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Biophotons - Various
Light generated in living systems is used for intercellular communication and other facts

Pablo Andueza Munduate

A previous step before postulating any relationship between biophotons and consciousness or mind is to prove if at least they serve as information signals, this section trends toward validating this hypothesis and shows other biophoton related utilities like their possible use as a diagnostic tool in medicine. Also some general reviews are included. ...

Biophoton emissions are an endogenous bioluminescence phenomenon, identified in all biological samples. The biophoton origin inside cell is not totally elucidated (see section [1] or introductory notes of the section [2]) although some propositions have fairly strong evidence in their favor, most probably various sources are involved. Even though photon density within cells is assumed to be very high [3] photon emission outside cells is ultra-weak, because of this are also called ultraweak photon emissions (UPE).

Several approaches to the phenomenon will be treated in this section, the first approach is relative to the experimental findings that support the idea that biophotonic signals are used as a communication form between distant cells or microorganisms.

Investigations in the area of light-mediated communication among microorganisms has a long history. Namely, it started immediately after the discovery of mitogenetic radiation by Alexander Gurvitch in the 1920s. Those effects were measured at the beginning using only biological systems as a detector, but with the development of photomultipliers these previously inferred emissions began also to be measured electronically, especially from the decade of 1980 onwards, and the scientific literature began to refer them as ultraweak photon emissions or biophotons.

The classical method to infer a signaling role of biophotons is to compare reactions to different stimulus of separated biological samples, a pair of them separated by a barrier that isolates them also electromagnetically and other pair than not have this kind of barrier [4], in this paper is also referred an example where are correlated chemiluminescence (that is not biophotonic emission, only a chemical reaction with much greater intensity) with a possible biophotonic communication:

" Wonderful experiment indicating communication between chemically isolated populations comes from the protozoan Gonyaulax polyedra (phylum: Dino flagellata) showing the release of irregular bursts of photons of the same frequency (note that we talk here of bioluminescence) (Popp et al., 1994). The study demonstrated that these bursts were caused by a communication system between the cells working across glass barriers. When two populations were placed side-by-side in cuvettes with a photon shield between them, the bursts of each population were asynchronous in comparison with the other population. When the shield was removed, however, the bursts of the two populations became synchronized. Note that we are looking here at chemical reactions (leading to the bursts) that are induced by a signal that works across glass barriers. Even though the study does not reveal the function of synchronous light bursts, it shows the capability of a supra-cellular organisation based on an endogenous source most probably of electromagnetic nature."

Some aquatic species were found that must interchange biophotonic signals [5], for example in [6]:

" ... was found that autotrophic unicellular organisms (Euglena viridis), separated by cuvettes, affected the proliferation rate of heterotrophic unicellular organisms (Paramecium caudatum). Further, the heterotrophic unicellular organism affected also the proliferation rate of a multicellular heterotrophic organism (Rotatoria sp.) and vice versa. In the case when populations (of Euglena viridis and Paramecium caudatum) were shielded against electromagnetic fields in the optical spectrum from each other, no effects were measured."

A posterior investigation by the same author of the cited paper has resulted in a Nature publication [26] where it is showed that those biophotonic communication is used as a quorum sensing mechanism to regulate specimens (in this case Paramecium caudatum) population density, that is, when in one cuvette population grows in the other one decreases, and this effect is abolished when inner cuvettes were shielded by graphite known to shield electromagnetic radiation from GHz to PHz, i.e. to absorb energy from microwaves to light.

Another kind of experiments in regard to communication possibilities are those that measure and do a statistical study of biophoton emissions, for example in [7] is measured the biophoton emissions between fish eggs and they found that:

" ... the main bulk of radiation is produced in form of short-time quasi-periodic bursts. The analysis of radiation temporal structure indicates that the information about egg age and growth is encoded via the values of time intervals between neighbor bursts with the height higher than some fixed level"

Similarly a some kind of electromagnetic communication between samples (cells or complete organisms) has been found when a sample is irradiated (or stressed by external medium) and another sample that was located close, although not directly irradiated, shown some effects in relation to the irradiated sample.

