, 1h/30dCommentary icon2018-(4)Elvan Şahin, Derya Güzel, Şadiye Açıkgöz 1 and Nihal Tufan
Aavailable in HTMLQuantitative changes in testicular structure and function in rat exposed to mobile phone radiation--Commentary icon2017-(1)M. Çetkin, N. Kızılkan, C. Demirel, Z. Bozdağ, S. Erkılıç, H. Erbağcı
Favailable in PDFEffects of long-term exposure to 900 megahertz electromagnetic field on heart morphology and biochemistry of male adolescent rats900 MHz - 0,0187 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.0093 W/kg)1h/38dCommentary icon2016-(10)G. Kerimoğlu, T. Mercantepe, H.S. Erol, A. Turgut, H. Kaya, S. Çolakoğlu, E. Odacı
Favailable in PDF and HTMLHistopathological changes associated with oxidative stress induced by electromagnetic waves in rats' ovarian and uterine tissues1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.97 W/kg (body))2h/30d, 60dCommentary icon2016-(10)Ali S.H. Alchalabi, Hasliza Rahim, Erkihun Aklilu, Imad I. Al-Sultan, Abd Rahman Aziz, Mohd F. Malek, Suzanna H. Ronald, Mohd Azam Khan
Aavailable in HTMLHistological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands ("chemical remedy")--Commentary icon2016-(1)Fatma M. Ghoneim, Eetmad A. Arafat
 available in PDFPlacental histomorphology and morphometry in the pregnant mice treated with cell phone radiation915 MHz4h/13dCommentary icon2015-(10)Ali Louei Monfared, Aaref Nooraii, Morteza Shamsi
Aavailable in HTMLHistological changes in albino rat hippocampus following postnatal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field emitted from mobile phones900-1800 MHz-/120dNo comments yet icon2015-(1)Hussein Abd El Raouf, Hoda H.; Mohammed Ali, Mona H.
Favailable in PDFThe effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats2100 MHz (3G) - (SAR 0.4 W/kg)6h/10d, 40dCommentary icon2015-(8)Filiz Aydogan, İlhan Unlu, Emine Aydin, Nihat Yumusak, Erdinc Devrim, Ethem Erdal Samim, Elcin Ozgur, Velid Unsal, Arin Tomruk, Goknur Guler Ozturk, Nesrin Seyhan
Aavailable in HTMLThe effects of 2100-MHz radiofrequency radiation on nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance in rats2100 MHz (3G)6h/10d, 40dCommentary icon2015-(1)Filiz Aydoğan, Emine Aydın, Gökhan Koca, Elçin Özgür, Pergin Atilla, Arzu Tüzüner, Şule Demirci, Arin Tomruk, Göknur Güler Öztürk, Nesrin Seyhan, Meliha Korkmaz, Sevda Müftüoğlu, Ethem Erdal Samim
Favailable in PDFMorphological aspects of poly-organic impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation in experiment1800 MHz - 0.05-1 mW/cm2-/30d, 90dCommentary icon2015-(3)Tashpulatova Guzal Alievna, Mavlyan Hodzhaev Ravshan Shukhratovich
Favailable in PDFThe Possible Rescue Effect of Vitamin E or Silymarin on Lung Tissue of Male Albino Rats Exposed to Electro-Magnetic Field ("chemical remedy")
900 MHz - 1.4 mW/cm2 (SAR 1.2 W/kg)2h/3d x 8Commentary icon2014-(12)Abir Khalil Mohamed
Favailable in PDFGSM 900 MHz Microwave Radiation Induced Alterations of Insulin Level and Histopathological Changes of Liver and Pancreas in RatGSM - (SAR 2 W/kg)3h, 6h/7dNo comments yet icon2014-(8)S.M.J. Mortazavi, S.M. Owji, M.B. Shojaie-fard, M. Ghader-Panah, S.A.R. Mortazavi, A. Tavakoli-Golpayegani, M. Haghani, S. Taeb, N. Shokrpour, O. Koohi
Favailable in PDFEffects of prenatal 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposures on the histology of rat kidney900 MHz - 1 mW/cm2 (SAR 2 W/kg (peak))1h/all gestation daysCommentary icon2014-(25)Mahmut Ulubay, Ahmad Yahyazadeh, Ö. Gülsüm Deniz, Elfide Gizem Kıvrak, B. Zuhal Altunkaynak, Gülünar Erdem, Süleyman Kaplan
Favailable in PDFHistological Study of Prolonged Exposure to Mobile Phone Radiations on Young Male Albino Ratsʼ Cerebellar Cortex and the Role of Ginkgo Biloba Supplementation ("chemical remedy")
-2h/60dCommentary icon2013-(11)Abeer M. Azmy, Maha A. Abd Allah
Favailable in PDFExposure of mice to 900 - 1900 MHz radiations from cell phone resulting in microscopic changes in the kidney900-1900 MHz - (SAR 1.69 W/kg (10g))48min/ 30-180dCommentary icon2012-(6)N. Mugunthan, J. Anbalagan, S. Meenachi, A. Shanmuga Samy
Favailable in PDFEffects of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation on ultrastructure of rats’ hippocampal neural stem cells in vitro (in Chinesse)900 MHz - 1-3 mW/cm22h/6d, 12h/1dCommentary icon2012-(5)Hai-shui Luo, Wei-hua Chu, Zi-bing Wan, Sheng-li Hu, Rong Hu, Nan Wu, Bo Hu, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu
Favailable in PDFEffects of Mobile Phone Induced Electromagnetic Field on Height of Follicular Cells in Thyroid Gland of Mice900-1800 MHz (GSM)50 missed call/60dCommentary icon2011-(3)Farheen Shaukat, Khadija Qamar, Shadab Ahmed Butt
3G & 2G Phone radiation damage on Sperm, Testis and Sex hormones Go to submenu

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Frequency and Intensity

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Favailable in PDFTo study the abnormalities of spermatozoa exposed by mobile radiations(SAR 1.87 W/kg)5h/60dCommentary icon2018-(8)Ashok Kumar Srivastava, Priyanka Singhal, Navneet Chauhan, Nityanand Srivastava, Jayant Kumar Verma, Adil Asghar
Aavailable in HTML[Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats] (in Chinese)900 MHz2-4hNo comments yet icon2017-(1)X.H. Gao, H.R. Hu, X.L. Ma, J. Chen, G.H. Zhang
