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Biophotons & Acupunture Meridians
The ducts of the meridians may correspond to optical fibers for biophoton transit

Pablo Andueza Munduate

There are clues that link classical meridian system with the biophoton phenomena, measures of optical capacities of the proposed channels and of the emission of biophotons from acupuncture points suggest that relation. It can be another way by which mind can receive and send information and integrate it in the whole body. ...

As described in [1] there are various kinds of experiments where it has been achieved the physical detection of the meridians:

" Anatomical structures corresponding to the classical acupuncture meridians have been observed in mice [27e29], rats [28,30e33], rabbits [28,34e37], and pigs [38]. … Visualization of the acupuncture meridian structures is performed, for example, by staining with acridine orange [28,30,39], propidium iodide and Alcian blue [27], Trypan blue [33,40e42], Janus Green B method [34], or by the Feulgen reaction [43]."

One of the method that is achieving more results (or some of the most visible results) is the infrared spectroscopy that is showing evidence of light channels in the body [2,3,4,5,6]. They appear in the range from 3400 nm to 5000 nm, and they are based on that they have an extraordinarily high optical coherence [7], for example in [8,9] various images can be seen.

Respect to the physical nature of the meridians it must be taken in consideration two aspects with their respective experimental findings; the relation of acupuncture points with connective tissue and the relation of meridians with Bonghan ducts.

In relation to the first one, it has been theorized that acupuncture channels are determined by connective tissue planes with the findings that calcium banks in acupuncture points (APs) are physically juxtaposed with underlying connective tissue [10] and that more than 80% of the APs and 50% of the meridian intersections are present at intramuscular or intramuscular connective tissue planes [11], in regard to composition of these points in [12] is writen::/p>

" Histological and bio-mechanical features have been used to differentiate APs from surrounding tissue [11, 12, 13], and this has demonstrated that 82% of all classical APs consist of a composite that includes a blood vessel and a nerve within a sheet of loose connective (mesenchyme) tissue perforating superficial fascia separating subcutaneous from muscle tissue [14]."

On the other side, the Bonghan circulatory system (Primo Vascular System) is a network composed of Bonghan ducts (Primo Vessels) and Bonghan corpuscles (Primo Nodes) along the paths of acupuncture meridians, as is noted in [1]:

" ... findings confirm the discovery by Bong-Han Kim, who has found special ducts and corpuscles forming a meridian network distributed throughout animal bodies (the experimental data were published in 1963). The ducts and corpuscles (Fig. 1) the discernible parts of the meridian system (described in [27] and [28]) exist in the skin of animals, in the blood and lymphatic vessels, and on the surfaces of internal organs."

As is shown in [13] ducts are surrounded by collagen fibers. Connective tissues is majorly made by collagen fibers and as previously mentioned these are related to acupuncture points also, taking in consideration this and the findings on infrared spectroscopy, that reveal us meridians, in [10] it has been made an exploration of infrared transmission on the collagen fibers; with an infrared source aligned parallel to collagen fibers, spectrophotometry revealed a window of enhanced transmission between 9000 and 20000 nanometers. Another experiment [14] that used collagen gels and collagen fibrils isolated from rat tails, concluded that these collagen structures both conduct and modify photon pulses coming from biological sources.

Studies have been made also on biophoton emissions (also named Ultraweak Photon Emissions or UPE) from acupuncture points, one of them [15] measured spectra for electromagnetic emissions from various of these points and in all cases apart from the corresponding thermal emissions 2 additional peaks were found both in the infrared range at 2000-2500 nm and 15000 nm, and as is written in [16]:

" In view of the existence of radiant tracks that correspond with channels, the waveband filter for infrared in connective tissue, and the discovery that biophotons are emitted from acupuncture points with a wavelength in the middle of the filter range, it is likely that this energy is a reflection of something profound."

Biophotons are also normally detected at visible wavelengths not only on infrared (see section [17] for various experimental detection) moreover, although infrared emissions can be (in principle) a byproduct of biochemical energy (ATP-ADP or its variant reactions) visible wavelengths can not. This experiment [18] detect them somewhere in the range 160−630 nm and for the author the photocount statistics proves that the signal have both a core quantum component in squeezed state and a peripheral classical component (to deepen in the photocount and statistical properties of biophotons see section [19]). Yan et al. [20] randomly selected 158 persons to test high luminescence of skin surface, finding that 14 high light lines of the human body surface coincided with 14 meridians.

