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Light - Red and Near-infrared
Numerous therapeutic uses in the low level light application of this frequency band

Pablo Andueza Munduate

Red and near-infrared light are proven to be biologically active influences ever at a very low intensities, being an almost established method to treat some problematic issues like traumatic brain injury, undesired and painful inflammations or wound repair, and with various experiments that show a variety of effects that surely involve various kind of receptors and/or very systemic ones. ...

As in other non-ionizing exposures, slight variations in the exposure conditions (classical intensity, time or frequency variations and other less know like the subject age, or the phase of the cell cycle) can alter the outcome drastically. As an example, in a study that are recorded the somatosensory evoked potentials of rat sciatic nerves [1] irradiation of the same total energy concentrated in one point or separated over four points, increased or decreased respectively the somatosensory evoked potential amplitudes of those nerves.

Mechanisms of action

Later it will be mentioned the possible role of water in the biological effects of low level red and infrared light exposures. Only to mention, for the moment, that infrared radiation on gel like microscopic structures produces an extension of exclusion zone water (EZ water) that are ordered layers of water with a charge differential and boundary that can serve to organize cellular structures [2], more on EZ water is available on section [3]. It must be highlighted that all life forms have been found to be sensitive to red or near-infrared light [42] so sensitive mechanism(s) must be extended over all biological kingdoms.

In general, it's believed that the primary target of low level infrared and red light is the cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that leads to the stimulation or inhibition of the cellular metabolism and produces a transduction effect in other cell components (biomodulation effect). This view is not the best valuated here because it's excessively specific and is not probable to be the cause of the all great variety of effects, and some recent experimental studies are questioning this proposed mechanism [4]. Others suggest that this effect is due to photophysical changes on the Ca++ channels in the cell membrane. Anyways there are various possible photoreceptors in the cell, for example other enzymes apart from cytochrome, among others arylsulphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, myosin ATPase, acid phosphatase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase are shown to be sensitive to light and also, it’s proposed, that the modification of the catalysis of certain enzymes, likely containing metal ions, is a significant contributor to the effects of the red and infrared low level light radiation on biological samples [5].

A variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are also light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry when are exposed [5].

As is pointed in the section [6] since there is evidence that proteins have certain conducting or semiconducting properties, a charge moving through the protein backbone and passing different energy stages caused by different amino acid side groups can produce sufficient conditions for a specific electromagnetic radiation or absorption.

And as the resonant recognition model (RRM) proposed [7]:

" ... strong linear correlation exists between the predicted and experimentally determined frequencies corresponding to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation of such proteins []. It is inferred that approximate wavelengths in real frequency space can be calculated from the RRM characteristic frequencies for each biologically related group of sequences. These calculations can be used to predict the wavelength of the light irradiation, λ , that might affect the biological activity of exposed proteins []. The frequency range predicted for protein interactions is from 1013 Hz to 1015 Hz. This estimated range includes IR, visible and UV light."

So is possible that IR radiation interact because it used pre-existent endogenous communication and recognition channels, as those predicted by the RRM.

As mentioned above water and its structural construction, as EZ water, can be also a target for the low level light exposure, Santana et al. are insistent defenders of this theory, and in this section this vision is empowered because its looks very logic when it’s taken into account the, now evident, curious properties of water in its interaction with electromagnetic waves (see section [8]), and it's sufficiently extended and systemic to cover the wide range of effects that different exposures can provoke. As mentioned in a very interesting review [43] it is becoming clear that both local and systemic mechanisms are operating.

In the same above mentioned review [43] it can be read:

" The obvious candidate for this alternative chromophore is water molecules whose absorption spectrum has peaks at 980 nm, and also at most wavelengths longer than 1200 nm. Moreover, water is by the far the most prevalent molecule in biological tissue (particularly considering its low molecule weight = 18). At present the proposed mechanism involves selective absorption of IR photons by structured water layers (also known as interfacial water) [26] or water clusters [27], at power levels that are insufficient to cause any detectable bulk-heating of the tissue."

But we can go further than a theoretical proposition (supported by studies of water-EM waves interaction as mentioned), firstly, reviewing experimental evidence of pre-existent studies in low level light therapy where some properties of water are measured, and search for data that contribute to corroborate this theory as for example is done in [9]:

" Photo-induced effects on the water dynamics of burned rat tissue monitored by 1H-NMR transverse relaxation times (1/T2) indicate significantly greater structuring of water. A microdensitometry study of T2 weighted tumor heterogeneities from a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced neoplasias and an algorithm for tumor characterization also shows significantly increased structuring of water associated with biopolymers and macromolecules."

Another Santana et al. retrospective analysis of published data in low level light therapy (LLLT) indicative of EZ phenomena that is related, in this case, to the retina and optic nerve (ON) also show evidences [10]:

" Images showing removal of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) aided by preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide (TA) during macular hole surgery show continuous whitish lines indicative of water-layer ordering at the interface between collagen matrices and TA crystals. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) results further exhibit an axis parallel to the ON, which may be an ocular expression of the EZ linked to the steady potential of the eye."

There is an interesting summary of the investigations of the authors in [11].

