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Electromagnetism & Fröhlich Modes
Collective large-scale vibrational modes involving microwave absorption and emission

Pablo Andueza Munduate

Fröhlich predicted that biological systems can generate collective vibrational modes in the THz-GHz frequency range, based on the Bose condensation to the lowest excitation of a single mode of the supplied energy. It is proposed that cell membranes, microtubules, DNA and others are sources of this phenomena, this entails, because of their dipolar properties, electromagnetic emissions and absorptions in the THz-GHz range. ...

As described in [1] Fröhlich effect consists in that:

" Provided the energy supply is sufficiently large compared with the energy loss, the system attains a stationary state in which the energy that feeds the polar modes is channeled into the modes with the lowest frequencies. The latter largely increase their populations at the expenses of the other higher-in-frequency modes, in a way reminiscent of a Bose-Einstein condensation."

In biology large molecules and long chain polymers have “extraordinary” dipole properties largely, as Fröhlich theorized, due to the hydrogen bonds, and the interaction of external oscillations can propagate longitudinally resulting in electric modes at certain frequency, those synchronous large-scale collective oscillations imply microwave abortion and emissions.

Because mitochondria generates a strong electric field it is believed that given that mitochondria are aligned in the vicinity of microtubules the latter are immersed in this field, and because both the tubulin heterodimers and microtubules possesses strong electric dipoles that interact with the field it can promote the nonlinear properties represented in the Fröhlich model, so microtubules are a good candidates.

The reality is that Fröhlich modes can also be found in a protein structural network, as proved by Ludholm et al. [2]:

" To that end, we used X-ray crystallography combined with THz radiation to visualize structural changes associated with low-frequency collective vibrations induced in lysozyme protein crystals by irradiation with 0.4 THz radiation and detected steady state structural changes that are sustained for micro- to milli-seconds, which is 3–6 orders of magnitude longer than expected if the structural changes would be due to a redistribution of vibrations upon terahertz absorption following Boltzmann's distribution. Our analyses show that the long lifetime of these structural changes can only be explained by Fröhlich condensation. Our results thus provide the first strong evidence for the occurrence of Fröhlich condensation in a protein structural network and indicate that macroscopic quantum effects may manifest in biological systems."

In another study [3] where is used a model protein of the BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) they found that this protein also displays a remarkable absorption feature around 0.314 THz. In [4] they also found possible collective vibrational modes in protein after irradiating them with terahertz frequencies:

" In this paper, we observe the protein atoms directly using X-ray crystallography in bovine trypsin at 100 K while irradiating the crystals with 0.5 THz radiation alternating on and off states. We observed that the anisotropy of atomic displacements increased upon terahertz irradiation. Atomic displacement similarities developed between chemically related atoms and between atoms of the catalytic machinery. This pattern likely arises from delocalized polar vibrational modes rather than delocalized elastic deformations or rigid-body displacements."

From another perspective in [5] the authors theoretically study the dynamics of alpha-helical proteins interacting with environment, to see possibility for a Frohlich like mechanism, and found that vibrational mode instability induced by a change in the protein environment interaction parameter can cause a formation of new macroscopic space-temporal structures in the system, a cooperative mode that is caused by the nonlinear interaction of several subsystems in the protein interacting with environment: the regular chains of hydrogen bonds, side chain radicals, and hydrogen bond network of water molecules. All this can help to explain the extraordinary effectiveness of protein biological functions such as energy storage, transport and transformation.

In [6] nucleobases and nucelosides of DNA, in this case, have been found as a possible candidate for this phenomena:

" ... Nucleobases and nucelosides are a key component of DNA and RNA, and have shown interesting characteristic features in the region of 20 to 600 cm-1 (0.6 to 20 THz). This work has provided evidence that there are unique absorption features across the frequency range which have not been seen before due to the limited frequency ranges and relatively low signal to noise inherent to other THz techniques."

There are various proposals to integrate those non-linear phenomena with other non-linear electromagnetic emission, like those in the optic range (including near-infrared and ultraviolet) termed biophotons or ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) as can be seen in [7][8]. Swain [8] wrote:

" ... the factor of 400 or so derived above is about what one would want to get from Fröhlich frequencies in the microwave region to visible Popp photons ... There is even a degree of reversibility in the system and one can imagine coupling what we have so-far considered as an outgoing photon mode to an external visible photon which could in turn be down-converted into Fröhlich photons. This offers the possibility of affecting Fröhlich dynamics inside a cell via visible photons injected from outside, as well as to the possibility of a long range coupling of internal cellular Fröhlich dynamics between cells via visible Popp photons. This also suggests new experiments looking for microwave responses to visible stimulation and vice-versa."

