Electromagnetic - Various
EMF in biology, endogenous emissions, functions and biomolecular recognition
In this site it's defended that consciousness is electromagnetic (EM) in nature, but not only consciousness or mind are electromagnetic but life itself only means that, at less complex level (with less layers interacting), also EM fields are at work, mind and life must have same basic principles as have been described time ago , so this section reviews some of the known endogenous EM fields related to life, other sections, more specific, speak about other ones. ...
One of the subsections here is dedicated to papers that propose that biomolecular interaction, recognition and binding is mediated by electromagnetic field  and it can be related to another section of this web which speaks about the resonant recognition model , as it will be seen. The initial problem as noted in various papers here (for example ) is that for protein interactions Brownian diffusion alone, which is usually considered as the main engine of protein dynamics, does not explain the rapidity and efficiency of the biomolecular reactions at works in cells, and indeed various data indicate that biophysical fields are working here, that as Preto et al.  mentioned:
".. [biomolecules] besides traditional Brownian motion, interact through long-range electromagnetic interactions as predicted from first principles of physics; long-range meaning that the mentioned interactions are effective over distances much larger than the typical dimensions of the molecules involved."
Various papers prove the existence of long-range protein vibrational modes  and because proteins are dipolar, those collective vibration of the protein molecules can be sufficiently strong and stable to generate functional EM fields, in this sense is mandatory to note also that it has been experimentally proven that all tested proteins have notable electron transport properties , more effective than artificially created cables, and that the most parsimonious explanation for this is that it must have a functional role (to enable them to work as an antennas capable to emit/receive electromagnetic fields).
Anyways a photonic pump is necessary to put a protein in coherent vibrational mode  that in turn can make protein to work as an antenna :
" ...the excess energy (that is, energy input minus energy losses due to dissipation) is channeled into the vibrational mode of the lowest frequency. In other words, the shape of the entire molecule is periodically deformed resulting in a “breathing” movement. In doing so the biomolecules behave as microscopic antennas that absorb the electromagnetic radiation tuned at their “breathing” (mesoscopic) oscillation frequency. But antennas at the same time absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation, thus, according to a theoretical prediction, these antennas (biomolecules) can attractively interact at a large distance through their oscillating near-fields, and through the emitted electromagnetic radiation, provided that these oscillations are resonant and thus, take place at the same frequency."
And it is no need to look far for the light sources that put proteins in vibrational mode, proteins themselves can interact also and are continuously emitting and receiving photonic signals as is being seriously described and experimentally proven by the resonant recognition model, a model that predicts that the delocalised electrons moving along macromolecular (protein, DNA, RNA) backbone-like helical structure, can produce electromagnetic radiation, absorption and resonance with the spectral characteristics that correspond to the energy distribution along the macromolecule, and those emissions are in the light electromagnetic wavelength range, that is, they are photons. For this model are various papers and a descriptions in another section of this web  and I will not delve further into it here.
Cifra et al.  argue that radiofrequency interactions can be an important factor on a molecular scale where radiofrequency interactions between oscillating polar biomacromolecules, compared to other long-range molecular interactions, can have comparable energy and comparable, if not a larger, reach. Riss  comes to the conclusion that for the induced fit theory he found 8 knock-out criteria which reduce the probability for the correctness of this theory to 0.000003% while for a electrodynamic binning theory he calculate a probability of 99.9999999% to be correct.
Here also it's mentionable the somewhat revolutionary system to detect Hepatitis C Virus based on electromagnetic detection of the resonant frequency (as Cosic predicted ) of the virus RNA, described in two independent papers presented here .
But in this section more general subsections are available (as mentioned more specific ones are in other sections), including some reviews and some new experimental data, for example in the reviews we can see various papers with interesting points that, like in the case of Hammerschlag et al. , goes over various of the concepts treated in this website:
" Examples of clinically relevant biofields are the electrical and magnetic fields generated by arrays of heart cells and neurons that are detected, respectively, as electrocardiograms (ECGs) or magnetocardiograms (MCGs) and electroencephalograms (EEGs) or magnetoencephalograms (MEGs). At a basic physiology level, electromagnetic activity of neural assemblies appears to modulate neuronal synchronization and circadian rhythmicity. Numerous nonneural electrical fields have been detected and analyzed, including those arising from patterns of resting membrane potentials that guide development and regeneration, and from slowly-varying transepithelial direct current fields that initiate cellular responses to tissue damage. Another biofield phenomenon is the coherent, ultraweak photon emissions (UPE), detected from cell cultures and from the body surface. A physiological role for biophotons is consistent with observations that fluctuations in UPE correlate with cerebral blood flow, cerebral energy metabolism, and EEG activity. Biofield receptors are reviewed in 3 categories: molecular-level receptors, charge flux sites, and endogenously generated electric or electromagnetic fields."