In [27] ultraviolet emission from exposed samples was detected and in [28] it has been show that in fact a some short of communication using ultraviolet biophotons occur because when one sample is irradiated with tritium (3H) cell death also increases in non-irradiated sample, but if a polyethylene terephthalate filter, designed to eliminate >90% of UV wavelengths below 390 nm is placed between samples, non-irradiated cells survival is unaffected.

Effects can be detected even with only one sample (the irradiated sample) and surrounding it with mirrors, it wich generate some kind of of "autooptic effect" [29]:

" One way to investigate the treatment based on UPE is to "optically" enclose the sample with mirrors (Figure 1) [18]. In this case, the sample cells receive their UPE and not from the distant isolated neighbor cells. It can be called auto-optic effect or self-NCDCI. ... Our results indicated that the genoprotective effect of melatonine in presence of mirrors had significant difference with one without mirrors (p<0.05) against the genotoxicity of mitoxantrone."

Some attempts have been done also to describe a chemical mechanisms that could work as an intermediate or as a receptor of these photons to cause later the effect on non irradiated/stressed sample. In [30] is observed that exosomes may be related because cell survival was significantly reduced in cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells exposed to the secondarily-emitted UV or biophotons, and lend to the conclusion that RNA of these have a role mediating the bystander effect because when is removed from exosomes the effect on the incubated cells disappear. Meanwhile in [31] is found that the biophoton signals emitted by irradiated cells, interfere with the processes of oxidative phosphorylation in cells receiving the signals.

Clearly the underlying mechanism may be even more surprisingly profound and imply some kind of quantum entanglement between samples; in [32] a very curious phenomena is described, where non-treated sample was able to produce some responses prior to the treated sample receive irradiation:

" The mechanism is unknown but our group has evidence that physical signals such as biophotons acting on cellular photoreceptors may be implicated. This raises the question of whether quantum biological processes may occur as have been demonstrated in plant photosynthesis. To test this hypothesis, we decided to see whether any form of entanglement was operational in the system. Fish from 2 completely separate locations were allowed to meet for 2 hours either before or after which fish from 1 location only (group A fish) were irradiated. The results confirm RIBE signal production in both skin and gill of fish, meeting both before and after irradiation of group A fish. The proteomic analysis revealed that direct irradiation resulted in pro-tumorigenic proteomic responses in rainbow trout. However, communication from these irradiated fish, both before and after they had been exposed to a 0.5 Gy X-ray dose, resulted in largely beneficial proteomic responses in completely nonirradiated trout. The results suggest that some form of anticipation of a stressor may occur leading to a preconditioning effect or temporally displaced awareness after the fish become entangled."

Also is proposed that internally in multicellular organism, independently of the external emissions through extracellular medium (where almost filled with water possibly has relatively low attenuating effect due to special characteristic of water in its relation to electromagnetic fields, see sections [8]) nanotubes are also used in a way to serve as optical fibers connecting cells as proposed in [9], similar ideas are proposed for collagen structures the of extracellular matrix (that can both conduct and modify photon pulses coming from biological sources) and the more recently discovered primo-vessels [10].

" The primo-vessel contains lower absorption and scattering coefficients. It appears more transparent than its surrounding dermis and muscle [], suggesting that it can transport light with high efficiency and act as an optical channel."

Other approach that is explored in this section is the possible use of biophoton detection as a diagnostic tool in medicine.

Related to this is that of biophotonic emissions from cancer cells are discernible of those emitted by normal cells as is showed in [11] where is used the spectral power density variable as a detection method, which reveals differential distributions of the amplitude modulation of the flux density of the photon emissions, in [12] is showed that Only 1% "contamination" of a normal cell line by a malignant cell generated marked increase in photon emissions from the aggregate of cells.

Some utility to diagnose cancer has been also found [33] where emissions not only can distinguish tumor mice from the health ones but that as breast cancer developed, the biophotonic emission from the healthy side of tumor mice also changed.

There is a growing number of investigations that related biophoton emissions characteristics with the health status of the tested subject, for example in [13] biophoton emissions are used to distinguish cold patients from healthy subjects and they found a significant difference in the maximum spectral peak and photon emission ratio between the filter of 550nm and 495nm, which consequently can be used in distinguish cold patients from healthy people.

