Electromagnetic Mind - Other supporting
Fields are involved in the synchronous firing of neurons and other facts to add
Following the steps initialized in the section dedicated to propose and describe how mind is constructed from a variety of electromagnetic (EM) fields , here there are addressed some more facts and theories from where they can be extracted points that a complete EM based theory of mind surely should include. ...
Firstly it can be take in consideration, apart from the arguments and theory displayed in , an important logical reason described in :
" Locating consciousness in the brain's EM field, rather than neurons, has the advantage of neatly accounting for how information located in millions of neurons scattered through the brain can be unified into a single consious experience (sometimes called the binding or combination problem: the information is unified in the EM field. In this way, EM field consciousness can be considered to be "joined-up information". This theory accounts for several otherwise puzzling facts, such as the finding that attention and awareness tend to be correlated with synchronous firing of individual neurons. When neurons fire together, their EM fields generate stronger EM field disturbances; so synchronous neuron firing will tend to have a large impact on the brain's EM field (and, thereby, consciousness) than the firing of individual neurons."
One important aspect that comprises various subsections is to show how the synchronous neuronal firing, which generates coherent EM fields, is a strong correlate of attention, awareness and consciousness , how this synchronous firing generate cross-frequency interactions and coordinations also related to mind function  and how endogenous brain EM fields are able to influence neuron firings in return .
For example, Watrous et al  advances the idea that oscillations provide a reference frame for phase-coded item representations during memory encoding and that shifts in oscillatory frequency and phase coordinate ensemble activity during memory retrieval. Findings in  demonstrate that alpha-band activity is directly related to the coding of spatial representations held in working memory and in  is show that intrahemispheric theta rhythm desynchronization impairs working memory.
Georgiou et al.  show that a growing body of evidence suggests that oscillatory synchrony plays a crucial role in the selective communication of neuronal populations that encode the attended stimuli. Attention itself isn’t continuously active spotlight as as is thought until now and is also based on rhythmic neuronal oscillations .
As mentioned, all those synchrony patterns are coordinated in a cross-frequency way, Bonnefond and Jensen  show that in visual tasks during the anticipatory pre-distractor period the phase of alpha oscillations was coupled with the power of high (80-120Hz) gamma band activity suggesting a mechanism of gating controlled by the gamma activity in relation to the phase of the alpha activity in the visual system. Or transcribing other examples, Mizuhara et al.  show that
" The slow EEG power was enhanced in association with the better accuracy of working memory retention, and accompanied cortical activities in the mnemonic circuits for the natural scene. Fast oscillation showed a phase-amplitude coupling to the slow oscillation, and its power was tightly coupled with the cortical activities for representing the visual images of natural scenes."
Voloh et al.  show that exists a
" .. robust increases of 5–10 Hz (theta) to 35–55 Hz (gamma) phase–amplitude correlation between Anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortex during successful attention shifts but not before errors."
Finally in  authors demonstrate that changes in synchrony and phase difference can be used to set up or abolish information transfer in a network of cortical circuits.
Need to be mentioned that endogenously generated fields are not just an "epiphenomenon" but they play a fundamental role in neuronal processes. For example, in a research is found that electromagnetic fields from brain cells feed back to the field generating cells and to other cells (ephaptic coupling) and for example, modulate the spiking timing of them, so EM consciousness is not a "ghost in the machine". Anastassiou et al.  wrote:
" The electrochemical processes that underlie neural function manifest themselves in ceaseless spatiotemporal field fluctuations. However, extracellular fields feed back onto the electric potential across the neuronal membrane via ephaptic coupling, independent of synapses. The extent to which such ephaptic coupling alters the functioning of neurons under physiological conditions remains unclear. To address this question, we stimulated and recorded from rat cortical pyramidal neurons in slices with a 12-electrode setup. We found that extracellular fields induced ephaptically mediated changes in the somatic membrane potential that were less than 0.5 mV under subthreshold conditions. Despite their small size, these fields could strongly entrain action potentials, particularly for slow (< 8 Hz) fluctuations of the extracellular field. Finally, we simultaneously measured from up to four patched neurons located proximally to each other. Our findings indicate that endogenous brain activity can causally affect neural function through field effects under physiological conditions."
In a model developed in  is found that the field picture is a generalization of the presently prevalent current mediated picture for interaction between axons. Another model  found that electromagnetic induction is helpful for discharge of neurons under positive feedback coupling, while electromagnetic induction is necessary to enhance synchronization behaviors of coupled neurons under negative feedback coupling. Numerical results from Deng et al  elucidate that endogenous field feedback cause a more rhythmic macroscope activation of the network.
In  it can be read:
" It is found that field coupling between neurons can change the magnetic flux and induction current, and then the excitability of neurons are changed to modulate the collective behaviors of electrical activities in neuronal network."