Another experimental procedure by other authors [12] shows that water near to proteins surface provoke the proteins order and crystallization, nucleating them, when the solute is exposed to low level infrared radiation:

" We show that a physical trigger, a non-ionizing infrared (IR) radiation at wavelengths strongly absorbed by liquid water, can be used to induce and kinetically control protein (periodic) self-assembly in solution. This phenomenon is explained by considering the effect of IR light on the structuring of protein interfacial water. Our results indicate that the IR radiation can promote enhanced mutual correlations of water molecules in the protein hydration shell. We report on the radiation-induced increase in both the strength and cooperativeness of H-bonds. The presence of a structured dipolar hydration layer can lead to attractive interactions between like-charged biomacromolecules in solution (and crystal nucleation events). Furthermore, our study suggests that enveloping the protein within a layer of structured solvent (an effect enhanced by IR light) can prevent the protein non-specific aggregation favoring periodic self-assembly."

On the other hand in [13] it is argued that the specific environment of each cell causes one kind of effect or other and that membrane receptors are the targets:

" According to our homeostasis theory [], we have suggested that the membrane receptors of cells or organelles were the primary photoreceptors of LIL, and LPBM was mediated by receptor-activated signal transduction pathways []. Several signaling pathways have been identified that target COX including protein kinase A and C, receptor tyrosine kinase, and inflammatory signaling []."

Finally it is interesting to keep in mind the data provided by [14] that suggest that non-coherent light sources with power-densities about 1000 times lower than contemporary low-power laser settings remain effective in generating photobiostimulatory effects.

Therapeutical uses

Low level laser light or LED light therapy is a globally expanding intervention method that now includes post-traumatic brain disorders, nerve regeneration, diabetic wound repair, arthritis, cancer radiation protection (oral mucositis), dental, sports medicine and skeletal muscle disorders (trauma and pain), etc.

Numerous studies are now oriented to the extracranial application of red and near infrared light and the therapeutic outcomes that can generate.

LLLT causes increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, and better learning and memory scores in mice after traumatic brain injury [15], in [44] it is also shown that near-infrared (NIR) light (although in this case not specifically transcranialy applied) improves memory and spatial learning ability and reduces plaques moderately in mouse brain slices, being also a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. In an experimental study with humans suffering from mild traumatic brain injury [16] therapeutic application of LLLT provides improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions.

Similar results can be extracted from a recent review on the topic [17] where is concluded that application of red/near-infrared LED light in subjects with traumatic brain injury causes significant improvements in executive function and verbal memory of the subjects and fewer reports of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms.

Moreover, in another review [18] there are highlighted the positive outcomes of LLLT to treat various mental dysfunctions apart from traumatic disorders, like depressive disorders:

" Studies suggest the processes aforementioned are potentially effective targets for PBM to treat depression. There is also clinical preliminary evidence suggesting the efficacy of PBM in treating major depressive disorders, and comorbid anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, and traumatic brain injury."

On the other hand, red light irradiation also increases lymphocyte count in subjects in which this cell count was reduced after a stroke provoked by middle cerebral artery occlusion [19]. Some experiment are done with in-vitro neurons showing results that are supposed to be majorly maintained when transcranial light is applied, and for example in [20] it has been found that low intensity NIR radiation can protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation by rescuing mitochondrial function and restoring neuronal energetics. And very similarly in [45] it has been found that NIR light reduces the oxidative damage (in this case provoked by sleep deprivation) in mice hippocampus and increases its mitochondrial activity.

Also in primary cultured rat cortical neurons where oxigen-glucose deprivation is provoked it's shown an augmented neurite outgrow with an increase in the levels of synaptic markers such as PSD 95, GAP 43, and synaptophysin after infrared LED treatment [21].

Another experimental study with in vitro neurons and, in this case, with far infrared radiation (FIR) [22], suggest the possible therapeutic use to treat some kind of neuronal disorders, like Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (that are characterized by progressive and selective loss of neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and/or axons in the central nervous system). In this case it’s demonstrated that FIR treatment individually rescued ataxin-3-78Q and ataxin-3-26Q expressing cells, that have decreased viability, from pathological and non-pathological mechanisms involved, by preventing mutant PolyQ protein accumulation and protecting mitochondrial function in both cells. The data also suggested that FIR triggers autophagy as a major rescue mechanism and that did not seem to involve reactive oxygen species scavenging.

As is put forward by a review of the transcranial light application experiments made by a experimental group [46]:

" We have studied PBM for treating traumatic brain injury in mice using a NIR laser spot delivered to the head. Mice had improved memory and learning, increased neuroprogenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone, increased BDNF and more synaptogenesis in the cortex. These highly beneficial effects on the brain suggest that the applications of LLLT are much broader than first conceived."

Regeneration is also a medical field of research where red and infrared light are increasingly used as a possible therapeutic tools, for example in [23] is studied the effect of low intensity laser irradiation (LILI) on the growth potential and cell-cycle progression of cultured myoblasts, that are a type of myogenic progenitor cells and considered as the major candidates responsible for muscle regeneration, and it's viewed that exposure increased the expression of cellular proliferation marker and the amount of cell subpopulations in the proliferative phase and upregulated expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins:

" These results suggest that LILI at certain fluences could promote their proliferation, thus contributing to the skeletal muscle regeneration following trauma and myopathic diseases."

Also, nerve regeneration can be a therapheutical objective of LLLT, in a study where histological examination, after lesion, of rats sciatic nerve is done it is shown that low level light treatment during some days causes better organized myelin sheets with fewer areas of myelin debris [24]. Here, related to the above mentioned possible role of water it’s interesting to note that myelin fiber has been theorized to be an optical fiber for biophotons (like microtubules), see section [25], and that it’s proposed that ordered water have a crucial function in this, where collective behavior of water molecules is characterized by coherent water states analogous to Bloch states, whose main feature is to trap biophotons in a collective fashion [26].