Anyways as summarized in [16]:

" Enhanced propagation of electromagnetic energy in both visible wavelengths and in the infrared range imply that this may be a mechanism of signaling. The particular role of infrared is inferred by the following: (1) thermal gradients that develop along associated channels when moxa is used at acupuncture points; (2) the finding of radiant tracks demonstrated by thermal gradient imaging; (3) the correspondence of radiant tracks with the classical course of channels; (4) the waveband filter property of connective tissue; (5) the finding of biophoton emission from acu-puncture points with 2 peaks, both in the infrared range and 1 of which is in the center of the range of enhanced propagation; and (6) the directional aspect of infrared transmission by connective tissue, offering a possible explanation for how signaling might occur along connective tissue pathways that connect acupuncture points (i.e., the channels)."

About the nature of the information that those biophotons can transmit there are various propositions, for example in [1] it’s proposed that the transmitted biophotons are signals containing information corresponding to different hierarchical levels, whose bases are in the electromagnetic fields emitted by Fröhlich vibrations, individually per cell, at about 100 Hz (see section [21] for more on those internal cellular coherent vibrations. Fröhlich also has assumed that electrodynamic activity of each organ is connected with energy condensation in a normal mode whose frequency is the same in all cells) so the bandwidth of the spectral pattern of 1cm3 of tissue will be 1011Hz (with nonlinear properties that may modify the width and the character of the spectral pattern). In this spectra may be represented information about all cells of the organ. Although the idea is interesting, and anyways may be real, the fact is that biophotons are detected emitted from individual cells [see section 17].

In this regard other viewpoint is preferred by the authors of [22] that are assuming Popp’s postulate on DNA as a source of biophotons, and relate it to Bonghan ducts and corpuscle physiology:

" To explain biologically this postulation regarding DNA and biophotons, we still need a network or channel. Bonghan’s theory is similar to a channel and is just the answer. It provides the channels with the DNA granules running inside, and the channels are spread all over the body, linking the internal organs to the acupuncture points in the skin."

For [16] corpuscles may serve as a structures that collects the electromagnetic signals of the tissues from organs and transfers them to the duct, or also they can fulfill an electromagnetic resonators role.

Alternatively, for J. Han [23] meridian is a three-dimensional network from bio-electromagnetic radiation interference:

" An electromagnetic radiation field within a biological organism is characterized by non-local interference. The interfering beams form a unitary tridimensional network with beams of varying intensity, also called striae, which are distributed on the organism surface. These striae are equivalent to semi-reflectors. The striae carry bio-information of corresponding organs and, thus, integrate all tissues, and organs of the organism. The longitudinal striae are classified as channels, while the transverse striae are collaterals. The acupoints are seen as the points where electromagnetic interfering striae intersect or converge."

And finally in [24] the meridian network is proposed to be a dynamical network made by self-focusing EMF propagation:

" We present here a model of meridians in the formalism of the gauge theory paradigm of quantum field theory with spontaneous breakdown of symmetry. We discuss the origin and dynamic self-focusing propagation of the electromagnetic field in coherent states and the role it plays in our meridian modeling. Within this frame, we consider the formation of solitary waves on proteins and anatomical filamentary structures and discuss nondissipative energy transport. Finally, we analyze the relation of meridians with anatomical filamentary structures, the reciprocal actions between meridians, and biochemical activity and the key role played by free energy, internal energy, and entropy."


1. Pokorný, Jiří, Tomáš Martan, and Alberto Foletti. "High capacity optical channels for bioinformation transfer: acupuncture meridians." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 5.1 (2012): 34-41.

2. Shen, Xueyong, et al. "Infrared radiation spectrum of acupuncture point on patients with coronary heart disease." The American journal of Chinese medicine 36.02 (2008): 211-218.

3. Zhou, Yu, et al. "Infrared Radiation spectrum of acupuncture point daling (pc 7) in patients with coronary heart disease." Medical Acupuncture 21.4 (2009): 269-274.

4. Yu, Z. H. O. U., et al. "The infrared radiation spectrum of acupoint Taiyuan (LU 9) in asthma patients." Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 32.2 (2012): 187-192.

5. Ying, Jian, et al. "Study on body surface infrared radiation spectrum of points of patients with hyperplasia of mammary gland." IT in Medicine and Education, 2008. ITME 2008. IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, 2008.

6. Yang, Hong-Qin, et al. "Appearance of human meridian-like structure and acupoints and its time correlation by infrared thermal imaging." The American journal of Chinese medicine 35.02 (2007): 231-240.

7. Popp, Fritz-Albert, et al. "Evidence of light piping (meridian-like channels) in the human body and nonlocal emf effects." Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 24.3 (2005): 359-374.