In a review by Bizarri et al.  it is postulated among others that the effect of numerous "pharma" medicine can in really exert they effects altering endogenous fields:
" ...This is especially relevant when considering that a number of complex natural mixtures do not seems to recognize a specific target, while inducing dramatic effects, though (Bizzarri et al., 2011a). That is to say, that some complex molecular blends may exert their “pharmacological” effects by targeting some biophysical properties of the field, instead of single, well-recognized molecular targets."
In the review of Tzambazakis , there are included various concepts and postulates about the origins of endogenous EM fields: the cell membrane as a possible source based on acoustic-electrical waves that exhibit a millimeter EM radiative component (already has been detected vibrational modes in those membranes in the Hz, GHz and THz ranges), microtubules as an other possible source because mitochondrial energy supply a strong static electric field able to shift microtubular oscillations into highly non-linear region, and the low damping of these oscillations through the formation of an ordered water layer around mitochondria, and other possible origins like biophotons (for whose research a continuously up to date section  is available), or water coherence domains also as a source of endogenous EM fields (see section ).
As Daniel Fels put in :
" Cell-internal EMFs exist to a much larger extent than has been described in text-books so far. Enough evidence has been accumulated to motivate studying more of their functionality. Yet, we cannot understand them only by applying what we understand so far from a purely molecule-based interpretation of life as EMFs are non-local, weightless, and transmit at much higher speed than diffusing molecules. But cell-matter and cell-EMFs are non-separable, and they are suggested to be understood as a unit that co-evolves, referred here as the double-aspect of life."
On the other hand, numerous experimental curious data bout endogenously generated fields is presented in the papers listed below, for example the series of experiments by Abraham A. Embi with the detection of fields from human blood , hair , hair follicle  (including strange magnetic transmission between hair follicle and hair shaft ) or how the magnetic field from human hand affect the field of the hair follicle . In some relation with that last in the experiment of Shishkin et al.  is demonstrated that water heated with human hands has different properties that one heated with an equivalent thermal heater:
" Our experiments show the anomalous behavior of water conductivity and associated differential parameters under water heating by biological objects compared with traditional heating sources. Water response to human action strongly depends on psychophysiological and psychoemotional state of the person. Moreover the responses to the action by left and right human hands are substantially different and as a rule are specific to the gender. The possible physicochemical mechanisms of such anomalous water behavior are studied."
All our body (and its parts) emit detectable radiation at different scales and frequencies that if conveniently analyzed though some computer algorithms  can give not only deeper insights of the wellbeing and health of a person but also reflect his o her thoughts, emotions, and inter-physiologic, which may affect the functioning of the human body. Even our muscles when we move emit their characteristic frequencies! , so one can imagine how when is walking he moves not only the material body but is transforming continuously the electromagnetic field that surround him.
In this section there are also included speculative hypothesis like one proposed by Rose :
" The author proposes that a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices may provide clues to real electromagnetic field interactions in the biosphere. For instance, evil eye beliefs may be a cultural elaboration of the sense of being stared at, which in turn may have a basis in real electromagnetic emissions through the eye. Data to support this hypothesis are presented. Other traditional beliefs such as remote sensing of game and the importance of connection to the Earth Mother may also contain a kernel of truth. A series of testable scientific hypotheses concerning traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields is presented. At this stage, the theory does not have sufficient evidence to be accepted as proven; its purpose is to stimulate thought and research."
Or the possibility that assuming that electric potentials and fields are used by bacteria to communication in  it is proposed that processes of (Nitrogen and sugar) phosphotransferase systems (PTS) that would led to bacteria communications, are modeled by classical electrodynamics and that bacterial communication is using the free ions of Potassium to exert electric fields to others bacteria.
Or, as last example of the hypotheses listed in this section, the interesting role of water and electromagnetic fields in the origin of biological life :
" The quantum field theoretical consideration of pure water postulates that even at room temperature miniscule compartments (so called coherent domains) of highly ordered water come out. In water solutions of ions and polar molecules these domains may become much more complex and may result in a higher level of orderliness called extended domains—coordinated clusters of basic coherent domains. They include coherent oscillations of electromagnetic field that may be resonantly connected to countless molecules and their interactions. Consequently, even in inanimate systems we may get a high orderliness that resembles the one of living beings."