One of the most promising therapeutic use to be promptly standardized is to reduce inflammations of many kinds. In a review [27] is pointed out its utility to treat oral mucositis (an inflammation derived from cancer treatment), and there are a lot of recent experiments on this topic with more supporting results, moreover, in [28] experimental results shown that monochromatic light (LED) is at least as effective as low level light therapy (LLLT) in treating mucositis, and LED light is more cheap and affordable than laser, so its implementation can be faster and more extended. Another interesting review on infrared light treatment to address inflammation can be found in [29] were among other facts are commented various experimental findings in which the therapeutical light application have better results than classical pharmacological therapy.

Inflammation is also, as we know, part of the wound healing process and this process in general is also objective of LLLT in numerous studies, because it is known that it ameliorate the process in numerous ways, in this [30] experimental study it can be read:

" We demonstrated the possible utility of a GaAlInP laser with an appropriate energy density (4 J/cm2) as an adjunctive modality for wound healing in clinical practice as well as a correlation between epidermal MMP-2 expression and angiogenesis. In fact, LLLT improved wound healing, especially at 14 days, as evidenced by wound contraction, anti-inflammatory activity, neocollagenesis, and neoangiogenesis."

In [24] LED phototherapy with 940 nm wavelength reduced the areas of edema, the number of mononuclear cells present in the inflammatory infiltration, and increased functional recovery scores.

Other possible therapeutic use is for cancer treatment and there are some efforts in this direction [31][32]. In [33] it is pointed that previous studies show that low level infrared radiation significantly inhibited cell proliferation in several breast cancer cells but did not affect the growth of normal breast epithelial cells, and that in this study irradiation:

" caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, remodeled the microtubule network to an astral pole arrangement, altered the actin filament formation and focal adhesion molecule localization, and reduced cell migration activity and invasion ability."

Anyways this possible use of light to treat cancer is not sufficiently certain and free of possible counterproductive effects at now, for example in [34] LLLT promotes cancer aggressiveness in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore more research is needed to expose the specific conditions (of the exposure or the exposure target) that causes some outcomes or others. It is mentionable that other non-ionizing electromagnetic waves like those that fall in the extremely low frequencies are also subject of study [35] as possible anticancer treatment, and possibly have less risks than LLLT.

Another therapeutic approach would be the improvement sperm function and reproductive performance, in this case in an experiment in [36] it is observed and highlighted an extremely interesting fact:

" ... effects observed rely upon the specific pattern used. In this way, it is worth noting that Procedure #1 (10-10-10; L-phase: 10 min, D-phase: 10 min and L-phase: 10 min) was the most effective. In contrast, patterns with longer exposure times to light, such as Procedures #2 (15-10-15) and #3 (20-10-20) had less effect. Additionally, our preliminary experiments conducted before setting the experimental conditions also showed that continuous light-exposure patterns without a D-phase, of 5 min, 10 min, 15 min and 20 min of continuous L-phase, were much less effective than the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern. These data clearly point out that the improving effect on boar sperm function induced by red LED-based light depends on the photo-stimulation pattern. A similar phenomenon has been described when laser systems are applied to sperm from other mammalian species like dog, buffalo and human []. Therefore, it seems that light-effects on mammalian sperm rely on precise rhythms and rates of application, regardless of light source and wIncluded in the therapeutic array of uses of non-thermal photobiomodulation (other of the nomenclatures of low level light therapy) are photorejuvenation oriented ones. As an example in this study [38] treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, better profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and improved ultrasonographically measured collagen density.Included in the therapeutic array of uses of non-thermal photobiomodulation (other of the nomenclatures of low level light therapy) are photorejuvenation oriented ones. As an example in this study [38] treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, better profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and improved ultrasonographically measured collagen density.avelength range."

So rhythms are important… we must have in mind that this include the wavelength or frequency itself, as it can be view in numerous examples, in this [37] concrete example, when light is applied over cell population in vitro, variations in the frequency can provoke that that population increases or not. And in [47] it has been found also that pulsed waves are much more effective than continuous waves on dentinogenesis of dental pulp stem cells.

Included in the therapeutic array of uses of non-thermal photobiomodulation (other of the nomenclatures of low level light therapy) are photorejuvenation oriented ones. As an example in this study [38] treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, better profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and improved ultrasonographically measured collagen density.

In this last paragraph of possible therapeutic uses, only as an extract of the variety of possibles uses, it will be mentioned some more uses. As the title of [39] explicitly says combination of laser light and LED light “is beneficial in improvement of muscular performance (strength and muscular endurance), dyspnea, and fatigue sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”. In [40] improvements in functional and anatomical outcomes in dry AMD (a retinal degenerative disease) subject has reached. In [14] increased stem cell proliferation was observed. While other non necessarily therapeutic but interesting results include, for example, the increase in growth rate and overall length and width of C. elegans (a nemanode) after low level laser light exposure [41].

References:

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2. Trevors, J. T., and G. H. Pollack. "Origin of microbial life hypothesis: A gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane, with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics." Biochimie 94.1 (2012): 258-262.

3. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Water - Exclusion Zones

4. Quirk, Brendan J., and Harry T. Whelan. "Effect of Red-to-Near Infrared Light on the Reaction of Isolated Cytochrome c Oxidase with Cytochrome c." Photomedicine and laser surgery (2016).

5. Passarella, Salvatore, and Tiina Karu. "Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 140 (2014): 344-358.

6. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Resonant Recognition Model

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8. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields

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19. Choi, D-H., et al. "Effect of 710-nm visible light irradiation on neuroprotection and immune function after stroke." Neuroimmunomodulation 19.5 (2012): 267-276.