Aavailable in HTMLRadiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats-1-3h/28dNo comments yet icon2017-(1)A. O. Oyewopo, S. K. Olaniyi, C. I. Oyewopo, A. T. Jimoh
Favailable in PDFEffect of Electromagnetic Radiation of Mobile Phone on Sperm Count in Albino Rats(SAR 1.87 W/kg)5h/60dCommentary icon2016-(2)Priyanka Singhal, Urvashi Singh
Aavailable in HTMLRadiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular germ cells in swiss albino mice900 MHz4-8h/35dCommentary icon2016-(1)Neelam Pandey, Sarbani Giri, Samrat Das, Puja Upadhaya
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China--No comments yet icon2016-(1)Guowei Zhang, Huan Yan, Qing Chen, Kaijun Liu, Xi Ling, Lei Sun, Niya Zhou, Zhi Wang, Peng Zou, Xiaogang Wang, Lu Tan, Zhihong Cui, Ziyuan Zhou, Jinyi Liu, Lin Ao, Jia Cao
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubIn Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm850 MHz - (SAR 1.46 W/kg)60min/1dCommentary icon2015-(8)Adel Zalata, Ayman Z. El-Samanoudy, Dalia Shaalan, Youssef El-Baiomy, Taymour Mostafa
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubElectromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats900 MHz (50 Hz modulated) - (SAR 0.66 W/kg (average))2h/50dCommentary icon2015-(9)Qi Liu, Tianlei Si, Xiaoyun Xu, Fuqiang Liang, Lufeng Wang, Siyi Pan
Aavailable in HTMLExposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field for one hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis900 MHz1h/30dCommentary icon2015-(1)Ersan Odacı, Cansu Özyılmaz
Favailable in PDFEffects of chronic exposure to 2G and 3G cell phone radiation on mice testis - A randomized controlled trial900-1800 MHz (G2) & 1900-2200 MHz (G3) - (SAR 1.69 W/kg (10g))48min/ 30-180dCommentary icon2015-(12)N. Mugunthan, J. Anbalagan, A. Shanmuga Samy, S. Rajanarayanan, S. Meenachi
Favailable in PDFEffects of Long Term Exposure to a 2G Cell Phone Radiation (900 - 1900 MHz) on Mouse Testis900-1800 MHz (2G) - (SAR 1.69 W/kg (10g))48min/ 30-180dCommentary icon2014-(7)N. Mugunthan, J. Anbalagan, S. Meenachi
Favailable in PDFEffect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario1910 MHz (3G) - (SAR 1.34 W/kg (time-average))2h/60dCommentary icon2014-(8)Sanjay Kumar, Jay Prakash Nirala, J. Behari, R. Paulraj
Aavailable in HTMLImpact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model900 MHz1h, 2h, 4h/30dCommentary icon2014-(1)Masood Sepehrimanesh, Mehdi Saeb, Saeed Nazifi, Nasrin Kazemipour, Gholamali Jelodar, Saeedeh Saeb
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubThe influence of direct mobile phone radiation on sperm quality900-1800 MHz (GSM)5h (10min calls)/1dCommentary icon2014-(7)Igor Gorpinchenko, Oleg Nikitin, Oleg Banyra, Alexander Shulyak
Favailable in PDFNew Electromagnetic Radiations Effects on Ultra Structure of Adult Bovine Sperm900 MHz5min/1dCommentary icon2014-(3)Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Mehran Farhodi, Ehsan Pashaeiahei, Hassan Mahbouobipour, Matine Heidari, Maryam Tadayon, Hamid Reza Fayazi, Abdollah Amini
Aavailable in HTML[Chronotoxicity of 1800 MHz microwave radiation on sex hormones and spermatogenesis in male mice] (in Chinese)1800 MHz - 0.2 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.22 W/kg)2h/32dCommentary icon2014-(1)L. Chen, F. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Sun, J. Tong
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubThe Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats915-950 MHz (GSM) - 1.6 mW/cm28h/14d, 21dNo comments yet icon2013-(8)Masoud Ghanbari, Seyed Bagher Mortazavi, Ali Khavanin, Mozafar Khazae
Favailable in PDFEffects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats (some positive results)900 MHz (GSM), 1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR <0.001 W/kg)2h/90dCommentary icon2011-(7)H. Ozlem Nisbet, Cevat Nisbet, Aysegul Akar, Mesut Cevik, M. Onder Karayigit
Consequences of 3G & 2G Mobile Phone radiation on Heart Go to submenu

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Aavailable in HTMLAluminium foil dampened the adverse effect of 2100 MHz mobile phone–induced radiation on the blood parameters and myocardium in rats ("physical remedy")2100 MHz - (SAR 0.84–1.86 W/kg)4h/30dNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Viskasari P. Kalanjati, Kusuma E. Purwantari, Lucky Prasetiowati
Favailable in PDFEffect of Stress and Radiation of Mobile Phones on Heart and its Capabilities--Commentary icon2018-(10)Ali Hussein F. Al-Nasraui
Favailable in PDF and HTMLCellular Phone Irradiation of the Head Affects Heart Rate Variability Depending on Inspiration/Expiration Ratio1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.70 W/Kg)20min/1dNo comments yet icon2018-(9)Szabolcs Béres, Ádám Németh, Zénó Ajtay, István Kiss, Balázs Németh, László Hejjel
Aavailable in HTMLHeart rate variability affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field in adolescent students1788 MHz - (SAR 0.405 W/kg)18min/1dCommentary icon2018-(1)Jakub Misek, Igor Belyaev, Viera Jakusova, Ingrid Tonhajzerova, Jan Barabas, Jan Jaku
Favailable in PDFCalculation of Heart Rate Variation Owing to the Effect of Electromagnetic Fields Waves (EMF)--No comments yet icon2018-(6)Mohammed Yahya H., Ali Adil Turki, Ali H. F. Alnasraui, Qasim shaker K.