Classical Chinese Medicine concretely have concepts that now are measurable thanks to the comparison of the different biophoton emissions and it is thought that acupuncture meridians can serve as biophoton guiding channels (see a dedicated section [14]).

It may be considered that not only detection but application of biophotonic signals is now being used in various novel therapeutic methods, majorly this method are named low level light therapy or light stimulation, and in their supporting scientific material biophotons are not habitually mentioned (except some exceptions) but they are exposures to very low light intensities that are in the spectrum of the endogenously generated biophotons [sections 15,16]

In [17], employing Cosic’s resonance recognition model for molecules (which proposes electromagnetic energy and information transfer between interacting biomolecules) was demonstrated that specific photon wavelengths within the visible range from mouse melanoma cells were associated with specific molecular pathways. The resonant recognition model can resolve some biological questions and may be related to the detected biophotons. (see section [18]).

It's interesting to note that from the research made we know that body parts shaped and highly structured (and/or mineralized) emitted more photons than the relatively unstructured, flat body parts [10].

To finish mention that there is a big field of research on biophotons with an agricultural production motivation where emissions from seeds are often measured, for example see [19,20,21]. A curious phenomena are those discovered by Galileo at al [22,23] that biophoton emissions of seeds are synchronized to gravimetric tide even if different species show different rates of germination and development, the synchrony between the biophoton emissions and gravimetric oscillations are still displayed in the different species when each of them is germinated and grown simultaneously irrespective of whether the seedlings are raised at a common location or at widely separated locations.

Of course, is not the only kind of investigation related to the vegetable world, in [24,25] there are photographed "plant auras" like phenomena that in fact are biophoton fields surrounding the leafs.

References:

1. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Biophotons › Biophoton Sources

2. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Biophotons › Biophotons, Microtubules & Brain

3. Bókkon, I., et al. "Estimation of the number of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single-object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 100.3 (2010): 160-166.

4. Fels, Daniel. "Electromagnetic cell communication and the barrier method." Fields of the Cell (2015): 149-162.

5. Jaffe, Lionel F. "Marine plants may polarize remote Fucus eggs via luminescence." Luminescence 20.6 (2005): 414-418.

6. Fels, Daniel. "Physical non-contact communication between microscopic aquatic species: novel experimental evidences for an interspecies information exchange." Journal of Biophysics 2016 (2016).

7. Mayburov, S. N. "Photon emission and quantum signalling in biological systems." EPJ Web of Conferences. Vol. 95. EDP Sciences, 2015.

8. EMMIND › Applied Fields - Experimental › Light & Near-Light Effects

9. Scholkmann, Felix. "Long range physical cell-to-cell signalling via mitochondria inside membrane nanotubes: a hypothesis." Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 13.1 (2016): 1.

10. Van Wijk, Roeland, and Eduard PA Van Wijk. "Biophotons in Diagnostics Progress and Expectations." (2010).

11. Dotta, Blake T., et al. "Ultra-weak Photon Emissions Differentiate Malignant Cells from Non-Malignant Cells In Vitro." Archives in Cancer Research (2016).

12. Karbowski, L. M., et al. "Only 1% Melanoma Proportion in Non-Malignant Cells Exacerbates Photon Emissions: Implications for Tumor Growth and Metastases." Int J Cancer Res Mol Mech 1.2 (2015).

13. Yang, Meina, et al. "Spectral discrimination between healthy people and cold patients using spontaneous photon emission." Biomedical optics express 6.4 (2015): 1331-1339.

14. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Biophotons › Biophotons & Acupunture Meridians

15. EMMIND › Applied Fields - Experimental › Light & Near-Light Effects › Light - Various

16. EMMIND › Applied Fields - Experimental › Light & Near-Light Effects › Light - Red and Near-infrared

17. Dotta, Blake T., et al. "Shifting wavelengths of ultraweak photon emissions from dying melanoma cells: their chemical enhancement and blocking are predicted by Cosic’s theory of resonant recognition model for macromolecules." Naturwissenschaften 101.2 (2014): 87-94.

18. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Resonant Recognition Model

19. Liang, Yitao, et al. "Study on Spectrum Estimation in Biophoton Emission Signal Analysis of Wheat Varieties." Mathematical Problems in Engineering 2014 (2014).