20. Yu, Zhanyang, et al. "Near infrared radiation rescues mitochondrial dysfunction in cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation." Metabolic brain disease 30.2 (2015): 491-496.

21. Choi, Dong-Hee, et al. "Effect of 710nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 422.2 (2012): 274-279.

22. Chang, Jui-Chih, et al. "Far-infrared radiation protects viability in a cell model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia by preventing polyQ protein accumulation and improving mitochondrial function." Scientific Reports 6 (2016).

23. Zhang, Cui-Ping, et al. "Stimulative effects of low intensity He-Ne laser irradiation on the proliferative potential and cell-cycle progression of myoblasts in culture." International Journal of Photoenergy 2014 (2014).

24. Serafim, Karla Guivernau Gaudens, et al. "Effects of 940 nm light-emitting diode (led) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats." Lasers in medical science 27.1 (2012): 113-119.

25. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Biophotons › Biophotons, Microtubules & Brain

26. Nistreanu, A. "Collective Behavior of Water Molecules in Microtubules." 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering. Springer Singapore, 2016.

27. Migliorati, Cesar, et al. "Systematic review of laser and other light therapy for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients." Supportive Care in Cancer 21.1 (2013): 333-341.

28. Campos, Luana, et al. "Comparative study among three different phototherapy protocols to treat chemotherapy‐induced oral mucositis in hamsters." Journal of biophotonics (2016).

29. Ibe, Onyekachi, et al. "The role of near‐infrared light‐emitting diodes in aging adults related to inflammation." Healthy Aging Research 4.24 (2015): 1-12.

30. de Medeiros, Melyssa Lima, et al. "Effect of low-level laser therapy on angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase-2 immunoexpression in wound repair." Lasers in Medical Science 32.1 (2017): 35-43.

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34. Rhee, Yun-Hee, et al. "Low-Level Laser Therapy Promoted Aggressive Proliferation and Angiogenesis Through Decreasing of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Increasing of Akt/Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer." Photomedicine and laser surgery 34.6 (2016): 229-235.

35. EMMIND › Applied Fields – Experimental › Extremely Low Frequencies Effects › ELF/LF - Electromagnetic Fields › ELF-EMF used as Anti-Cancer treatment

36. Yeste, Marc, et al. "Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates." Scientific reports 6 (2016).

37. Lim, Jeong H., et al. "The effects of light-emitting diode irradiation at 610 nm and 710 nm on murine T-cell subset populations." Photomedicine and laser surgery 27.5 (2009): 813-818.

38. Wunsch, Alexander, and Karsten Matuschka. "A controlled trial to determine the efficacy of red and near-infrared light treatment in patient satisfaction, reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, skin roughness, and intradermal collagen density increase." Photomedicine and laser surgery 32.2 (2014): 93-100.

39. Miranda, Eduardo Foschini, et al. "Phototherapy with combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes is beneficial in improvement of muscular performance (strength and muscular endurance), dyspnea, and fatigue sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Lasers in medical science 30.1 (2015): 437-443.

40. Merry, Graham F., et al. "Photobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age‐related macular degeneration." Acta Ophthalmologica (2016).

41. Spoto, Michael J., and Daryl D. Hurd. "Photobiostimulation in C. elegans as a Model for Low Level Light Therapy." (2014).

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Very related sections:

expand this introductory text

text updated: 06/10/2018
tables updated: 01/10/2019

Applied Fields - Experimental
Light - Red and near-infrared - (630-1000 nm)

Various Experimental findings and Proposals of red and near-infrared light Targets Go to submenu