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted from Mobile Phone on Electrocardiographic Variables and Rate Pressure Product1800 MHz (GSM)30min/1dNo comments yet icon2017-(1)K. Singh, S. Das
Favailable in PDFEffects of mobile phone radiation on heart rate variability of healthy young subjectsunknow freq. - (SAR 0.82 W/kg)5min/1dCommentary icon2015-(6)Anup M. Vegad, Yogesh K. Kacha , Maulik S. Varu, Hemant B. Mehta, Chinmay J. Shah
Favailable in PDFPhysiological and Histological Studies on The Heart of Male Albino Rats Exposed to Electromagnetic Field and The Protective Role of Silymarin and/or Vitamin E ("chemical remedy")
900 MHz - 1.4 mW/cm2 (SAR 1.2 W/kg)2h/3d x 8Commentary icon2015-(15)A. Zahkouk Samir, M. El-Gendy Ahkam, A. Eid Fatma, A. El-Tahway Nomaan, A. El-Shamy Sawsan
Favailable in PDFThe effects of prenatal exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field on the 21-day-old male rat heart900 MHz - 0.05 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.025 W/kg (body))1h/8dCommentary icon2014-(8)Sibel Türedi, Hatice Hancı, Zehra Topal, Deniz Ünal, Tolga Mercantepe, Ilyas Bozkurt, Haydar Kaya, Ersan Odacı
Favailable in PDFStudy the Effect of Mobile (Cell Phone) on the Heart Electricity--No comments yet icon2014-(4)Daeser Hussain, Alyaa H. Ali, Sabah N. Mazhir, Aya Juma
Favailable in PDF and HTMLA Pilot Study on Long Term Effects of Mobile Phone Usage on Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Adult Males--Commentary icon2012-(4)Bhagyalakshmi Kodavanji, Venkappa Siddappa Mantur, Nayanatara Arun Kumar, Sheila Ramesh Pai
Cancer as side effect of 3G & 2G Mobile Phone radiation Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFCancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102)--Commentary icon2018-(11)Anthony B. Miller, L. Lloyd Morgan, Iris Udasin, Devra Lee Davis
Aavailable in HTMLWireless Phone Use and Risk of Adult Glioma: Evidence from Meta-analysis--Commentary icon2018-(1)Peng Wang, Chongxian Hou, Yanwen Li, Dong Zhou
Favailable in PDFNTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carciogenesis Studies in B6C3F1/N Mice Exposed to Whole Body Rado Frequency Radiation At Frequency (1,900 MHz) and Modulations (GSM and CDMA) used by Cell Phones (Expert Panel Vote found more effects)1900 MHz (GSM & CDMA) - (SAR 2.5-10 W/kg)9h/730dCommentary icon2018-(270)(National Toxicology Program)
Aavailable in HTMLReport of Final Results Regarding Brain and Heart Tumors in Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed from Prenatal Life until Natural Death to Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Field Representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM Base Station Environmental Emission1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.001-0.1 W/kg)19h/(natural lifetime)No comments yet icon2018-(1)L. Falcioni, L. Bua, E. Tibaldi, M. Lauriola, L. De Angelis, F. Gnudi, D. Mandrioli, M. Manservigi, F. Manservisi, I. Manzoli, I. Menghetti, R. Montella, S. Panzacchi, D. Sgargi, V. Strollo, A. Vornoli, F. Belpoggi
Aavailable in HTMLProbabilistic multiple-bias modelling applied to the Canadian data from the INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and risk of glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors--Commentary icon2017-(1)F. Momoli, J. Siemiatycki, M.L. McBride, M.-É. Parent, L. Richardson, D. Bedard, R. Platt, M. Vrijheid, E. Cardis, D. Krewski
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEvaluation of Mobile Phone and Cordless Phone Use and Glioma Risk Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints from 1965 on Association or Causation--Commentary icon2017-(18)Michael Carlberg, Lennart Hardell
Favailable in PDFMobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes--No comments yet icon2017-(14)Manya Prasad, Prachi Kathuria, Pallavi Nair, Amit Kumar, Kameshwar Prasad
Favailable in PDFTumores cerebrales por exposición a campos electromagneticos asociados al uso de teléfonos celulares: Un metanalisis de estudios observacioneales--Commentary icon2016-(66)Luis Alejandro Quiroga Olaya, Jose Daniel Rojas Patiño
Favailable in PDFReport of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure)900 MHz (GSM), 900 MHz (CDMA) - (SAR 1.5 - 6 W/kg)9h/740dCommentary icon2016-(74)Michael Wyde, Mark Cesta, Chad Blystone, Susan Elmore, Paul Foster, Michelle Hooth, Grace Kissling, David Malarkey, Robert Sills, Matthew Stout, Nigel Walker, Kristine Witt, Mary Wolfe, John Bucher
Favailable in PDF and HTMLInferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls--Commentary icon2016-(8)Frank de Vocht