8. Schlebusch, Klaus-Peter, Walburg Maric-Oehler, and Fritz-Albert Popp. "Biophotonics in the infrared spectral range reveal acupuncture meridian structure of the body." Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 11.1 (2005): 171-173.

9. Yang, HongQin, et al. "On optics of human meridians." Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy 52.4 (2009): 502-507.

10. Fei, Lun, et al. "Experimental exploration and research prospect of physical bases and functional characteristics of meridians." Chinese Science Bulletin 43.15 (1998): 1233-1252.

11. Langevin, Helene M., and Jason A. Yandow. "Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes." The Anatomical Record 269.6 (2002): 257-265.

12. van Wijk, Roeland, Jan van der Greef, and Eduard van Wijk. "Human ultraweak photon emission and the yin yang concept of Chinese medicine." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 3.4 (2010): 221-231.

13. Chikly, Bruno, P. Roberts, and J. Quaghebeur. "Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm." The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 116.1 (2016): 12-21.

14. Troshina, T. G., et al. "Absorption and emission of photons by collagen samples." Biophotonics and Coherent Systems in Biology. Springer US, 2007. 203-212.

15. Ding, Guanghong, et al. "Spectral characteristic of infrared radiations of some acupoint and non-acupoint areas in human arm surface." Chinese Science Bulletin 46.8 (2001): 678-682.

16. Hobbs III, Richard F. "The biophysics of acupuncture: emerging patterns from selected studies." Medical Acupuncture 21.4 (2009): 251-256.

17. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Biophotons › Biophotons - Various

18. Bajpai, R. P., and M. Drexel. "Effect of colorpuncture on spontaneous photon emission in a subject suffering from multiple sclerosis." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 1.2 (2008): 114-120.

19. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Biophotons › Biophotons Coherence & Statistics

20. Yan, Z., et al. "Studies on high luminescence of 14 major channels." Study Acupuncture 8 (1989): 389-392. (in Chinese)

21. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Fröhlich Modes

22. Avijgan, Majid, and Mahtab Avijgan. "Can the primo vascular system (Bong Han Duct System) be a basic concept for Qi production?." International Journal of Integrative Medicine 1.20 (2013): 1-10.

23. Han, Jinxiang. "Meridian is a three-dimensional network from bio-electromagnetic radiation interference: an interference hypothesis of meridian." Cell biochemistry and biophysics 62.2 (2012): 297-303.

24. Brizhik, Larissa, et al. "Modeling Meridians Within the Quantum Field Theory." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies (2018).

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text updated: 20/09/2018
tables updated: 26/02/2020