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Aavailable in HTMLThe 808 nm and 980 nm infrared laser irradiation affects spore germination and stored calcium homeostasis: A comparative study using delivery hand-pieces with standard (Gaussian) or flat-top profile (water)808-980 nm - (100-2000 mW/cm2)Commentary icon2019-(1)Sara Ferrando, Dimitrios Agas, Serena Mirata, Antonio Signore, Nicola De Angelis, Silvia Ravera, Anatoliy S. Utyuzh, Steven Parker, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Stefano Benedicenti, Andrea Amaroli
Favailable in PDF and HTMLRevisiting the Photon/Cell Interaction Mechanism in Low-Level Light Therapy (no mitocon.)-Commentary icon2019-(6)Andrei P. Sommer
Aavailable in HTMLPhotobiomodulation enhancement of cell proliferation at 660 nm does not require cytochrome c oxidase (no mitocon.)660 nmNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Paula L. V. Lima, Claudia V. Pereira, Nadee Nissanka, Tania Arguello, Giulio Gavini, Carlos Magno da Costa Maranduba, Francisca Diaz, Carlos T. Moraes
Favailable in PDFEffect of Infrared Light on Protein Behavior in Contact with Solid Surface (protein interfacial water)-Commentary icon2018-(44)Magdalena Kowacz, Piotr Warszyński
Favailable in PDFBeyond esterase-like activity of serum albumin. Histidine-(nitro)phenol radical formation in conversion cascade of p-nitrophenyl acetate and the role of infrared light (water)2900 nmCommentary icon2018-(21)Magdalena Kowacz, Piotr Warszyński
Favailable in PDFThe Regulatory Effect of Low-Intensity Radiation in the Near-Infrared Region on the Early Development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)630-930 nm - 0.0000024 J/cm2, 0.0024-2.4 J/cm2Commentary icon2018-(7)V. I. Yusupov, N. B. Simonova, G. M. Chuiko, E. I. Golovkina, V. N. Bagratashvili
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of red light and near infrared laser on the generation of reactive oxygen species in primary dermal fibroblasts638 nm, 825 nm - 5-25 J/cm2Commentary icon2018-(1)Sajan George, Michael R. Hamblin, Heidi Abrahamse
Aavailable in HTMLPhotobiomodulation effects on mRNA levels from genomic and chromosome stabilization genes in injured muscle904 nm - 3J/cm2No comments yet icon2018-(1)Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima Trajano, Luiz Philippe da Silva Sergio, Adilson Fonseca Teixeira, Andre Luiz Mencalha, Ana Carolina Stumbo, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca
Aavailable in HTMLNear-infrared laser photons induce glutamate release from cerebrocortical nerve terminals-Commentary icon2018-(1)Andrea Amaroli, Manuela Marcoli, Arianna Venturini, Mario Passalacqua, Luigi F. Agnati, Antonio Signore, Mirco Raffetto, Guido Maura, Stefano Benedicenti, Chiara Cervetto
Favailable in PDFNon-mammalian Hosts and Photobiomodulation: Do All Life-forms Respond to Light?(review)No comments yet icon2018-(14)Michael R Hamblin, Ying-Ying Huang, Vladimir Heiskanen
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of pulsing of light on the dentinogenesis of dental pulp stem cells in vitro810 nm - (0.00128 mW/cm2)Commentary icon2018-(11)Hong Bae Kim, Ku Youn Baik, Hoon Seonwoo, Kyoung-Je Jang, Myung Chul Lee, Pill-Hoon Choung , Jong Hoon Chung
Favailable in PDFEffect of Red-to-Near Infrared Light on the Reaction of Isolated Cytochrome c Oxidase with Cytochrome c (no mitocon.)660 nm - (4.6 mW/cm2)Commentary icon2016-(7)Brendan J. Quirk, Harry T. Whelan
Favailable in PDF, HTML and Epub‘‘Quantum Leap’’ in Photobiomodulation Therapy Ushers in a New Generation of Light-Based Treatments for Cancer and Other Complex Diseases: Perspective and Mini-Review (water)(review)Commentary icon2016-(1)Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez, Heberto Reyes
Aavailable in HTMLInfrared light-induced protein crystallization. Structuring of protein interfacial water and periodic self-assembly (water)2900-3200 nmCommentary icon2016-(7)Magdalena Kowacz, Mateusz Marchel, Lina Juknaité, José M.S.S. Esperança, Maria João Romão, Ana Luísa Carvalh, Luís Paulo N. Rebelo
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubWater's Many Roles in Laser Photobiomodulation (water)(review)No comments yet icon2015-(5)Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez, Jesús A. Santana-Rodríguez, Heberto Reyes
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubAction-Dependent Photobiomodulation on Health, Suboptimal Health, and Disease (enviro.)(review)No comments yet icon2014-(11)Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Long Liu, Jing-Gang Chen, Peng Zeng, Xiang-Bo Yang
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubMicroenvironment Dependent Photobiomodulation on Function-Specific Signal Transduction Pathways (enviro.)(review)No comments yet icon2014-(8)Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, De-Feng Wu, Ling Zhu, P. Peng, Long Liu, Xiang-Bo Yang
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubLightening up Light Therapy: Activation of Retrograde Signaling Pathway by Photobiomodulation (mitocon. water)(review)No comments yet icon2014-(6)Hong Pyo Kim
Favailable in PDFPhotobiostimulation in C. elegans as a Model for Low Level Light Therapy920-980 nm - 5 J/cm2No comments yet icon2014-(16)Michael J. Spoto, Daryl D. Hurd
Aavailable in HTMLAbsorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation (various)(review)No comments yet icon2014-(1)Salvatore Passarella, Tiina Karu
Aavailable in HTMLEmerging evidence on the crystalline water-light interface in ophthalmology and therapeutic implications in photobiomodulation: first communication (water)(review)No comments yet icon2014-(1)Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana
Favailable in PDF and HTMLWater-light interaction: A novel pathway for multi hallmark therapy in cancer (water)(review)No comments yet icon2013-(6)Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Heberto Reyes, Jesús A. Santana- Rodríguez, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez
Favailable in PDF and HTMLLaser photobiomodulation: A new promising player for the multi-hallmark treatment of advanced cancer (water)(review)Commentary icon2013-(3)Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Heberto Reyes, Jesús A. Santana- Rodríguez, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez
Aavailable in HTMLPhotobiomodulation of Aqueous Interfaces: Finding Evidence to Support the Exclusion Zone in Experimental and Clinical Studies (water)(review)Commentary icon2013-(1)Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez
Favailable in PDFIncreased mobility and stem-cell proliferation rate in Dugesia tigrina induced by 880 nm light emitting diode630-880 nm (LEDs) - (0.00012 mW/cm2)Commentary icon2011-(5)Hsia-Pai Patrick Wu, Michael A. Persinger
Aavailable in HTMLSignalling effect of NIR pulsed lasers on axonal growth-Commentary icon2010-(1)Manoj Mathew, Ivan Amat-Roldana, Rosa Andrés, Susana I.C.O. Santos, David Artigas, Eduardo Soriano, Pablo Loza-Alvarez
Aavailable in HTMLBiomodulation with low-level laser radiation induces changes in endothelial cell actin filaments and cytoskeletal organization685 nm - 8 J/cm2No comments yet icon2009-(1)R. Ricci, M. C. Pazos, R. Eller Borges, C. Pacheco-Soares
Aavailable in HTMLThe Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation at 610 nm and 710 nm on Murine T-Cell Subset Populations610-710 nm (LEDs) - 0.043 mWCommentary icon2009-(1)Jeong H. Lim, Jongmin Lee, Jida Choi, Jaewoo Hong, Hyunjhung Jhun, Jinsoo Han, and Soohyun Kim
Transcraneal red and near-infrared light exposure and/or Neuronal functional recovery Go to submenu