Aavailable in HTMLThe Intracranial Distribution of Gliomas in Relation to Exposure From Mobile Phones: Analyses From the INTERPHONE Study--No comments yet icon2016-(1)Kathrine Grell, Kirsten Frederiksen, Joachim Schüz, Elisabeth Cardis, Bruce Armstrong, Jack Siemiatycki, Daniel R. Krewski, Mary L. McBride, Christoffer Johansen, Anssi Auvinen, Martine Hours, Maria Blettner, Siegal Sadetzki, Susanna Lagorio, Naohito Yamaguchi, Alistair Woodward, Tore Tynes, Maria Feychting, Sarah J. Fleming, Anthony J. Swerdlow, Per K. Andersen
Favailable in PDFPerspectives Revisited - The Buccal Cytome Assay in Mobile Phone Users--Commentary icon2015-(10)Gursatej Gandhi, Prabhjot Singh, Gurpreet Kaur
Favailable in PDFMobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study--No comments yet icon2014-(10)Gaëlle Coureau, Ghislaine Bouvier, Pierre Lebailly, Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Anne Gruber, Karen Leffondre, Jean-Sebastien Guillamo, Hugues Loiseau, Simone Mathoulin-Pélissier, Roger Salamon, Isabelle Baldi
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubConnection between Cell Phone use, p53 Gene Expression in Different Zones of Glioblastoma Multiforme and Survival Prognoses--Commentary icon2014-(5)Reza Akhavan-Sigari, Morteza Mazloum Farsi Baf, Vahid Ariabod, Veit Rohde, Saeed Rahighi
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubAssociation between vestibular schwannomas and mobile phone use--No comments yet icon2014-(7)In Seok Moon, Bo Gyung Kim, Jinna Kim, Jong Dae Lee, Won-Sang Lee
Favailable in PDFMobile phone and cordless phone use and the risk for glioma – Analysis of pooled case-control studies in Sweden, 1997–2003 and 2007–2009900-1800-1900 MHz-No comments yet icon2014-(13)Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubDecreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones900-1800-1900 MHz-No comments yet icon2014-(16)Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg
Favailable in PDFUsing the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones900-1800-1900 MHz-No comments yet icon2013-(10)Lennart Hardell, Michael Carlberg
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubMultifocal Breast Cancer in Young Women with Prolonged Contact between Their Breasts and Their Cellular Phones--No comments yet icon2013-(5)John G. West, Nimmi S. Kapoor, Shu-Yuan Liao, June W. Chen, Lisa Bailey, Robert A. Nagourney
DNA Damage provoked by 3G & 2G Phone radiation Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDF and HTMLDNA-Related Modifications in a Mixture of Human Lympho-Monocyte Exposed to Radiofrequency Fields and Detected by Raman Microspectroscopy Analysis1800 MHz - (SAR 0.21 W/kg)5-20h/1dCommentary icon2019-(11)Maria Lasalvia, Giuseppe Perna, Vito Capozzi
Aavailable in HTMLAppraisal of immediate and late effects of mobile phone radiations at 2100 MHz on mitotic activity and DNA integrity in root meristems of Allium cepa2100 MHz1-4h/1dNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Shikha Chandel, Shalinder Kaur, Mohd Issa, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy Rani Batish, Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of 900-, 1800-, and 2100-MHz radiofrequency radiation on DNA and oxidative stress in brain900-2100 MHz - (SAR 0.039-0.084 W/kg)2h/180dCommentary icon2019-(1)Mehmet Esref Alkis, Hakki Murat Bilgin, Veysi Akpolat, Suleyman Dasdag, Korkut Yegin, Mehmet Cihan Yavas, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag
Favailable in PDFThe Cytogenetic Effects Evaluation of Non-thermal Radiofrequency Radiation from Cellular Phones on Rat Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes900 MHz - (SAR 0.35-0.87 W/kg)1-3h/105dCommentary icon2017-(9)El Idrissi Sidi Brahim Salem, El Arbi Boussaber, El Goumi Younes, Hayat Talbi, Choukri Abdelmajid, Hillali Abderraouf
Favailable in PDFElectromagnetic fields at a mobile phone frequency (900 MHz) trigger the onset of general stress response along with DNA modifications in Eisenia fetida earthworms900 MHz2h/1dNo comments yet icon2017-(11)Jean-Paul Bourdineaud, Maja Šrut, Anamaria Štambuk, Mirta Tkalec, Daniel Brèthes, Krešimir Malarić, Göran I .V. Klobučar
Aavailable in HTMLMitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative damage in HL-60 cells exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields900 MHz - 0.12 mW/cm24h/5dCommentary icon2017-(1)Yulong Sun, Lin Zong, Zhen Gao, Shunxing Zhu, Jian Tong, Yi Cao
Favailable in PDFThe 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G-mobile phone and the DNA oxidative damage in brain2100 MHz - (SAR 0.4 W/kg (body))6h/10d, 40dCommentary icon2016-(5)Duygu Sahin , Elcin Ozgur, Goknur Guler, Arın Tomruk, Ilhan Unlu, Aylin Sepici-Dinçel, Nesrin Seyhan
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubAnalysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation2G (GSM) & 3G (CDMA)-Commentary icon2016-(4)Sumita Banerjee, Narendra Nath Singh, Gadiputi Sreedhar, Saikat Mukherjee