4. Meriguet, Y., Lechelon, M., Gori, M., Nardecchia, I., Teppe, F., Kudashova, A., ... & Torres, J. (2019, September). Collective oscillations of proteins proven by terahertz spectroscopy in aqueous medium. In 2019 44th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (pp. 1-2). IEEE.
5. Preto, J., Nardecchia, I., Jaeger, S., Ferrier, P., & Pettini, M. (2015). Investigating encounter dynamics of biomolecular reactions: long-range resonant interactions versus Brownian collisions. Fields of the Cell, 215-228.
7. Turton, D. A., Senn, H. M., Harwood, T., Lapthorn, A. J., Ellis, E. M., & Wynne, K. (2014). Terahertz underdamped vibrational motion governs protein-ligand binding in solution. Nature communications, 5(1), 1-6.
13. Shiha, G., Samir, W., Azam, Z., Kar, P., Hamid, S., & Sarin, S. (2014). A Novel Method for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus Using Electromagnetic Signal Detection: A Multicenter International Study. biosystems, 7, 12.
14. Fathy, H., Soliman, L., Attallah, M., El-Sheshtawy, N., & Abd El, A. (2018) Comparative Study between the Conventional Methods and A New Technique using Electromagnetic Waves in Diagnosis and Follow up of Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infections. Egypt. J. Med. Microbiol., 27(3), 21-27.
15. Hammerschlag, R., Levin, M., McCraty, R., Bat, N., Ives, J. A., Lutgendorf, S. K., & Oschman, J. L. (2015). Biofield physiology: a framework for an emerging discipline. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 4(1_suppl), gahmj-2015.
25. Embí, A. A. (2020). Evidence of Teleported Bioelectromagnetic Energy Transfer in a Human Miniorgan Causing a Delay in Crystallization. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 8(6), 156-162.
26. Embí, A. A. (2020). Demonstration of the Human Hair Follicle Magnetoreception of Biomagnetism Radiated by the Concave Part of the Human Hand. International Journal of Research-Granthaalayah, 8(5), 348-354.
27. Shishkin, G. G., Ageev, I. M., Rybin, Y. M., & Shishkin, A. G. (2013). Research of water response under the action of the infrared human body radiation by water conductometric sensors. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 3(03), 278.
29. Ghazali, A. S., & Sidek, S. N. (2014, December). Electromagnetic based emotion recognition using ANOVA feature selection and Bayes Network. In 2014 IEEE Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES) (pp. 520-525). IEEE.
30. Llinás, R. R., Ustinin, M., Rykunov, S., Walton, K. D., Rabello, G. M., Garcia, J., ... & Sychev, V. (2020). Noninvasive muscle activity imaging using magnetography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(9), 4942-4947.
32. Barani, N., & Sarabandi, K. (2019, July). Theory of Electromagnetic-Based Communication within Bacterial Communities. In 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and USNC-URSI Radio Science Meeting (pp. 1-2). IEEE.
33. Jerman, I. (2018). Emergence of Organisms from Ordered Mesoscopic States of Water (Liquids)—Physical Instead of Chemical Origin of Life. In Biological, Physical and Technical Basics of Cell Engineering (pp. 321-338). Springer, Singapore.