20. Bertogna, Eduardo, Evandro Conforti, and Cristiano M. Gallep. "Simultaneous biophoton measurement of control and fluoride stressed seedlings samples." Microwave & Optoelectronics Conference (IMOC), 2013 SBMO/IEEE MTT-S International. IEEE, 2013.

21. Yong, Yu, and Wang Jun. "Ultra-weak bioluminescent and vigour of irradiated rice." International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 3.1 (2010): 85-90.

22. Gallep, Cristiano M., et al. "Simultaneous and intercontinental tests show synchronism between the local gravimetric tide and the ultra-weak photon emission in seedlings of different plant species." Protoplasma (2016): 1-11.

Gallep, Cristiano M., et al. "Lunisolar tidal synchronism with biophoton emission during intercontinental wheat-seedling germination tests." Plant signaling & behavior 9.5 (2014): e28671.

24. Creath, Katherine, and Gary E. Schwartz. "What biophoton images of plants can tell us about biofields and healing." Journal of Scientific Exploration 19.4 (2005): 531-550.

25. Creath, Katherine, and Gary E. Schwartz. "Imaging" Auras" Around and Between Plants: A New Application of Biophoton Imaging." Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy 11.6 (2005): 951-953.

26. Fels, Daniel. "Endogenous physical regulation of population density in the freshwater protozoan Paramecium caudatum." Scientific reports 7.1 (2017): 13800.

27. Ahmad, Syed Bilal, et al. "Ultra-violet light emission from HPV-G cells irradiated with low let radiation from 90Y; consequences for radiation induced bystander effects." Dose-response 11.4 (2013): dose-response.

28. Le, Michelle, et al. "An observed effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted from beta-irradiated HaCaT cells upon non-beta-irradiated bystander cells." Radiation research 183.3 (2015): 279-290.

29. Zamani, M., M. Etebari, and Sh Moradi. "The Increment of Genoprotective Effect of Melatonin due to “Autooptic” Effect versus the Genotoxicity of Mitoxantron." Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering (2017).

30. Le, Michelle, et al. "Exosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effect." PloS one 12.3 (2017): e0173685.

31. Le, Michelle, et al. "Modulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by radiation-induced biophotons." Environmental research 163 (2018): 80-87.

32. Mothersill, Carmel, et al. "Biological Entanglement–Like Effect After Communication of Fish Prior to X-Ray Exposure." Dose-Response 16.1 (2018): 1559325817750067.

33. Zhao, Xiaolei, et al. "Spontaneous photon emission: A promising non-invasive diagnostic tool for breast cancer." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 166 (2017): 232-238.

Very related sections:

expand this introductory text

text updated: 19/09/2018
tables updated: 18/08/2019

Endogenous Fields & Mind
Biophotons - Various

Reviews on Biophotons Go to submenu

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Aavailable in HTMLBiophotons in Radiobiology: Inhibitors, Communicators and ReactorsCommentary icon2019-(1)Carmel Mothersill, Michelle Le, Andrej Rusin, Colin Seymour
Favailable in PDFBio-Photon Research and Its Applications: A ReviewNo comments yet icon2018-(12)Samir Hamouda, Nada Khalifa, Mohamed Belhasan
Favailable in PDFDetection and measurement of biogenic ultra-weak photon emissionNo comments yet icon2015-(15)Pierre Madl
Favailable in PDFPhoton emission in multicellular organismsNo comments yet icon2015-(18)Eduard Van Wijk, Yu Yan, Roeland Van Wijk
Favailable in PDFDifferent Aspects of Ultra-weak Photon Emissions: A Review ArticleCommentary icon2015-(8)Hashem Rafii-Tabar, Neda Rafieiolhosseini
Favailable in PDFUltraweak Electromagnetic Wavelength Radiation as Biophotonic Signals to Regulate Life ProcessesNo comments yet icon2014-(6)Hugo J. Niggli
Favailable in PDFTowards whole-body ultra-weak photon counting and imaging with a focus on human beings: A reviewNo comments yet icon2013-(9)Roeland Van Wijk, Eduard P.A. Van Wijk , Herman A. van Wietmarschen, Jan van der Greef
Favailable in PDFBiophotons in Diagnostics Progress and ExpectationsNo comments yet icon2010-(10)Roeland Van Wijk, Eduard P.A. Van Wijk
Favailable in PDFProperties of biophotons and their theoretical implicationsNo comments yet icon2003-(12)Fritz-Albert Popp
Biophotons and intercellular or intersubject communication Go to submenu