Favailable in PDFMicronucleus induction by 915 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation in Vicia faba root tips915 MHz (CW) - 2.5-5.0 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.3-1.8 W/kg)72hCommentary icon2014-(20)Bianca Gustavino, Giovanni Carboni, Roberto Petrillo, Marco Rizzoni, Emanuele Santovetti
Favailable in PDFAdverse Effect of Mobile Phone on TP53, BRCAI Genes and DNA Fragmentation in Albino Rat Liver1800 MHz - (SAR 0.33 W/kg)(continuous or intermitent) 2h/14d, 28d, 42dCommentary icon2013-(5)E.M. Gouda, M.K. Galal, S.A. Abdalaziz
Aavailable in HTMLMobile phone radiation induces mode-dependent DNA damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line: A protective role of melatonin ("Chemical remedy")--/1dCommentary icon2013-(1)Chuan Liu, Peng Gao, Shang-Cheng Xu, Yuan Wang, Chun-Hai Chen, Min-Di He, Zheng-Ping Yu, Lei Zhang, Zhou Zhou
Favailable in PDFSingle-strand DNA breaks in human hair root cells exposed to mobile phone radiation900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.97 W/kg (head))15min, 30min/1dCommentary icon2012-(5)Semra Tepe Çam, Nesrіn Seyhan
Aavailable in HTMLThe toxic effects of mobile phone radiofrequency (940 MHz) on the structure of calf thymus DNA940 MHz - (SAR 0.04 W/kg)45min/1dCommentary icon2012-(1)Azadeh Hekmat, Ali Akbar Saboury, Ali Akbar Moosavi-Movahedi
Favailable in PDFExposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 2 W/kg)24h/1dCommentary icon2009-(8)Shang cheng Xu, Zhou Zhou, Lei Zhang, Zhengping Yu, Wei Zhang, Yuan Wang, Xubu Wang, Maoquan Li, Yang Chen, Chunhai Chen, Mindi He, Guangbin Zhang, Min Zhong
Various / Other changes provoked by 3G & 2G Mobile Phone radiation Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFAntibacterial Susceptibility Pattern of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus after Exposure to Electromagnetic Waves Emitted from Mobile Phone Simulator900 MHz2-24h/1dNo comments yet icon2019-(10)M. M. Movahedi, F. Nouri, A. Tavakoli Golpaygani, A. Ataee, S. Amani, M. Taheri
Aavailable in HTMLVariation in epigenetic DNA modifications following the exposure of cells to radiofrequency fields (Conference Presentation)900 MHz - 0.23, 1.12, 40.3 mW/cm2-No comments yet icon2019-(1)Jody Cantu, Xomalin G. Peralta, Cesario Z. Cerna, Ibtissam Echchgadda
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of cell phone radiation on neutrophil of mice--No comments yet icon2019-(1)Yinhui Pei, Hui Gao, Lin Li, Xin An, Qinyou Tian
Aavailable in HTMLDirect and indirect effects of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on CHO cell line: Evidence of bystander effect by non-ionizing radiation900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 2 W/kg)2-24h/1dNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Najmeh Jooyan, Bahram Goliaei, Bahareh Bigdeli, Reza Faraji-Dana, Ali Zamani, Milad Entezami, Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
Favailable in PDF and HTMLMobile phone electromagnetic radiation affects Amyloid Precursor Protein and α-synuclein metabolism in SH-SY5Y cells(GSM) - (SAR 0.23 W/kg)30min/2dNo comments yet icon2019-(10)Aikaterina L .Stefia, Lukas H. Margaritis, Aikaterini S. Skouroliakou, Dido Vassilacopoulou
Favailable in PDFEffects of 2100 MHz radio frequency radiation on the viscosity of blood and oxidative stress parameters in hypertensive and normal rats2100 MHz1h/40dCommentary icon2018-(12)D. Kuzay, C. Ozer, T. Goktas, B. Sirav, F. Senturk, G.T. Kaplanoglu, M. Seymen
Favailable in PDFEffect of low-level 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation on the rat sciatic nerve and the protective role of paricalcitol ("Chemical remedy")1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.0042 W/kg)1h/28dCommentary icon2018-(13)Ulku Comelekoglu, Savas Aktas, Burcu Demirbag, Meryem Ilkay Karagul, Serap Yalin, Metin Yildirim, Aysegul Akar, Begum Korunur Engiz, Fatma Sogut, Erkan Ozbay
Favailable in PDFAn Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Electromagnetic Radiations Emitted from Mobile Phone on General Health, pH, Flow Rate and Electrolytes Concentrations of Saliva in Female Adults--Commentary icon2018-(12)Etimad Alattar, Khitam Elwasife, Eqbal Radwan, Hadeer Abu Warda, Mohammed Abujami
Favailable in PDFExposure to cell phone radiofrequency changes corticotrophin hormone levels and histology of the brain and adrenal glands in male Wistar rat900 MHz - (SAR 1.01 W/kg)6h/28-56dCommentary icon2018-(6)Sima Shahabi, Iman Hassanzadeh Taji, Maedeh Hoseinnezhaddarzi, Fateme Mousavi, Shermineh Shirchi, Atena Nazari, Hooman Zarei, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein
Favailable in PDFEffects of mobile phone prolonged radiation on kidney cells; an in-vitro study900 MHz1-2h/8dCommentary icon2018-(5)Golshan Mahmoudi, Safoora Nikzad, Mohammad Mehrpouyan, Masoud Moslehi, Milad Baradaran- Ghahfarokhi, Amirreza Dashty