Very related sections:
↑ text updated: 23/07/2020
↓ tables updated: 17/07/2022
Endogenous Fields & Mind
EM - Various
General reviews about endogenously generated electromagnetic fields ║ Biomolecular interaction, recognition and binding mediated by endogenous electromagnetic field ║ Various experiments and new data on endogenous electromagnetic fields ║ Some speculative ideas based on endogenous electromagnetic fields
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|SEE ALSO THIS!|
|F||Long range electromagnetic effects drive protein-protein approaches: an egg of Coulomb||2022-(14)||Neri Niccolai, Edoardo Morandi, Davide Alocci, Alberto Toccafondi, Andrea Bernini|
|F||Experimental evidence for long-distance electrodynamic intermolecular forces||2021-(34)||Mathias Lechelon, Yoann Meriguet, Matteo Gori, Sandra Ruffenach, Ilaria Nardecchia, Elena Floriani, Anastasiia Kudashova, Dominique Coquillat, Frédéric Teppe, Sébastien Mailfert, Didier Marguet, Pierre Ferrier, Luca Varani, James Sturgis, Jeremie Torres, Marco Pettini|
|F||Molecular transduction in receptor-ligand systems by planar electromagnetic fields||2021-(10)||A. Cortés, J. Coral, C. McLachlan, J. A. G. Corredor, R. Benítez|
|F||Energy Transfer to the Phonons of A Macromolecule Through Light Pumping||2020-(19)||Elham Faraji, Roberto Franzosi, Stefano Mancini, Marco Pettini|
|F||The Possible Role of Molecular Vibration in Intracellular Signalling||2020-(7)||Werner Jaross|
|F||Ubiquitous Electron Transport in Non-Electron Transfer Proteins||2020-(13)||Stuart Lindsay|
|A||Process-based Modelling of RNAs and Proteins towards the Simulation of Long-distance Electrodynamic Interactions in Biomolecules||2020-(1)||S. Maestri, E. Merelli, M. Pettini|
|A||Collective oscillations of proteins proven by terahertz spectroscopy in aqueous medium||2019-(1)||Yoann Meriguet, Mathias Lechelon, Matteo Gori, Ilaria Nardecchia, Frederic Teppe, Anastasiia Kudashova, Dominique Coquillat, Luca Varani, Marco Pettini, Jeremie Torres|
|F||Strong coupling of collective intermolecular vibrations in organic materials at terahertz frequencies||2019-(8)||Ran Damari, Omri Weinberg, Daniel Krotkov, Natalia Demina, Katherine Akulov, Adina Golombek, Tal Schwartzz, Sharly Fleischer|
|A||Rigorous Approach to Simulate Electromagnetic Interactions in Biological Systems||2018-(1)||Kenneth W. Allen, William D. Hunty, Jonathan D. Andreasen, John D. Farnum, Alex Saad-Falcon, Ryan S. Westafer, Douglas R. Denison|
|F||Collective behavior of oscillating electric dipoles||2018-(12)||Simona Olmi, Matteo Gori, Irene Donato, Marco Pettini|
|F||The Use of Planar Electromagnetic Fields in Effective Vaccine Design||2017-(11)||Adrián Cortés, Jonathan Coral, Colin McLachlan, Ricardo Benítez|
|A||Planar molecular arrangements aid the design of MHC class II binding peptides||2017-(1)||Adrián Cortés, Jonathan Coral, Colin McLachlan, Ricardo Benítez, L. Pinilla|
|F||Are Molecular Vibration Patterns of Cell Structural Elements Used for Intracellular Signalling?||2016-(5)||Werner Jaross|
|F||Campos electromagnéticos planares permiten explicar el acople entre péptidos y moléculas de HLA-II||2015-(8)||Adrián Cortés, Jonathan Coral|
|A||Is it possible to detect long- range interactions among biomolecules through noise and diffusion?||2015-(1)||I. Donato , M. Gori , I. Nardecchia , M.Pettini , J. Torres, L. Varani|
|F||Radiofrequency and microwave interactions between biomolecular systems||2015-(8)||Ondřej Kučera, Michal Cifra|
|F||Terahertz underdamped vibrational motion governs protein-ligand binding in solution||2014-(6)||David A. Turton, Hans Martin Senn, Thomas Harwood, Adrian J. Lapthorn, Elizabeth M. Ellis, Klaas Wynne|
|F||Optical measurements of long-range protein vibrations||2014-(7)||Gheorghe Acbas, Katherine A. Niessen, Edward H. Snel, A.G. Markelz|
|F||Experimental detection of long-distance interactions between biomolecules throughtheir diﬀusion behavior: Numerical study||2014-(14)||Ilaria Nardecchia, Lionel Spinelli, Jordane Preto, Matteo Gori, Elena Floriani, Sebastien Jaeger, Pierre Ferrier, Marco Pettini|
|F||On the role of electrodynamic interactions in long-distance biomolecular recognition||2014-(31)||Jordane Preto, Marco Pettini, Jack A. Tuszynski|
|F||Electrodynamic Binning Theory versus Induced Fit Theory||2014-(7)||Udo Riss|
|F||Theory of affinity maturation of antibodies||2013-(6)||Udo Riss|
|F||Error Corrected Sub-Monolayer Ellipsometry for Measurement of Biomolecular Interactions||2013-(10)||Udo Riss|