(F) Full or (A) Abstract

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Wavelenght - Intensity

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Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Author(s)
Favailable in PDF and HTMLPulsed Transcranial Red/Near-Infrared Light Therapy Using Light-Emitting Diodes Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognitive Function in Veterans with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Series629-850 nm - (6.4 mW/cm2)No comments yet icon2018-(8)S. Gregory Hipskind, Fred L. Grover Jr., T. Richard Fort, Dennis Helffenstein, Thomas J. Burke, Shane A. Quint, Garrett Bussiere, Michael Stone, Timothy Hurtado
Favailable in PDFPhotobiomodulation improves the frontal cognitive function of older adults633-870nmNo comments yet icon2018-(9)Agnes S. Chan, Tsz Lok Lee, Michael K. Yeung, Michael R. Hamblin
Favailable in PDFNear infrared light to promote synaptic resilience to Alzheimer’s Disease neuropathology670 nm - 4 J/cm2No comments yet icon2018-(123)Michele M. Comerota
Aavailable in HTMLTranscranial near-infrared photobiomodulation attenuates memory impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress in sleep-deprived mice810 nmNo comments yet icon2018-(1)Farzad Salehpour, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Marjan Erfani, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Michael R. Hamblin, Pouran Karimi, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Javad Mahmoudi
Favailable in PDFNear infra-red light treatment of Alzheimer's disease1040-1090 nm (LEDs) - (15 mW/cm2)No comments yet icon2018-(8)Mengmeng Han, Qiyan Wang, Xue Wang, Yuhui Zeng , Yong Huang , Qingqiang Meng , Jun Zhang, Xunbin We
Aavailable in HTMLPhotobiomodulation and the brain: a new paradigm(review)Commentary icon2016-(14)Madison Hennessy, Michael R. Hamblin
Aavailable in HTMLAcute Effects of Near Infrared Light Therapy on Brain State in Healthy Subjects as Quantified by qEEG Measures903 nm (LEDs) - (16.67 mW/cm2)Commentary icon2016-(1)Fred Grover Jr, Jon Weston, Michael Weston
Aavailable in HTMLTranscranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Therapy to Improve Cognition in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury633-810 nm - (22.2 mW/cm2 each)Commentary icon2016-(1)Margaret A. Naeser, Paula I. Martin, Michael D. Ho, Maxine H. Krengel, Yelena Bogdanova, Jeffrey A. Knight, Megan K. Yee, Ross Zafonte, Judith Frazier, Michael R. Hamblin, Bang-Bon Koo
Aavailable in HTMLTranscranial infrared laser stimulation improves rule-based, but not information-integration, category learning in humans-No comments yet icon2016-(1)Nathaniel J. Blancoa,, Celeste L. Saucedoa, F. Gonzalez-Lima
Favailable in PDFImproved cognitive functions and behavioural response after exposure to low-level near-infrared laser in snails (Ariophanta laevipes)650 nmNo comments yet icon2016-(8)Contzen Pereira
Favailable in PDF and HTMLReview of transcranial photobiomodulation for major depressive disorder: targeting brain metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurogenesis(review)No comments yet icon2016-(10)Paolo Cassano, Samuel R. Petrie, Michael R. Hamblin, Theodore A. Henderson, Dan V. Iosifescu
Favailable in PDF and HTMLFar-infrared radiation protects viability in a cell model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia by preventing polyQ protein accumulation and improving mitochondrial function-No comments yet icon2016-(11)Jui-Chih Chang, Shey-Lin Wu, Fredrik Hoel, Yu-Shan Cheng, Ko-Hung Liu, Mingli Hsieh, August Hoel,3 Karl Johan Tronstad, Kuo-Chia Yan, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Wei-Yong Lin, Shou-Jen Kuo, Shih-Li Su, Chin-San Liu
Aavailable in HTMLNear infrared radiation rescues mitochondrial dysfunction in cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation-No comments yet icon2015-(1)Zhanyang Yu, Ning Liu, Jianhua Zhao,Yadan Li, Thomas J. McCarthy, Clark E. Tedford, Eng H. Lo, Xiaoying Wang
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubAugmentation of cognitive brain functions with transcranial lasers (mitocon.)(review)No comments yet icon2014-(4)F. Gonzalez-Lima, Douglas W. Barrett
Favailable in PDFSignificant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study630-870 nm (LEDs) - (22.2 mW/cm2 each)No comments yet icon2014-(10)Margaret A. Naeser, Ross Zafonte, Maxine H. Krengel, Paula I. Martin, Judith Frazier, Michael R. Hamblin, Jeffrey A. Knight, William P. Meehan III, Errol H. Baker
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubTranscranial low-level laser therapy enhances learning, memory, and neuroprogenitor cells after traumatic brain injury in mice810 nm - (25 mW/cm2) 18 J/cm2No comments yet icon2014-(15)Weijun Xuan, Fatma Vatansever, Liyi Huang, Michael R. Hamblinb
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult710 nm (LEDs) - (50mW/cm2) 4 J/cm2Commentary icon2012-(1)Dong-Hee Choi, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Moon Young Kim, Jeong Hoon Lim, Jongmin Lee
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of 710-nm Visible Light Irradiation on Neuroprotection and Immune Function after Stroke710 nmCommentary icon2012-(1)Dong-Hee Choi, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Moon Young Kim, Jeong Hoon Lim, Jongmin Lee
Red and infra-red light for Inflamation Reduction Go to submenu