Favailable in PDFExposure to Global System for Mobile Communication 900 MHz Cellular Phone Radiofrequency Alters Growth, Proliferation and Morphology of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells900 MHz5-101m/3-5dCommentary icon2018-(5)Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Batool Hashemi-Beni , Alireza Moradi, Maryam Aliakbari, Saghar Shahbazi-Gahrouei
Favailable in PDF and HTMLExposure to 1.8 GHz electromagnetic fields affects morphology, DNA-related Raman spectra and mitochondrial functions in human lympho-monocytes1800 MHz - (SAR 0.21 W/kg)1-20h/1dCommentary icon2018-(26)M. Lasalvia, R. Scrima, G. Perna, C. Piccoli, N. Capitanio, P. F. Biagi, L. Schiavulli, T. Ligonzo, M. Centra, G. Casamassima, A. Ermini, V. Capozzi
Aavailable in HTMLThe response of human bacteria to static magnetic field and radiofrequency electromagnetic field (mirobiota)--Commentary icon2017-(1)David P. E. Crabtree, Brandon J. Herrera, Sanghoon Kang
Aavailable in HTMLLow power microwaves induce changes in gating function of Trpv4 ion channel proteins1800 Mhz4h/1dCommentary icon2017-(1)Sohni Jain, Sara Baratchi, Elena Pirogova
Favailable in PDF and HTMLMicronuclei Formation and 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine Enzyme Detection in Ovarian Tissues After Radiofrequency Exposure at 1800 MHz in Adult Sprague–Dawley Rats1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.974 W/kg)2h/15-60dNo comments yet icon2017-(8)Ali Saeed Hammoodi Alchalabi, Hasliza Rahim, Mohamed Fareq AbdulMalek, Erkihun Aklilu, Abd Rahman Aziz, Suzanna Harun Ronald, Mohd Azam Khan
Aavailable in HTMLContinuous 900-megahertz electromagnetic field applied in middle and late-adolescence causes qualitative and quantitative changes in the ovarian morphology, tissue and blood biochemistry of the rat900 MHz1h/24dNo comments yet icon2017-(1)Derya Öztürk Okatan, Haydar Kaya, Yüksel Aliyazıcıoğlu, Selim Demir, Serdar Çolakoğlu, Ersan Odacı
Aavailable in HTMLMobile phone (1800 MHz) radiation impairs female reproduction in mice, Mus musculus, through stress induced inhibition of ovarian and uterine activity1800 MHz-Commentary icon2017-(1)Saba Shahin, Surya Pal Singh, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Aavailable in HTMLThe effects of low power microwaves at 1800 MHz and 2100 MHz on yeast cells growth1800-2100 MHz-Commentary icon2017-(1)Sohni Jain, Vuk Vojisaveljevic, Elena Pirogova
Aavailable in HTMLLow power microwaves at 1.8GHz and 2.1 GHz induce chages in Catalase enzyme kinetics1800-2100 MHz-Commentary icon2017-(1)Sohni Jain, Vuk Vojisaveljevic, Elena Pirogova
Favailable in HTMLAlterations of thymic morphology and antioxidant biomarkers in 60-day-old male rats following exposure to a continuous 900 MHz electromagnetic field during adolescence900 MHz - 0.0208 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.0067 W/kg (body))1h/38dCommentary icon2017-(7)A. Kulaber, G. Kerimoğlu, Ş. Ersöz, S. Çolakoğlu, E. Odacı
Favailable in HTMLAcute effects of mobile phone radiations on subtle energy levels of teenagers using electrophotonic imaging technique: A randomized controlled study2100 MHz (3G UMTS) - (SAR 0.54 W/kg (body))15min/1dCommentary icon2017-(-)Hemant Bhargav, T.M. Srinivasan, Suman Bista, A. Mooventhan, Vandana Suresh, Alex Hankey, H.R. Nagendra
Favailable in PDF and HTMLHair Loss due to Electromagnetic Radiation from Overuse of Cell Phone (case report)--No comments yet icon2016-(3)Rajendrasingh J. Rajput
Favailable in PDFEffect of Electromagnetic Waves Emitted from Mobile Phone on Nerve Conduction Velocity of Median Nerve in Adult Males(GSM) - (SAR 0.702 W/Kg)10min/1dCommentary icon2016-(5)K. Dabla, K. Singh
Favailable in PDFEffect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.95 W/kg)4h/1dCommentary icon2016-(8)P. Mokarram, M. Sheikhi, S.M.J. Mortazavi, S. Saeb, N. Shokrpour
Favailable in PDFMobile phone exposure influences some erythrocytes parameters in vitro. A novel source of preanalytical variability? (red blood cells)900 MHz30min/1dCommentary icon2016-(5)Elisa Danese, Giuseppe Lippi, Giorgio Brocco, Martina Montagnana, Gian Luca Salvagno
Favailable in PDF and HTMLAnthropogenic Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Elicit Neuropathic Pain in an Amputation Model915 MHz - (SAR 0.36 W/kg)10min/1dCommentary icon2016-(17)Bryan Black, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Benjamin R. Johnston, Erick Jones, Mario Romero-Ortega
Aavailable in HTMLAdverse effects in lumbar spinal cord morphology and tissue biochemistry in Sprague Dawley male rats following exposure to a continuous 1-h a day 900-MHz electromagnetic field throughout adolescence900 MHz1h/38dCommentary icon2016-(1)Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Ali Aslan, Orhan Baş, Serdar Çolakoğlu, Ersan Odacı
