Electromagnetism & Water - Coherence Domains
Effective water domains and clusters formation mediated by electromagnetic field
It is now know that coherent oscillations of electron clouds in water molecules occur and that domains where electromagnetic fields are trapped are the cause and consequence. In addition coherent oscillations of the electric dipoles of water molecules also occur, with the appearance of an extended fluctuating electric field . ...
So it can be viewed that at a very basic scale EM fields support the existence of possible informational structures in water, hydrogen binding between water molecules is the basis for water clusters formation with different energetic levels that produce the special behaviors of water, association of these molecules close together produce coherent domains (CDs) that could generate special electromagnetic fields around them as a cause of their impressibility to external fields.
As described in the abstract of Mae-Wan Ho's paper :
" The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favouring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. ... Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function."
The existence of CDs is derived from Quantum Field Theory (QFT). In the conventional approach the importance of the collective effects has been recognized, the difference between the conventional approach and the QFT approach is just in the size of the aggregates of molecules. The aggregates emerging from the ab initio calculations, which use static interaction, only have a size of a few tens of Å at the most, whereas the water Coherent Domains (CDs) span over 0.1 m and include millions of molecules, because it's taken into account the electrodynamic interactions which have much greater reach than the static one.
The theoretical formulation of how these CDs are formed is well described in 
" An ensemble of molecules interacting with the radiative em field acquires, above a density threshold and below a critical temperature, a new non-trivial minimum energy state, different from the usual one where the oscillations of the molecules are uncorrelated and the em field is vanishing. The new minimum energy state implies a configuration of the system where all molecules enclosed within an extended region, denominated Coherence Domain (CD), oscillate in unison in tune with an em field trapped within the CD. The size of this extended region is just the wavelength λ of the trapped em field. The collective coherent oscillation of the molecules component the CD occurs between the individual molecule ground state and an excited state whose volume, according to atomic physics, is wider than the ground state volume. The wavelength λ of the trapped em field depends on the excitation energy Eexc through the equation (1)."
" The CD is a self-produced cavity for the em field because of the well known Anderson–Higgs–Kibble mechanism  which implies that the photon of the trapped em field acquires an imaginary mass, becoming therefore unable to leave the CD. It is just this self-trapping of the em field that guarantees that the CD energy has a finite lower bound. Because of this self-trapping the frequency of the CD em field becomes much smaller than the frequency of the free field having the same wavelength. The above results apply to all liquids. The peculiarity of water is that the coherent oscillation occurs between the ground state and an excited state lying at 12.06 eV just below the ionization threshold (12.60 eV). In the case of liquid water, the CD (whose size is 100 nm according to Eq. (1)) includes an ensemble of almost free electrons which are able to accept externally supplied energy and transform it into coherent excitations (vortices) whose entropy is much lower than the entropy of the incoming energy. Consequently, water CDs could become dissipative structures in the sense of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes -."
Because the existence of thermal noise there is a permanent crossover of molecules between a coherent regime and a non-coherent one, so in water the space distribution of these two phases that appear and disappear is continuously changing, in near surface water, almost all biological water, surface protects the coherent structure from the thermal noise, giving rise to a stabilization of the these structures.
Water CDs store externally supplied energy in form of coherent vortices, in a unique coherent excitation able to activate molecular electron degrees of freedom, this is a form of high grade energy (low entropy) arising from a sum of many small contributions that have high entropy.
As is continued in 
" CDs oscillate on a frequency common to the em field and the water molecules and this frequency changes when energy is stored in the CD. When the oscillation frequency of the CD matches the oscillation frequency of some non aqueous molecular species present on the CD boundaries, these “guest” molecules become members of the CD and are able to catch the whole stored energy, which becomes activation energy of the guest molecules; consequently, the CD gets discharged and a new cycle of oscillation could start."
For Ynnon and Liu  various types of Coherent domains can be described that they named Cdrot, Cdplasma, IPDplasma, etc. depending on their composition and behaviour. Meanwhile in  is underlined that spontaneously originating coherent regions in water facilitate the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) effects at incoherent water phase boundaries, and they examine the ICR responses of calcium ion (Ca2+):
" ... an "oscillator" of calcium ions appears to be able to itself couple coherently and predictably to large-scale coherent regions in water. This system appears able to regulate ion fluxes in response to very weak environmental electromagnetic fields."