There is a wide section dedicated to biophotons in this website [9], here we will continue describing some other interesting experimental findings and postulates in respect to Fröhlich condensates.

Preto et al. [10] propose that given the fact that experimental evidence for the existence of collective excitations within macromolecules of biological relevance is available for proteins and forpolynucleotides (DNA and RNA), with coherent collective oscillation modes of the whole molecule (protein or DNA) or of a substantial fraction of its atoms, a mechanism such as Fröhlich condensation (or more generally dynamic synchronizations) between molecules turns out to be effectively active in biological systems, implying long-range attractive interactions between biomolecules provided that the latter share common frequencies in their vibration spectra.

Taking in consideration the above mentioned mitochondrial-microtubular EM relation, Šrobár [11] proposed that it's disruption causes cancer.

" The computed results show that simultaneous presence of both sufficient metabolic pumping and adequately elevated static electric field is necessary for the full unfolding of the hallmark properties of the Fröhlich model. It is suggested that cancer-related mitochondrial dysfunction leading to metabolic transformation has additional adverse effect mediated by diminution of static fields which in turn reduces the nonlinear processes in the Fröhlich systems, essential for energy condensation in the fundamental mode."

E. Anton et al. [12] wrote:

" ... due to the interactions between bose condensed quasi-particles, it seems that periodical transformations of the phonons into photons and vice versa take place. If this interaction is strong, both photons and phonons can no longer be considered independent. In this way, these two excited states coupled constitute a mixture of phononi and photons called polaritons [15]. When the milimeter photons and phonons are in the bose-condensed state, the formed polaritons will be in the same state."

And proposes that the Fröhlich condensate is the medium by which millimeter wave therapies can act on biosystems.


1. Vasconcellos, A. R., Vannucchi, F. S., Mascarenhas, S., & Luzzi, R. (2012). Fröhlich condensate: emergence of synergetic dissipative structures in information processing biological and condensed matter systems. Information, 3(4), 601-620.

2. Lundholm, I. V., Rodilla, H., Wahlgren, W. Y., Duelli, A., Bourenkov, G., Vukusic, J., ... & Katona, G. (2015). Terahertz radiation induces non-thermal structural changes associated with Fröhlich condensation in a protein crystal. Structural Dynamics, 2(5), 054702.

3. Nardecchia, I., Torres, J., Lechelon, M., Giliberti, V., Ortolani, M., Nouvel, P., ... & Varani, L. (2018). Out-of-equilibrium collective oscillation as phonon condensation in a model protein. Physical Review X, 8(3), 031061.

4. Gagnér, V. A., Lundholm, I., Garcia-Bonete, M. J., Rodilla, H., Friedman, R., Zhaunerchyk, V., ... & Katona, G. (2019). Clustering of atomic displacement parameters in bovine trypsin reveals a distributed lattice of atoms with shared chemical properties. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-14.

5. Kadantsev, V. N., & Goltsov, A. (2019). Collective excitations in alpha-helical protein structures interacting with environment. BioRxiv, 457580.

6. Jones, P. (2017). Towards disease diagnosis through terahertz spectroscopy of biological components and tissue (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University).

7. Popp, F. A., Beloussov, L., Klimek, W., Swain, I., & Yan, Y. (2006). Coupling of Fröhlich-modes as a basis of biological regulation. Herbert Fröhlich FRS, A physicist ahead of his time. The University of Liverpool, 139-175.

8. Swain, J. (2008). Mode coupling in living systems: Implications for biology and medicine. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 46, 389-394..

9. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Biophotons

10. Preto, J., Nardecchia, I., Jaeger, S., Ferrier, P., & Pettini, M. (2015). Investigating encounter dynamics of biomolecular reactions: long-range resonant interactions versus Brownian collisions. Fields of the Cell, 215-228.

11. Šrobár, F. (2013). Impact of mitochondrial electric field on modal occupancy in the Fröhlich model of cellular electromagnetism. Electromagnetic biology and medicine, 32(3), 401-408.

12. Anton, E., Rotaru, A., Covatariu, D., Ciobica, A., Timofte, D., & Anton, C. (2015). An original theory regarding the correlations between the extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves of athermic intensities and their cellular effects. International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, 56, 10.