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Aavailable in HTMLDirect and indirect effects of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on CHO cell line: Evidence of bystander effect by non-ionizing radiationNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Najmeh Jooyan, Bahram Goliaei, Bahareh Bigdeli, Reza Faraji-Dana, Ali Zamani, Milad Entezami, Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
Aavailable in HTMLCell-to-Cell Communication: Evidence of Near-Instantaneous Distant, Non-Chemical Communication between Neuronal (Human SK-N-SH Neuroblastoma) Cells by Using a Novel Bioelectric BiosensorCommentary icon2018-(1)T. Apostolou, S. Kintzios
Favailable in PDF and HTMLBiological Entanglement–Like Effect After Communication of Fish Prior to X-Ray Exposure (bystander)Commentary icon2018-(17)Carmel Mothersill, Richard Smith, Jiaxi Wang, Andrej Rusin, Cris Fernandez-Palomo, Jennifer Fazzari, Colin Seymour
Aavailable in HTMLModulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by radiation-induced biophotons (bystander)No comments yet icon2018-(1)Michelle Le, Fiona E. McNeill, Colin B. Seymour, Andrej Rusin, Kevin Diamond, Andrew J. Rainbow, James Murphy, Carmel E. Mothersill
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEndogenous physical regulation of population density in the freshwater protozoan Paramecium caudatumCommentary icon2017-(6)Daniel Fels
Aavailable in HTMLThe Conscious Behavior of Microbes in a Physical Environment: An IntrospectionCommentary icon2017-(1)Richa, C. Sheeba, Soam Prakash
Favailable in PDF and HTMLExosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effectNo comments yet icon2017-(22)Michelle Le, Cristian Fernandez-Palomo, Fiona E. McNeill, Colin B. Seymour, Andrew J. Rainbow, Carmel E. Mothersill
Favailable in PDF and HTMLLong range physical cell-to-cell signalling via mitochondria inside membrane nanotubes: a hypothesisNo comments yet icon2016-(22)Felix Scholkmann
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubPhysical Non-Contact Communication between Microscopic Aquatic Species: Novel Experimental Evidences for an Interspecies Information ExchangeCommentary icon2016-(5)Daniel Fels
Favailable in PDFThe Increment of Genoprotective Effect of Melatonin due to “Autooptic” Effect versus the Genotoxicity of MitoxantronCommentary icon2016-(10)M. Zamani, M. Etebari, Sh. Moradi
Favailable in PDFPhoton emission and quantum signalling in biological systemsCommentary icon2015-(8)S.N. Mayburov
Favailable in PDFElectromagnetic cell communication and the barrier method (review)No comments yet icon2015-(14)Daniel Fels
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubRevisiting the mitogenetic effect of ultra-weak photon emission (review)No comments yet icon2015-(20)Ilya Volodyaev, Lev V. Beloussov
Aavailable in HTMLAn Observed Effect of Ultraviolet Radiation Emitted from Beta-Irradiated HaCaT Cells upon Non-Beta-Irradiated Bystander CellsCommentary icon2015-(1)Michelle Le, Fiona E. McNeill, Colin Seymour, Andrew J. Rainbow, Carmel E. Mothersill
Aavailable in HTMLNew perspective in cell communication: Potential role of ultra-weak photon emission (review)No comments yet icon2014-(1)Ankush Prasad, Claudio Rossi , Stefania Lamponi, Pavel Pospíšil, Alberto Foletti
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubSpeculations about Bystander and Biophotons (review)No comments yet icon2014-(4)Charles L. Sanders
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubUltra-violet light emission from HPV-G cells irradiated with low Let radiation from 90Y; Consequences for radiation induced bystander effectsNo comments yet icon2013-(19)Syed Bilal Ahmad, Fiona E. McNeill, Soo Hyun Byun, William V. Prestwich, Carmel Mothersill, Colin Seymour, Andrea Armstrong, Cristian Fernandez
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubPhysically disconnected non-diffusible cell-to-cell communication between neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and DRG primary sensory neuronsCommentary icon2013-(11)Victor V Chaban, Taehoon Cho, Christopher B Reid, Keith C Norris
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubNon-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication: a short review (review)No comments yet icon2013-(8)Felix Scholkmann, Daniel Fels, Michal Cifra
Favailable in PDFPhotonic Communications and Information Encoding in Biological SystemsCommentary icon2012-(10)S.N. Mayburov
Aavailable in HTMLNew perspectives in cell communication: Bioelectromagnetic interactionsCommentary icon2011-(1)C. Rossi, A. Foletti, A. Magnani, S. Lamponi