In  also is found that that magnetic flux coupling between neurons can induce perfect phase synchronization between them.
On the other hand, in this section, are also enlisted a variety of papers that addressed various interesting points that can be added to an electromagnetic mind theory, for example Goodman and Bercovich  propose a mutual electromagnetic induction in the axon-glial sheath association. Prevenslik  propose that QED induced radiation in EM signaling across the cleft between presynaptic and postsynaptic cells is shown to offer a reasonable alternative to chemical signaling conceptual problems (that are described in the paper). Or, as a last example, Swain  propose a large upconversions and mode coupling between Fröhlich states (described in ) and biophotons (described and associated to neuronal function in section  of this site).
Deserves a separate mention the other two subsections that are attached to this section, that although they don’t speak about electromagnetic fields as a conscious fields are, the first one, a big support for this notion (or something similar to this) and, the second, a consequence of this notion that can be implemented elsewhere (not only in biological systems).
Specifying, the fist subsection  speaks about the unicellular intelligence and consciousness (with the amazing capacities of these living systems) that can cause a paradigm shift in those people that think that consciousness is only a brain derived phenomena requiring their physical structures and chemical synapses.
The second subsection  It delves into a philosophical issue: if consciousness is electromagnetic in nature then mentality is a fundamental and ubiquitous feature of the universe, this is the basis for a panpsychistic philosophy, that is described and argued in its favor in this subsection's papers.
5. Watrous, Andrew J., et al. "More than spikes: common oscillatory mechanisms for content specific neural representations during perception and memory." Current opinion in neurobiology 31 (2015): 33-39.
8. Mizuhara, Hiroaki, Naoyuki Sato, and Yoko Yamaguchi. "Cortical networks dynamically emerge with the interplay of slow and fast oscillations for memory of a natural scene." NeuroImage 111 (2015): 76-84.
9. Voloh, Benjamin, et al. "Theta–gamma coordination between anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex indexes correct attention shifts." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.27 (2015): 8457-8462.
17. Crumpei, Gabriel, et al. "Physical-mathematical models for new paradigms in neuroscience. Part II–An electromagnetic theory of the brain." Bulletin of Integrative Psychiatry O New Series O March 2017 O Year XXIII O No 1: 72.
Very related sections:
↑ text updated: 07/09/2018
↓ tables updated: 30/12/2018
Endogenous Fields & Mind
EM Mind - Other supporting
Other supporting material that can be sum up to an Electromagnetic Mind Theory ║ Brain Frequencies: Various Phase Synchrony ║ Brain Frequencies: Cross-Frequency couplings & concatenations ║ Brain endogenous electric fields feedback on neurons, Ephaptic coupling ║ Single Cell (or Neuron) and Unicellular Intelligence ║ A Phylosophy for the Electromagnetic Mind Theory: Panpsychism
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|A||Old Brains Come Uncoupled in Sleep: Slow Wave-Spindle Synchrony, Brain Atrophy, and Forgetting||2018-(1)||Randolph F .Helfrich, Bryce A. Mander, William J. Jagust, Robert T. Knight, Matthew P.Walker|
|A||Oscillatory Activity and Cross-Frequency Interactions in the Hippocampus and Connected Brain Structures during Sensory Information Processing||2018-(1)||E. V. Astasheva, M. E. Astashev, V. F. Kichigina|
|F||Anterior Thalamic High Frequency Band Activity Is Coupled with Theta Oscillations at Rest||2017-(13)||Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed, Tino Zaehle, Jürgen Voges, Friedhelm C. Schmitt, Lars Buentjen, Viola Borchardt, Martin Walter, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Michael D. Rugg, Robert T. Knight|
|F||Phase Difference between Model Cortical Areas Determines Level of Information Transfer||2017-(17)||Marije ter Wal, Paul H. Tiesinga|
|A||Spatial Working Memory in Humans Depends on Theta and High Gamma Synchronization in the Prefrontal Cortex||2016-(1)||Ivan Alekseichuk, Zsolt Turi, Gabriel Amador de Lara, Andrea Antal, Walter Paulus|