Favailable in PDFMorphological and antioxidant impairments in the spinal cord of male offspring rats following exposure to a continuous 900 MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence900 MHz - 0.021 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.01 W/kg (body))1h/25dCommentary icon2015-(6)Ayşe İkinci, Tolga Mercantepe, Deniz Unal, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Arzu Şahin, Ali Aslan, Orhan Baş, Havva Erdem, Osman Fikret Sönmez, Haydar Kaya, Ersan Odaci
Aavailable in HTMLOxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 2 W/kg (average))(5 min on/10 min off) 0.5-8.0h/1dCommentary icon2015-(1)

Qingxia Hou, Minglian Wang, Shuicai Wu, Xuemei Ma, Guangzhou An, Huan Liu, Fei Xi

Favailable in HTMLEffects of microwaves (900 MHz) on peroxidase systems: A comparison between lactoperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase906 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.000004 W/kg)30min/1dCommentary icon2015-(-)Mario Barteri, Roberta De Carolis, Fiorenzo Marinelli, Goliardo, Linda Celeste Montemiglio
Favailable in PDF2.1 GHz electromagnetic field does not change contractility and intracellular Ca2+ transients but decreases β-adrenergic responsiveness through nitric oxide signaling in rat ventricular myocytes2100 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.83 W/kg)2h/70dCommentary icon2015-(8)Yusuf Olgar , Enis Hidisoglu , Murat Cenk Celen , Bilge Eren Yamasan , Piraye Yargicoglu, Semir Ozdemir
Favailable in PDFEffects of electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) exposure on growth plate in growing rats900-1800 MHz (GSM)2h/90dCommentary icon2015-(30)H. Ozlem Nisbet, Aysegul Akar, Cevat Nisbet, M. Yavuz Gulbahar, Ahmet Ozak, Cenk Yardimci, Selcuk Comlekci
Favailable in PDFEffects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study900 MHz (GSM) - 0.35 mW/cm2 (SAR 2.0 W/kg (average))6-21min /5dCommentary icon2015-(10)D. Shahbazi-Gahrouei, B. Hashmi-Beni, Z. Ahmadi
Favailable in PDFAmeliorative Effect of Two Antioxidants on The Liver of Male Albino Rats Exposed to Electromagnetic Field ("chemical remedy")
900 MHz - 1.4 mW/cm2 (SAR 1.2 W/kg)2h/3d x 8Commentary icon2015-(20)A. Eid Fatma, M. El-Gendy Ahkam, A. Zahkouk Samir, A. El-Tahway Nomaan, A. El-Shamy Sawsan
Favailable in PDFEffects of cell phone radiation on the levels of T3, T4 and TSH, and histological changes in thyroid gland in rats treated with hydroalcholic Allium sativum extract900 MHz12 x 10min/30dCommentary icon2014-(8)Behnaz Hajioun, H. Jowhari, M. Mokhtari
Favailable in PDFThe protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 1-4 W/kg)(5 min on/10 min off) 24h/1dCommentary icon2014-(9)Kaijun Liu, Guowei Zhang, Zhi Wang, Yong Liu, Jianyun Dong, Xiaomei Dong, Jinyi Liu, Jia Cao, Lin Ao, Shaoxiang Zhang
Aavailable in HTMLSelenium Reduces Mobile Phone (900 MHz)-Induced Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function, and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells ("chemical remedy")900 MHz - (SAR 0.36 W/kg)1h/1dCommentary icon2014-(1)Mehmet Cemal Kahya, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Bilal Çiğ
Favailable in PDFEffects of microwave exposure and Gemcitabine treatment on apoptotic activity in Burkitt’s lymphoma (Raji) cells1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.35 W/kg (10g))24h/1dCommentary icon2014-(5)Ayşe G. Canseven, Meric Arda Esmekaya, Handan Kayhan, Mehmet Zahid Tuysuz, Nesrin Seyhan
Favailable in PDF and HTMLDifferential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 2 W/kg (average))(5 min on/10 min off) 1-24h/1dCommentary icon2014-(12)Yonghui Lu, Mindi He, Yang Zhang, Shangcheng Xu, Lei Zhang, Yue He, Chunhai Chen, Chuan Liu, Huifeng Pi, Zhengping Yu, Zhou Zhou
Favailable in PDF, HTML and Epub17-B-Estradiol Counteracts the Effects of High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Trophoblastic Connexins and Integrins1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 2 W/kg (time-average))1h/1dCommentary icon2013-(11)Franco Cervellati, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laura Lunghi, Elena Fabbri, Paola Valbonesi, Roberto Marci, Carla Biondi, Fortunato Vesce
Aavailable in HTMLInfluence of Imitated 900 MHz Cellular Radiation on the Form and Function of Ovarian Tissues in Rat (in Chinese)900 MHz4h/30dCommentary icon2013-(1)Hui-rong Ma, Jing-wei Chen, Jing-jing Li, Ya-nan Zhao, Jia Zhang, Jin-de Yu, Le-le Guo, Xue-lian Ma
Favailable in PDFMobile Phone Radiation Induced Plasma Protein Alterations And Eye Pathology In Newly Born Mice900-1800 MHz - 0.5 mW/cm2 (SAR 0.78 W/kg)45min/30dCommentary icon2013-(21)F. Eid, M. Abou Zeid, N Hanafi, A. El-Dahshan