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubCellular Communication through LightCommentary icon2009-(8)Daniel Fels
Favailable in PDFEvidence for non-chemical, non-electrical intercellular signaling in intestinal epithelial cellsNo comments yet icon2007-(1)Ashkan Farhadi, Christopher Forsyth, Ali Banan, Maliha Shaikh, Phillip Engen, Jeremy Z. Fields, Ali Keshavarzian
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubA long-range attraction between aggregating 3T3 cells mediated by near-infrared light scatteringNo comments yet icon2005-(5)Guenter Albrecht-Buehler
Aavailable in HTMLMarine plants may polarize remote Fucus eggs via luminescenceCommentary icon2005-(1)Lionel F. Jaffe
Favailable in PDF and HTMLLight-mediated ‘‘conversation’’ among microorganisms (review)No comments yet icon2004-(10)Maxim V. Trushin
Favailable in PDFBiophotonic patterns of optical interactions between fish eggs and embryosCommentary icon2003-(7)L.V. Beloussov, A.B. Burlakov, N.N. Louchinskaia
Biophotons and blood Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFHumoral phototransduction: light transportation in the blood, and possible biological effects.No comments yet icon2008-(4)F. Grass, S. Kasper
Favailable in PDFBiophoton research in blood reveals its holistic propertiesCommentary icon2003-(10)V.L. Voeikov, R. Asfaramov, E.V. Bouravleva, C.N. Novikov, N.D. Vilenskaya
Aavailable in HTMLUltra-weak chemiluminescence of smokers' bloodCommentary icon1985-(1)Binkoh Yoda, Yoshio Goto, Katsuro Sato, Akio Saeki, Humio Inaba
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Favailable in PDFDiscrimination of Biological Systems with Photon Emission: Steps Toward Diagnostics in Humans and Cell CulturesNo comments yet icon2019-(84)Billy C. S. Yearington
Aavailable in HTMLCharacterization of the hot and cold medicinal properties of traditional Chinese herbs by spontaneous photon emission ratio of miceNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Baochen Zhou, Taoyingnan Li, Meina Yang, Jingxiang Pang, Lingyuan Min, Jinxiang Han
Favailable in PDF and HTMLNon-invasive visualization of physiological changes of insects during metamorphosis based on biophoton emission imagingNo comments yet icon2019-(7)Shoko Usui, Mika Tada, Masaki Kobayashi
Favailable in PDFBiophoton emission from plants: A contribution to the understanding of plant signalingNo comments yet icon2018-(114)Carl L. Oros
Aavailable in HTMLHuman Biofields Reveal Nature and Behavior: Using Spectral AnalysisCommentary icon2018-(1)Rai Sachindra Prasad
Favailable in PDF and HTMLBacterial biophotons as non-local information carriers: Species-specific spectral characteristics of a stress responseCommentary icon2018-(10)Lucas W. E. Tessaro, Blake T. Dotta, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubFluctuations in Human Bioenergy during the Day as Observed from the Evoked PhotonNo comments yet icon2018-(12)Shinji Tsubouchi, Hayato Uchida, Akio Yamamoto, Norinaga Shimizu
Favailable in PDFHuman Bio-Photons Emission: an observational Case Study of Emission of Energy Using a Tibetan Meditative Practice on an IndividualNo comments yet icon2017-(9)G. Pagliaro, N. Mandolesi, G. Parenti, L. Marconi, M. Galli, F. Sireci, E. Agostini
Favailable in PDF and HTMLOscillations of ultra-weak photon emission from cancer and non-cancer cells stressed by culture medium change and TNF-αNo comments yet icon2017-(12)Pierre Madl, Thomas Verwanger, Mark Geppert, Felix Scholkmann
Favailable in PDF and HTMLSpontaneous photon emission: A promising non-invasive diagnostic tool for breast cancerCommentary icon2017-(7)Xiaolei Zhao, Jingxiang Pang, Jialei Fu, Yong Wang, Meina Yang, Yanli Liu, Hua Fan, Liewei Zhang, Jinxiang Han
Favailable in PDFMeasuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicineNo comments yet icon2016-(8)Mengmeng Sun, Eduard Van Wijk, Slavik Koval, Roeland Van Wijk, Min He, Mei Wang, Thomas Hankemeiera, Jan van der Greef
Aavailable in HTMLUltra-weak photon emission of hands in aging predictionNo comments yet icon2016-(1)Xin Zhao, Eduard van Wijk, Yu Yan, Roeland van Wijk, Huanming Yang, Yan Zhangb, Jian Wang
Favailable in PDF and HTMLUltraweak Photon Emission from the Seed Coat in Response to Temperature and Humidity—A Potential Mechanism for Environmental Signal Transduction in the Soil Seed BankCommentary icon2016-(10)Steven Footitt, Simonetta Palleschi, Eugenio Fazio, Raffaele Palomba, William E. Finch-Savage, Leopoldo Silvestroni
Aavailable in HTMLOptically Functionalized Biomorphism of Bean SeedsCommentary icon2016-(1)E. Fazioa, G. Gualandia, S. Palleschib, S. Footittc, L. Silvestronia