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Wavelenght - Intensity

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Author(s)
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubLow-Level Laser Therapy Reduces Lung Inflammation in an Experimental Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Involving P2X7 Receptor660 nm - 3 J/cm2Commentary icon2018-(9)Gabriel da Cunha Moraes, Luana Beatriz Vitoretti, Auriléia Aparecida de Brito, Cintia Estefano Alves, Nicole Cristine Rigonato de Oliveira, Alana dos Santos Dias, Yves Silva Teles Matos, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Luis Vicente Franco Oliveira, Renata Kelly da Palma, Larissa Carbonera Candeo, Adriana Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestine Horliana, João Antonio Gimenes Júnior, Flavio Aimbire, Rodolfo Paula Vieira, Ana Paula Ligeiro-de-Oliveira
Aavailable in HTMLPhotobiomodulation Therapy Improves Acute Inflammatory Response in Mice: the Role of Cannabinoid Receptors/ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel/p38-MAPK Signalling Pathway660 nm - 50 J/cm2Commentary icon2017-(1)Lais Mara Siqueira das Neves, Elaine Cristina Dalazen Gonçalves, Juliana Cavalli, Graziela Cleuza Vieira, Larissa R. Laurindo, Róli Rodrigues Simões, Igor dos Santos Coelho, Adair Roberto Soares dos Santos, A. Marcolino, Maira Miranda Cola, Rafael Dutra less
Favailable in PDF and HTMLMechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation(review)Commentary icon2017-(25)Michael R Hamblin
Favailable in PDFComparative study among three different phototherapy protocols to treat chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters635 nm (LEDs), 660 nmCommentary icon2016-(10)Luana Campos, Érika P. Cruz, Filipi S. Pereira, Victor E. Arana-Chavez, Alyne Simões
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe role of near-infrared light-emitting diodes in aging adults related to inflammation(review)Commentary icon2015-(12)Onyekachi Ibe, Erin Morency, Pablo Sosa, Lori Burkow-Heikkinen
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffect of Prophylactic Low Level Laser Therapy on Oral Mucositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis(review)No comments yet icon2014-(10)Sapna Oberoi, Gabriele Zamperlini–Netto, Joseph Beyene, Nathaniel S. Treister, Lillian Sung
Aavailable in HTML808 nm Wavelength Light Induces a Dose-Dependent Alteration in Microglial Polarization and Resultant Microglial Induced Neurite Growth808 nm - 0.2-30 J/cm2Commentary icon2013-(1)Ramona E. von Leden, Sean J. Cooney, Teresa M. Ferrara, Yujia Zhao, Clifton L. Dalgard, Juanita J. Anders, Kimberly R. Byrnes
Favailable in PDFSystematic review of laser and other light therapy for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients(review)Commentary icon2013-(9)Cesar Migliorati, Ian Hewson
Favailable in PDFEffects of 940 nm light-emitting diode (led) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats940 nm (LEDs) - (9.5 mW/cm2) 4 J/cm2Commentary icon2011-(7)Karla Guivernau Gaudens Serafim, Solange de Paula Ramos, Franciele Mendes de Lima, Marcelo Carandina, Osny Ferrari, Ivan Frederico Lupiano Dias, Dari de Oliveira Toginho Filho, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins Siqueira
Posibble Anti-Cancer properties (or not) of low-level red and infrared light Go to submenu

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Wavelenght - Intensity

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Author(s)
Aavailable in HTMLLow-Level Laser Therapy May Have Cancer Fighting Role-No comments yet icon2016-(0)Lars Hode
Aavailable in HTMLLow-Level Laser Therapy Promoted Aggressive Proliferation and Angiogenesis Through Decreasing of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Increasing of Akt/Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer (counterproducent, pro-cancer)(100 mW/cm2) 15-30 J/cm2No comments yet icon2016-(1)Rhee Yun-Hee, Moon Jeong-Hwan, Choi Sun-Hyang, Ahn Jin-Chul
Aavailable in HTMLQuantitative Proteomics Reveals Middle Infrared Radiation-Interfered Networks in Breast Cancer Cells3000-5000 nmCommentary icon2015-(1)Hsin-Yi Chang, Ming-Hua Li, Tsui-Chin Huang, Chia-Lang Hsu, Shang-Ru Tsai, Si-Chen Lee, Hsuan-Cheng Huang, Hsueh-Fen Juan
Aavailable in HTMLSelective cytotoxic effects of low-power laser irradiation on human oral cancer cells810 nm - 10-60 J/cm2Commentary icon2015-(1)Wei-Zhe Liang, Pei-Feng Liu, Earl Fu, Hao-Sheng Chung, Chung-Ren Jan, Chih-Hsuan Wu, Chih-Wen Shu, Yao-Dung Hsieh
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubCancer Phototherapy via Selective Photoinactivation of Respiratory Chain Oxidase to Trigger a Fatal Superoxide Anion Burst (mitocon.)635 nm - 112 mW/cm2, etc.No comments yet icon2014-(14)Shengnan Wu, Feifan Zhou, Yanchun Wei, Wei R. Chen, Qun Chen, Da Xing
Other Therapeutic Uses of low-level red and infrared light Go to submenu