Favailable in PDFIn vitro Effect of Radiofrequency on hsp70 Gene Expression and Immune– effector Cells of Birds850 MHz (GSM), 1200 MHz - (SAR 1.7 W/kg)5-60min/1dCommentary icon2013-(6)Pradip Kumar Das, Chandrakanta Jana, Thulasiraman Parkunan, Probal Ranjan Ghosh, Siddhartha Narayan Joardar, Guru Desika Vishaga Pandiyan, Joydip Mukherjee, Sagar Sanyal
Aavailable in HTMLUnfolding and Aggregation of Myoglobin Can Be Induced by Three Hours’ Exposure to Mobile Phone Microwaves: A FTIR Spectroscopy Study1768 MHz - 0.08 mW/cm23h/1dCommentary icon2013-(1)Emanuele Calabròa, Salvatore Magazùa
Aavailable in HTMLElectromagnetic fields (UHF) increase voltage sensitivity of membrane ion channels; possible indication of cell phone effect on living cells910-990 MHz-Commentary icon2013-(1)N. Ketabi, H. Mobasheri, R. Faraji-Dana
Favailable in PDFIs the effect of mobile phone radiofrequency waves on human skin perfusion non-thermal ?900 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.49 W/kg (10g))20min/1dCommentary icon2013-(26)Nathalie Loos, Gyorgy Thuroczy, Rania Ghosn, Val´erie Brenet-Dufour, Sophie Liabeuf, Brahim Selmaoui, Jean-Pierre Libert, V´eronique Bach, Momar Diouf, Ren´e De Seze

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-Superposition of an incoherent magnetic field inhibited EGF receptor clustering and phosphorylation induced by a 1.8 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation

-A 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation induces EGF receptor clustering and phosphorylation in cultured human amniotic (FL)

1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.5-4 W/kg)

15min/1dCommentary icon

2013-(1)

2012-(1)

Wenjun Sun, Xiuying Shen, Dongbo Lu, Yiti Fu, Deqiang Lu, Huai Chiang
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation935 MHz - 0.15-1.4 mW/cm22h, 4h/3dCommentary icon2012-(1)Wenhui Liu, Xinmin Zheng, Zaiqing Qu, Ming Zhang, Chun Zhou, Ling Ma, Yuanzhen Zhang
Favailable in PDFEffects of cell phone radiofrequency exposure on the human cytochrome P450 reductase (protein structure change)1900 MHz (3G UMTS) - (SAR 1W/kg)1h/1dCommentary icon2016-(6)Shazia Tanvir, Gyorgy Thuroczy, Brahim Selmaoui, Viviane Silva Pires-Antonietti, Pascal Sonnet, Philippe Léveque, René De Seze, Sylviane Pulvin
Favailable in PDFInfluence of Electromagnetic Radiation Produced by Mobile Phone on Some Biophysical Blood Properties in Rats900 MHz (GSM)1h/90d, 180dCommentary icon2012-(4)Abu Bakr El-Bediwi, Mohamed Saad, Attalla F. El-kott, Eman Eid
Favailable in PDFBiophysical Properties of Liquid Water Exposed to EM Radio Frequency Radiation890-915 MHz (GSM), 1710-1785 MHz (GSM) - 0.055 mW/cm2, 0.0017 mW/cm21-1.5h/1dNo comments yet icon2012-(21)Valery Shalatonin
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubElectromagnetic Fields Effects on the Secondary Structure of Lysozyme and Bioprotective Effectiveness of Trehalose ("chemical remedy")900 MHz (GSM)4h/1dCommentary icon2012-(6)Emanuele Calabro, Salvatore Magazù
Favailable in PDFElectromagnetic Treatment to Old Alzheimer's Mice Reverses β-Amyloid Deposition, Modifies Cerebral Blood Flow, and Provides Selected Cognitive Benefit (what a lucky)918 MHz - (SAR 0.25-1.05 W/kg)2h/12d, 60dNo comments yet icon2012-(14)Gary W. Arendash, Takashi Mori, Maggie Dorsey, Rich Gonzalez, Naoki Tajiri, Cesar Borlongan
Aavailable in HTMLA 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation induces EGF receptor clustering and phosphorylation in cultured human amniotic (FL) cells1800 MHz - (SAR 0.1-4.0 W/kg)15min/1dCommentary icon2011-(1)Wenjun Sun, Xiuying Shen, Dongbo Lu, Yiti Fu, Deqiang Lu, Huai Chiang
Favailable in PDFEffects of 900 and 1800 MHz Electromagnetic Field Application on Electrocardiogram, Nitric Oxide, Total Antioxidant Capacity, Total Oxidant Capacity, Total Protein, Albumin and Globulin Levels in Guinea Pigs900-1800 MHz - (SAR 0.0015-0.15 W/kg)4h/20dCommentary icon2011-(6)Metin Çenesız, Onur Atakışı, Ayşegül Akar, Güven Önbılgın, Neslihan Ormanci
Favailable in PDFMorphological changes induced by mobile phone radiation in liver and pancreas in Wistar albino rats(GSM)30min, 60min/91d2010-(5)Sultan Ayoub Meo, Muhammad Arif, Shahzad Rashied, Sufia Husain, Muhammad M. Khan, Abeer A. Al Masri, Muhammad S. Vohra, Adnan M. Usmani, Ashraf Husain, Abdul M. Al-Drees
Favailable in PDFComparison of biological effects between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features900 MHz (GSM)1h/91d, 182dCommentary icon2010-(11)Evangelia D. Chavdoula, Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, Lukas H. Margaritis
Favailable in PDFBioeffects of mobile telephony radiation in relation to its intensity or distance from the antenna900-1800 MHz (GSM) - (SAR 0.89 W/kg (head))6min/6dCommentary icon2010-(13)Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, Evangelia D. Chavdoula, Lukas H. Margaritis

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