|F||The role of brain oscillations in predicting self-generated sounds||2016-(9)||Liyu Cao, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross|
|F||Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations||2016-(10)||Hyojin Park, Dong Soo Lee, Eunjoo Kang, Hyejin Kang, Jarang Hahm, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Haiteng Jiang, Joachim Gross, Ole Jensen|
|F||Brain oscillations in perception, timing and action||2016-(6)||Daya S. Gupta, Lihan Chen|
|F||Phase-amplitude coupling supports phase coding in human ECoG||2016-(15)||Andrew J Watrous, Lorena Deuker Juergen, Fell Nikolai Axmacher|
|F||Different Coupling Modes Mediate Cortical Cross-Frequency Interactions||2015-(17)||Randolph F. Helfrich, Christoph S. Herrmann, Andreas K. Engel, Till R. Schneider|
|F||Gamma Activity Coupled to Alpha Phase as a Mechanism for Top-Down Controlled Gating||2015-(11)||Mathilde Bonnefond, Ole Jensen|
|F||The brain as a working syncytium and memory as a continuum in a hyper timespace: Oscillations lead to a new model||2015-(16)||Erol Başar, Aysel Düzgün|
|F||Cortical networks dynamically emerge with the interplay of slow and fast oscillations for memory of a natural scene||2015-(38)||Hiroaki Mizuhara, Naoyuki Sato, Yoko Yamaguchi|
|F||Theta–gamma coordination between anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex indexes correct attention shifts||2015-(6)||Benjamin Voloh, Taufik A. Valiante, Stefan Everling, Thilo Womelsdorf|
|F||The Phase of Thalamic Alpha Activity Modulates Cortical Gamma-Band Activity: Evidence from Resting-State MEG Recordings||2013-(9)||Frédéric Roux, Michael Wibral, Wolf Singer, Jaan Aru, Peter J. Uhlhaas|
|F||Phase-Amplitude Coupling in Rat Orbitofrontal Cortex Discriminates between Correct and Incorrect Decisions during Associative Learning||2014-(13)||Marijn van Wingerden, Roemer van der Meij, Tobias Kalenscher, Eric Maris, Cyriel M.A. Pennartz|
|F||The Theta-Gamma Neural Code||2013-(15)||John E. Lisman, Ole Jensen|
|F||The functional role of cross-frequency coupling||2010-(21)||Ryan T. Canolty, Robert T. Knight|
|F||Oscillatory phase coupling coordinates anatomically dispersed functional cell assemblies||2010-(6)||Ryan T. Canolty, Karunesh Ganguly, Steven W. Kennerley, Charles F. Cadieu, Kilian Koepsell, Jonathan D. Wallis, Jose M. Carmena|
|F||Temporal interactions between cortical rhythms||2008-(10)||Anita K. Roopun, Mark A. Kramer, Lucy M. Carracedo, Marcus Kaiser, Ceri H. Davies, Roger D. Traub, Nancy J. Kopell, Miles A. Whittington|
|F||An Oscillatory Hierarchy Controlling Neuronal Excitability and Stimulus Processing in the Auditory Cortex||2005-(8)||Peter Lakatos, Ankoor S. Shah, Kevin H. Knuth, Istvan Ulbert, George Karmos, Charles E. Schroeder|
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|E||The First Minds: Caterpillars, Karyotes, and Consciousness (book)||2018-(264)||Arthur S. Reber|
|F||Cellular intelligence: Microphenomenology and the realities of being||2017-(15)||Brian J. Ford|
|A||The Conscious Behavior of Microbes in a Physical Environment: An Introspection||2017-(1)||Richa, C. Sheeba, Soam Prakash|
|F||The cognitive cell: bacterial behavior reconsidered||2015-(18)||Pamela Lyon|
|A||Dendritic spikes enhance stimulus selectivity in cortical neurons in vivo||2013-(1)||Spencer L. Smith, Ikuko T. Smith, Tiago Branco, Michael Häusser|
|F||Computing by physical interaction in neurons||2011-(10)||Dorian Aur, Mandar Jog, Roman R. Poznanski|
|F||From Neuroelectrodynamics to Thinking Machines||2011-(9)||Dorian Aur|
|F||Intraneuronal Information Processing in Biological Neurons||2010-(10)||Dorian Aur|
|A||Do cells think?||2007-(1)||S. Ramanathan, J. R. Broach|
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|F||Panpsychism: Ubiquitous Sentience||2018-(13)||Peter Sjöstedt-H.|
|F||Avoiding perennial mind-body problems||2016-(17)||Mostyn W. Jones|
|F||The promise of panpsychism: understanding integrated information theory as a panpsychist theory of mind||2016-(131)||Henry Dobson|
|F||Mind and Being: The Primacy of Panpsychism||2015-(32)||Galen Strawson|
|F||Panpsychism: A Defense against the Combination Problem||2014-(31)||Seok Whee Nam|
|F||In Defence of Strong Emergentist Panpsychism||2014-(48)||Jack Symes|
|F||Panpsychism and Panprotopsychism||2013-(32)||David J. Chalmers|
|F||Mind and matter||2013-(4)||Leonard Freris|
|F||Realistic monism: why physicalism entails panpsychism||2006-(24)||Galen Strawson|