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text updated: 29/06/2020
tables updated: 29/06/2020

Endogenous Fields & Mind
EM & Fröhlich Modes

Endogenous Electromagnetism & Fröhlich Modes

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Favailable in PDFCollective Excitations in α-helical Protein Structures Interacting with the Water Environment
No comments yet icon2020-(30)Vasiliy N. Kadantsev, Alexey Goltsov
Favailable in PDFControl of interaction of millimeter waves with biological mediaCommentary icon2019-(7)Nellu Ciobanu, Ion Grabovschi, Natalia Gubceac, Tatiana Oloinic, Vasile Tronciu
Favailable in PDF and HTMLClustering of atomic displacement parameters in bovine trypsin reveals a distributed lattice of atoms with shared chemical properties
Commentary icon2019-(14)Viktor Ahlberg Gagnér, Ida Lundholm, Maria-Jose Garcia-Bonete, Helena Rodilla, Ran Friedman, Vitali Zhaunerchyk, Gleb Bourenkov, Thomas Schneider, Jan Stake, Gergely Katona
Favailable in PDFQuantum Fluctuations in the Fröhlich Condensate of Molecular Vibrations Driven Far From EquilibriumNo comments yet icon2018-(13)Zhedong Zhang, Girish S. Agarwal, Marlan O. Scully
Favailable in PDFOut-of-equilibrium collective oscillation as phonon condensation in a model proteinCommentary icon2017-(16)Ilaria Nardecchia, Jeremie Torres, Mathias Lechelon, Valeria Giliberti, Michele Ortolani, Philippe Nouvel, Matteo Gori, Irene Donato, Jordane Preto, Luca Varani, James Sturgis, Marco Pettini
Favailable in PDFTowards disease diagnosis through terahertz spectroscopy of biological components and tissuesCommentary icon2017-(243)Peri Vaughan Jones
Aavailable in HTMLSemi-classical statistical description of Fröhlich condensationNo comments yet icon2017-(1)Jordane Preto
Aavailable in HTMLClassical investigation of long-range coherence in biological systemsNo comments yet icon2016-(1)Jordane Preto
Favailable in PDFBio-Soliton Model that predicts distinct non-thermal Electromagnetic Radiation Frequency Bands, that either Stabilize or Destabilize Life ConditionsNo comments yet icon2016-(23)J.H. Geesink, D.K.F. Meijer
Favailable in PDFAn original theory regarding the correlations between the extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves of athermic intensities and their cellular effectsCommentary icon2015-(9)Emil Anton, Anatol Rotaru, Daniel Covatariu, Alin Ciobica, Daniel Timofte, Carmen Anton
Favailable in PDFLinks between extremely high frequency electromagnetic waves and their biological manifestationsNo
                                         comments yet icon2015-(3)Emil Anton, Anatol Rotaru, Daniel Covatariu, Alin Ciobica, Daniel Timofte, Radu Popescu, Carmen Anton
Favailable in PDF and HTMLTerahertz radiation induces non-thermal structural changes associated with Fröhlich condensation in a protein crystalNo comments yet icon2015-(13)Ida V. Lundholm, Helena Rodilla, Weixiao Y. Wahlgren, Annette Duelli, Gleb Bourenkov, Josip Vukusic, Ran Friedman, Jan Stake, Thomas Schneider, Gergely Katona
Favailable in PDFInvestigating encounter dynamics of biomolecular reactions: long-range resonant interactions versus Brownian collisionsNo comments yet icon2015-(14)Jordane Preto, Ilaria Nardecchia, Sebastien Jaeger, Pierre Ferrier, Marco Pettini
Aavailable in HTMLRadiating Fröhlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetismNo comments yet icon2014-(1)Fedor Šrobár
Aavailable in HTMLImpact of mitochondrial electric field on modal occupancy in the Fröhlich model of cellular electromagnetismNo comments yet icon2013-(1)Fedor Šrobár
Favailable in PDFNonlinear phenomena of Fröhlich phonons in biololgical mediaNo comments yet icon2013-(9)Anatol Rotaru, Nellu Ciobanu, V. Z. Tronciu
Favailable in PDFFröhlich Systems in Cellular PhysiologyNo comments yet icon2012-(10)Fedor Šrobár
Favailable in PDF and HTMLFröhlich Condensate: Emergence of Synergetic Dissipative Structures in Information Processing Biological and Condensed Matter SystemsNo comments yet icon2012-(20)Aurea R. Vasconcellos, Fabio Stucchi Vannucchi, Sérgio Mascarenhas, Roberto Luzzi
Favailable in PDF and HTMLWeak, strong, and coherent regimes of Frohlich condensation and their applications to terahertz medicine and quantum consciousnessNo comments yet icon2009-(6)Jeffrey R. Reimers, Laura K. McKemmish, Ross H. McKenzie, Alan E. Mark, Noel S. Hush
Favailable in PDFMode coupling in living systems: Implications for biology and medicineNo comments yet icon2008-(9)John Swain
Favailable in PDFCoupling of Frohlich-Modes as a Basis of Biological RegulationNo comments yet icon2007-(39)Fritz-Albert Popp



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