Favailable in PDF and HTMLSpectral Power Densities and Whole Body Photon Emissions from Human Subjects Sitting in Hyper-darknessNo comments yet icon2016-(4)David A.E. Vares, Blake T. Dotta, Kevin S. Saroka, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Murugan, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF and HTMLUltra-weak Photon Emissions Differentiate Malignant Cells from Non-Malignant Cells In VitroNo comments yet icon2016-(4)Blake T. Dotta, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Murugan, David A. E. Vares and Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDFSimultaneous and intercontinental tests show synchronism between the local gravimetric tide and the ultra-weak photon emission in seedlings of different plant speciesCommentary icon2016-(11)Cristiano M. Gallep, Peter W. Barlow, Rosilene C. R. Burgos, Eduard P. A. van Wijk
Favailable in PDFExperimental Evidence That Specific Photon Energies Are “Stored” in Malignant Cells for an Hour: The Synergism of Weak Magnetic Field-LED Wavelength PulsesCommentary icon2016-(9)Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Murugan, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF and HTMLOnly 1% Melanoma Proportion in Non-Malignant Cells Exacerbates Photon Emissions: Implications for Tumor Growth and MetastasesNo comments yet icon2015-(3)Lukas M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Murugan, Blake T. Dotta, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubSpectral discrimination between healthy people and cold patients using spontaneous photon emissionNo comments yet icon2015-(9)Meina Yang, Jiangxiang Pang, Junyan Liu, Yanli Liu, Hua Fan, Jinxiang Han
Favailable in PDF and HTMLInverse relationship between photon flux densities and nanotesla magnetic fields over cell aggregates: Quantitative evidence for energetic conservationCommentary icon2015-(6)Michael A. Persinger, Blake T. Dotta, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Murugan
Favailable in PDFShifting wavelengths of ultraweak photon emissions from dying melanoma cells: their chemical enhancement and blocking are predicted by Cosic’s theory of resonant recognition model for macromoleculesNo comments yet icon2014-(8)Blake T. Dotta, Nirosha J. Murugan, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Robert M. Lafrenie, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubStudy on Spectrum Estimation in Biophoton Emission Signal Analysis of Wheat VarietiesNo comments yet icon2014-(10)Yitao Liang, Hongxia Song, Qin Liu, Weiya Shi, Lan Li
Favailable in PDFLunisolar tidal synchronism with biophoton emission during intercontinental wheat-seedling germination testsNo comments yet icon2014-(5)Cristiano M. Gallep, Thiago A. Moraes, Peter W. Barlow, Kateřina Červinková, Michal Cifra, Masakazu Katsumata
Favailable in PDFStudy on Water-Induced Ultra-Weak Luminescence Value of Wheat KernelsNo comments yet icon2013-(7)Yitao Liang, Rui Pang, Wang Feng, Hu Yuankun
Favailable in PDFSimultaneous Biophoton Measurement of Control and Fluoride Stressed Seedlings SamplesNo comments yet icon2013-(3)Eduardo Bertogna, Evandro Conforti, Cristiano M. Gallep
Favailable in PDFUltraweak Photon Emission in Cells: Coupling to molecular pathways, applied magnetic fields, and potential non-localityCommentary icon2013- (178)Blake T. Dotta
Favailable in PDF and HTMLTowards the two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission from microbial, plant and animal cellsCommentary icon2013-(8)Ankush Prasad, Pavel Pospísil
Favailable in PDFSpontaneous ultra-weak light emissions from wheat seedlings are rhythmic and synchronized with the time profile of the local gravimetric tideCommentary icon2012-(8)Cristiano M. Gallep, Thiago A. Moraes, Peter W. Barlow, Emile Klingelé
Favailable in PDFUPE Biological Death Process Identification SystemCommentary icon2012-(4)Zhou Jun
Favailable in PDFUltra-weak bioluminescence and vigour of irradiated riceCommentary icon2010-(6)Yu Yong, Wang Jun
Favailable in PDFChanges in Ultraweak Photon Emission and Heart Rate Variability of Epinephrine-Injected RatsCommentary icon2005-(13)Y.Z. Yoon, J. Kim, B.C. Lee, Y.U. Kim, S K. Lee, K.S. Soh
Favailable in PDFImaging “Auras” Around and Between Plants: A New Application of Biophoton ImagingCommentary icon2005-(4)Katherine Creath, Gary E. Schwartz
Favailable in PDFWhat Biophoton Images of Plants Can Tell Us about Biofields and HealingCommentary icon2005-(20)Katherine Creath, Gary E. Schwartz
Some other theories/opinion on Biophotons Go to submenu