Experimental evidence of coherent domains of tens of nanometers to micron size is found [5,6,7,8,12] maybe more extensive are the theoretical and experimental evidences for the existence of Exclusion Zones, that are domains build up of coherent domains, or for macroscopic coherent domains.
Macroscopic coherent domains can be formed because CDs are negatively charged at the periphery and at the same time, positively charged protons are extruded outside the domain (as it happens in water Exclusion Zones a very related issue that has its own section in this web ), consequently, these CDs can mimic dipole interaction to form a three-dimensional potentially perfectly symmetrical giant electret (dipole) structures of tens of nanometres to millimetres in dimension that they have already been photographed .
The existence of coherent domains may be related also to the investigations of water’s two states, based on Ortho-Para spin pairs of water hydrogens, that modeled two-liquid water as a solution of two mixed liquids consisting of hydrogen-bonded molecule complexes that differ in the hydrogen bond concentration and structure .
Based on more recent discoveries and developments of that theory, important conclusions that can be used as a supporting material to the main theory and ideas shown in this web are reached; in this paper is provided evidence that the physical properties of water are the responsible time keepers for the cells biological clock, being the underlying mechanism physical (i.e. electromagnetic) rather than chemical .
" Our findings suggest that water molecules communicate with each other via very low frequency electromagnetic fields and that these fields also appear to be generated by the energetics of the synchronous ortho to para interconversions of the nuclear spin pairs of the water hydrogens. Further evidence for energy absorbed and emitted by water and correlated with ortho/para oscillations of ortho/para spin pairs of water hydrogens is indicated from the auto-oscillations in water luminescence. The emissions oscillate with period lengths of 18.8 min that agree with our previously found period of oscillation of about 18 min for pure water, reflective of ortho to para spin isomers based on measurements of redox potential. … Synchrony is maintained through generation of and response to LFEMF generated by the ortho-para spin pairs. Changes in redox potential sufficient to catalyze NADH oxidation were used to monitor synchronous water oscillations that appear to extend indefinitely over great distances in contiguous bodies of either still or flowing water. Adjacent out-of-phase water samples contained in thin plastic cuvettes auto-synchronize in a matter of seconds when placed side by side."
As can be seen not always is used the same terminology when referring to the same phenomena, in a study which uses delayed luminescence analysis to explore the behaviour of water in glycerol solutions they also speak about the interplay between two distinct and interconverting structural species , but naming them low-density water (LDW) that have intermolecular hydrogen bonds like that of ordinary hexagonal ice, and high-density water (HDW) that have compact bonding similar to ice II. In the paper authors, based on their findings, hypothesize the presence of collective states in water able to survive as topological singularities for very long times.
In any case it can be seen that water-electromagnetic fields interaction can build some coherent phenomena that can had propitiate the evolution of life and can be at the root of the life maintenance.
1. Del Giudice, Emilio, et al. "The origin and the special role of coherent water in living systems." Fels, D., Cifra, M. Fields of the Cell. Trivandrum Kerala, India: Research Signpost (2014): 91-107.
4. Yinnon, T. A., and Z. Q. Liu. "Domains Formation Mediated by Electromagnetic Fields in Very Dilute Aqueous Solutions: 2. Quantum Electrodynamic Analyses of Experimental Data on Strong Electrolyte Solutions." Water 7 (2015): 48-69
6. Shui-Yin Lo, Reply to the Comment by F. Kožíšek et al. on “Evidence for the existence of stable-water-clusters at room temperature and normal pressure” [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 3872], Physics Letters A, Volume 377, Issue 39, 22 November 2013, Pages 2828-2829, ISSN 0375-9601, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2013.07.059.
8. Elia, V., R. Germano, and E. Napoli. "Permanent dissipative structures in water: the matrix of life? Experimental evidences and their quantum origin." Current topics in medicinal chemistry 15.6 (2015): 559-571.
12. Ryzhkina, I. S., et al. "Disperse aqueous systems based on (S)-lysine in a wide range of concentrations and physiologically important temperatures." Russian Chemical Bulletin 66.9 (2017): 1691-1698.
Very related sections:
↑ text updated: 17/09/2018
↓ tables updated: 02/05/2018