Endogenous Fields & Mind
Biophotons & Acupunture Meridians

Biophotons & Acupunture Meridians

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Favailable in HTMLDiagnosing with Light The Semiotics of Acupoint Biophoton Emissions TestingNo comments yet icon2020-(1)Sally Ann Ness
Favailable in PDF and HTMLRecent approaches on signal transduction and transmission in acupuncture: a biophysical overview for medical sciencesNo comments yet icon2019-(19)Lígia Rebelo Gomes, Pedro Leão
Favailable in PDF and HTMLA Bridge of Light: Toward Chinese and Western Medicine Perspectives Through Ultraweak Photon EmissionsNo comments yet icon2019-(7)Meina Yang, Eduard Van Wijk, Jingxiang Pang, Yu Yan, Jan van der Greef, Roeland Van Wijk, Jinxiang Han
FUltra-Low-Level Laser Therapy and Acupuncture Libralux: What Is so Special?No comments yet icon2019-(10)Luca Evangelista, Bruno De Meo, Gianluca Bernabei, Gabriele Belloni, Giovanni D’Angelo, Marzio Vanzini, Laura Calzà, Michele Gallamini
Favailable in PDFAccents of the human body electromagnetic balance regulation systemNo comments yet icon2018-(17)S. A. Gulyar
Favailable in PDF and HTMLModeling Meridians Within the Quantum Field TheoryCommentary icon2018-(8)Larissa Brizhik, Enrico Chiappini, Patrizia Stefanini, Giuseppe Vitiello
Aavailable in HTMLA Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnosticsCommentary icon2016-(1)Min He, Mengmeng Sun, Eduard van Wijk, Herman van Wietmarschen, Roeland van Wijk, Zhihong Wang, Mei Wang, Thomas Hankemeier, Jan van der Gree
Favailable in PDFRecent progress of traditional Chinese medical science based on theory of biophotonNo comments yet icon2014-(9)Xiuxiu Wang, Jinzhao Huang
Favailable in PDFBiofotones: una interpretación moderna del concepto tradicional “Qi”No comments yet icon2013-(9)Ishar Dalmau-Santamaria
Favailable in PDFCan the Primo Vascular System (Bong Han Duct System) be a Basic Concept for Qi Production?No comments yet icon2013-(10)Majid Avijgan, Mahtab Avijgan
Favailable in PDFHigh Capacity Optical Channels for Bioinformation Transfer: Acupuncture MeridiansNo comments yet icon2012-(8)Jiri Pokorny, Tomás Martan, Alberto Foletti
Aavailable in HTMLUnusual Optical Properties of Collagen and Implications for the Primo Vascular SystemNo comments yet icon2012-(1)Eduard van Wijk , Margo Groeneveld, Jan van der Greef, Roeland van Wijk
Favailable in PDFLight and Primo Vascular System in the BrainCommentary icon2012-(4)Min-Ho Nam, Seung-Hoon Choi, Kwang-Sup Soh
Favailable in PDFOptical Transport Properties along the Pericardium Meridian under Different PressureNo comments yet icon2011-(9)Gui-Zhen Chen, Yun-Xiang Xu, Yu-Hua Wang, Hong-Qin Yang, Qing-Yuan Lin, Li-Jun Li, Zhou- yi Guo, Song-Hao Liu
Aavailable in HTMLIn vivo experimental study of optical characteristics of human acupuncture pointsNo comments yet icon2011-(1)Yimei Huang, Hongqin Yang, Yuhua Wang, Shusen Xie, Zhouyi Guo, Songhao Liu
Aavailable in HTMLMeridian is a Three-Dimensional Network from Bio-Electromagnetic Radiation Interference: An Interference Hypothesis of MeridianNo comments yet icon2011-(1)Jinxiang Han
Favailable in PDF and HTMLHuman Ultraweak Photon Emission and the Yin Yang Concept of Chinese MedicineNo comments yet icon2010-(11)Roeland van Wijk, Jan van der Greef, Eduard van Wijk
Favailable in PDFMagneto-Acupuncture Stimuli Effects on Ultraweak Photon Emission from Hands of Healthy PersonsNo comments yet icon2009-(9)Sang-Hyun Park, Jungdae Kim, Tae-Hoi Koo
Favailable in PDFOn optics of human meridiansNo comments yet icon2009-(6)Hong-Quin Yang, Shu-Sen Xie, Hui Li, Yu-Hua Wang
Favailable in PDFThe Biophysics of Acupuncture: Emerging Patterns From Selected StudiesNo comments yet icon2009-(6)Richard F. Hobbs III
Favailable in PDFPrinciples of complementary medicine in terms of a suggested scientific basisNo comments yet icon2008-(6)Fritz-Albert Popp
Favailable in PDFAnatomic characterization of acupuncture system and ultra-weak photon emissionNo comments yet icon2008-(48)Roeland Van Wijk, Kwang-Sup Soh, Eduard P.A. Van Wijk
Favailable in PDFImaging of biophoton emission from electrostimulated skin acupuncture point jg4: effect of light enhancersNo comments yet icon2008-(9)Janusz Slawinski, Zbigniew Gorski
Favailable in PDFEffect of Colorpuncture on Spontaneous Photon Emission in a Subject Suffering from Multiple SclerosisNo comments yet icon2008-(7)R.P. Bajpai, M. Drexel
Aavailable in HTMLDifferences in Optical Transport Properties between Human Meridian and Non-meridianNo comments yet icon2007-(1)Hong-Qin Yang, Shu-Sen Xie, Song-Hao Liu, Hui Li, Zhou-Yi Guo
Aavailable in HTMLAppearance of Human Meridian-Like Structure and Acupoints and Its Time Correlation by Infrared Thermal ImagingNo comments yet icon2007-(1)Hong-Qin Yang, Shu-Sen Xie, Xiang-Long Hu, Li Chen, Hui Li
Aavailable in HTMLEvidence of Light Piping (Meridian-Like Channels) in the Human Body and Nonlocal EMF EffectsNo comments yet icon2005-(1)Fritz-Albert Popp, Walburg Maric-Oehler, Klaus-Peter Schlebusch, Wolfgang Klimek
Favailable in PDFBiophotonics in the Infrared Spectral Range Reveal Acupuncture Meridian Structure of the BodyNo comments yet icon2005-(3)Klaus-Peter Schlebusch, Walburg Maric-Oehle, Friz-Albert Popp
Favailable in PDFBonghan Duct and Acupuncture Meridian as Optical Channel of BiophotonNo comments yet icon2004-(3)Kwang-Sup Soh



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