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Author(s)
Favailable in PDFBiophotons: A Reality to Investigate. Definition of their Existence and Probability of their Actual Pathogenic and Therapeutic AbilityNo comments yet icon2018-(4)Giovanni Cozzolino, Sabrina Ulivi
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEmission of Biophotons and Adjustable Sounds by the Fascial System: Review and Reflections for Manual TherapyCommentary icon2018-(6)Bruno Bordoni, Fabiola Marelli, Bruno Morabito, Beatrice Sacconi
Aavailable in HTMLThe gastrointestinal-brain axis in humans as an evolutionary advance of the root-leaf axis in plants: A hypothesis linking quantum effects of light on serotonin and auxinCommentary icon2017-(1)Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A. Tuszynki
Favailable in PDFThe Darkness Brings Light in the Field of Bio-Communication Through Melatonin ProductionNo comments yet icon2017-(12)Muhammad Naveed, Mohammad Raees, Muhammad Kashif, Irfan Liaqat
Favailable in PDFThe Biomass of the Earth as the Direct Energy-Mass Equivalence from ~3.5 Billions of Years of Solar FluxCommentary icon2016-(11)Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDFCould 'Biophoton Emission' be the Reason for Mechanical Malfunctioning at the Moment of Death?No comments yet icon2016-(4)J. Shashi Kiran Reddy
Aavailable in HTMLMitochondrial emitted electromagnetic signals mediate retrograde signalingCommentary icon2015-(1)Georgios Bagkos, Kostas Koufopoulos, Christina Piperi
Favailable in PDF and HTMLFurther Observations on Visual Perception: The Influence of Pathologies Upon the Absorption of Light and Emission of Bioluminescence 2011-(7)Graham Wilfred Ewing, S.H. Parvez, I.G. Grakov
Favailable in PDFPhysical basis of Biophoton emission and intercellular communication (plasma blob, evolution)No comments yet icon2008-(14)E. Lozneanu, M. Sanduloviciu

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