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Wavelenght - Intensity

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Author(s)
Aavailable in HTMLLight-emitting diode irradiation using 660 nm promotes human fibroblast HSP90 expression and changes cellular activity and morphology660 nmNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Sun‐Hyang Choi, So‐Young Chang, Raktim Biswas, Phil‐Sang Chung, Sangjoon Mo Min Young Lee, Jin Chul Ahn
Aavailable in HTMLPhotobiomodulation of the microbiome: implications for metabolic and inflammatory diseases660 nm, 808 nmNo comments yet icon2018-(1)Brian Bicknell, Ann Liebert, Daniel Johnstone, Hosen Kiat
Favailable in PDFMitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion) and collagen production in a rat model of diabetic wound healing treated by photobiomodulation: comparison of 904 nm laser and 850 nm light-emitting diode (LED)850 nm, 904 nm - 14-18 J/cm2No comments yet icon2018-(7)José Carlos Tatmatsu-Rocha, Carla Roberta Tim, Lucimar Avo, Rubens Bernardes-Filho, Patricia Brassolatti, Hueliton Wilian Kido, Michael R. Hamblin, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe influence of low level laser irradiation on vascular reactivity10-110 mWNo comments yet icon2018-(4)Magdelena Mackiewicz-Milewska, Elżbieta Grześk, Andrzej C. Kroszczyński, Małgorzata Cisowska-Adamiak, Hanna Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Lilianna Baran, Iwona Szymkuć-Bukowska, Michał Wiciński, Wojciech Hagner, Grzegorz Grześk
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of donor site in patients with grade 3 burn ulcer after skin graft surgery (a randomized clinical trial)655 nm - 2J/cm2No comments yet icon2018-(1)Reza Vaghardoost, Mahnoush Momeni, Nooshafarin Kazemikhoo, Soheila Mokmeli, Mostafa Dahmardehei, Fereshteh Ansari, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Parisa Sabr joo, Sara Mey Abadi, Soheila Naderi Gharagheshlagh, Saeed Sassani
Aavailable in HTMLFar infrared promotes wound healing through activation of Notch1 signaling-No comments yet icon2017-(1)Yung-Ho Hsu, Yuan-Feng Lin, Cheng-Hsien Chen, Yu-Jhe Chiu, Hui-Wen Chiu
Aavailable in HTMLBiological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation(review)Commentary icon2017-(1)Shang-Ru, Tsai, Michael R. Hamblin
Favailable in PDF and HTMLA Role for Photobiomodulation in the Prevention of Myocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury: A Systematic Review and Potential Molecular Mechanisms(review)No comments yet icon2017-(13)Ann Liebert , Andrew Krause, Neil Goonetilleke, Brian Bicknell, Hosen Kiat
Favailable in PDF and HTMLPhotobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age-related macular degeneration590-790 nm 0.1-7.68 J/cm2No comments yet icon2016-(8)Graham F. Merry, Marion R. Munk, Robert S. Dotson, Michael G. Walker, Robert G. Deven
Favailable in PDF and HTMLSpecific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates620-630 nmCommentary icon2016-(13)Marc Yeste, Francesc Codony, Efrén Estrada, Miquel Lleonart, Sam Balasch, Alejandro Peña, Sergi Bonet, Joan E. Rodríguez-Gil
Favailable in HTMLEffect of low-level laser therapy on angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase-2 immunoexpression in wound repair660 nm - 4 J/cm2No comments yet icon2016-(9)Melyssa Lima de Medeiros, Irami Araújo-Filho, Efigênia Maria Nogueira da Silva,Wennye Scarlat de Sousa Queiroz, Ciro Dantas Soares, Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho, Maria Aparecida Medeiros Maciel
Favailable in PDFPhototherapy with combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes is beneficial in improvement of muscular performance (strength and muscular endurance), dyspnea, and fatigue sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease640 nm + 875 nm + 905 nmNo comments yet icon2015-(7)Eduardo Foschini Miranda, Luís Vicente Franco de Oliveira, Fernanda Colella Antonialli, Adriane Aver Vanin, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffect of Low Power Laser Irradiation on the Ability of Cell Growth and Myogenic Differentiation of Myoblasts Cultured In Vitro (regeneration)632.8 nm - (6 mW/cm2) 0.3-6.3 J/cm2No comments yet icon2014-(8)Cui-Ping Zhang, Shao-Dan Li, Yan Chen, Yan-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Chang-Zhen Wang, Xiao-Bing Fu, Hong-Xiang Kang, Ben-Jian Shen, Jie Liang
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubStimulative Effects of Low Intensity He-Ne Laser Irradiation on the Proliferative Potential and Cell-Cycle Progression of Myoblasts in Culture (regeneration)632.8 nm - (6 mW/cm2)No comments yet icon2014-(9)Cui-Ping Zhang, Shao-Dan Li, Yan Chen, Yan-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Chang-Zhen Wang, Xiao-Bing Fu, Hong-Xiang Kang, Ben-Jian Shen, Jie Liang
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubA Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase (rejuvenation)611–650, 570–850 nm - 9 J/cm2Commentary icon2014-(8)Alexander Wunsch, Karsten Matuschka
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubPhotobiomodulation on Bax and Bcl-2 Proteins and SIRT1/PGC-1α Axis mRNA Expression Levels of Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle810 nm - (125 mW/cm2) 3.75 J/cm2Commentary icon2014-(9)Fang-Hui Li, Yan-Ying Liu, Fei Qin, Qing Luo, Hai-Ping Yang, Quan-Guang Zhang, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

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