Light - Red and Near-infrared
Numerous therapeutic uses in the low level light application of this frequency band
Red and near-infrared light are proven to be biologically active influences ever at a very low intensities, being an almost established method to treat some problematic issues like traumatic brain injury, undesired and painful inflammations or wound repair, and with various experiments that show a variety of effects that surely involve various kind of receptors and/or very systemic ones. ...
As in other non-ionizing exposures, slight variations in the exposure conditions (classical intensity, time or frequency variations and other less know like the subject age, or the phase of the cell cycle) can alter the outcome drastically. As an example, in a study that are recorded the somatosensory evoked potentials of rat sciatic nerves  irradiation of the same total energy concentrated in one point or separated over four points, increased or decreased respectively the somatosensory evoked potential amplitudes of those nerves.
Mechanisms of action
Later it will be mentioned the possible role of water in the biological effects of low level red and infrared light exposures. Only to mention, for the moment, that infrared radiation on gel like microscopic structures produces an extension of exclusion zone water (EZ water) that are ordered layers of water with a charge differential and boundary that can serve to organize cellular structures , more on EZ water is available on section . It must be highlighted that all life forms have been found to be sensitive to red or near-infrared light  so sensitive mechanism(s) must be extended over all biological kingdoms.
In general, it's believed that the primary target of low level infrared and red light is the cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that leads to the stimulation or inhibition of the cellular metabolism and produces a transduction effect in other cell components (biomodulation effect). This view is not the best valuated here because it's excessively specific and is not probable to be the cause of the all great variety of effects, and some recent experimental studies are questioning this proposed mechanism . Others suggest that this effect is due to photophysical changes on the Ca++ channels in the cell membrane. Anyways there are various possible photoreceptors in the cell, for example other enzymes apart from cytochrome, among others arylsulphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, myosin ATPase, acid phosphatase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase are shown to be sensitive to light and also, it’s proposed, that the modification of the catalysis of certain enzymes, likely containing metal ions, is a significant contributor to the effects of the red and infrared low level light radiation on biological samples .
A variety of biomolecules localized in mitochondria and/or in other cell compartments including some proteins, nucleic acids and adenine nucleotides are also light sensitive with major modifications in their biochemistry when are exposed .
As is pointed in the section  since there is evidence that proteins have certain conducting or semiconducting properties, a charge moving through the protein backbone and passing different energy stages caused by different amino acid side groups can produce sufficient conditions for a specific electromagnetic radiation or absorption.
And as the resonant recognition model (RRM) proposed :
" ... strong linear correlation exists between the predicted and experimentally determined frequencies corresponding to the absorption of electromagnetic radiation of such proteins . It is inferred that approximate wavelengths in real frequency space can be calculated from the RRM characteristic frequencies for each biologically related group of sequences. These calculations can be used to predict the wavelength of the light irradiation, λ , that might affect the biological activity of exposed proteins . The frequency range predicted for protein interactions is from 1013 Hz to 1015 Hz. This estimated range includes IR, visible and UV light."
So is possible that IR radiation interact because it used pre-existent endogenous communication and recognition channels, as those predicted by the RRM.
As mentioned above water and its structural construction, as EZ water, can be also a target for the low level light exposure, Santana et al. are insistent defenders of this theory, and in this section this vision is empowered because its looks very logic when it’s taken into account the, now evident, curious properties of water in its interaction with electromagnetic waves (see section ), and it's sufficiently extended and systemic to cover the wide range of effects that different exposures can provoke. As mentioned in a very interesting review  it is becoming clear that both local and systemic mechanisms are operating.
In the same above mentioned review  it can be read:
" The obvious candidate for this alternative chromophore is water molecules whose absorption spectrum has peaks at 980 nm, and also at most wavelengths longer than 1200 nm. Moreover, water is by the far the most prevalent molecule in biological tissue (particularly considering its low molecule weight = 18). At present the proposed mechanism involves selective absorption of IR photons by structured water layers (also known as interfacial water)  or water clusters , at power levels that are insufficient to cause any detectable bulk-heating of the tissue."
But we can go further than a theoretical proposition (supported by studies of water-EM waves interaction as mentioned), firstly, reviewing experimental evidence of pre-existent studies in low level light therapy where some properties of water are measured, and search for data that contribute to corroborate this theory as for example is done in :
" Photo-induced effects on the water dynamics of burned rat tissue monitored by 1H-NMR transverse relaxation times (1/T2) indicate significantly greater structuring of water. A microdensitometry study of T2 weighted tumor heterogeneities from a phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced neoplasias and an algorithm for tumor characterization also shows significantly increased structuring of water associated with biopolymers and macromolecules."
Another Santana et al. retrospective analysis of published data in low level light therapy (LLLT) indicative of EZ phenomena that is related, in this case, to the retina and optic nerve (ON) also show evidences :
" Images showing removal of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) aided by preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide (TA) during macular hole surgery show continuous whitish lines indicative of water-layer ordering at the interface between collagen matrices and TA crystals. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) results further exhibit an axis parallel to the ON, which may be an ocular expression of the EZ linked to the steady potential of the eye."
There is an interesting summary of the investigations of the authors in .
Another experimental procedure by other authors  shows that water near to proteins surface provoke the proteins order and crystallization, nucleating them, when the solute is exposed to low level infrared radiation:
" We show that a physical trigger, a non-ionizing infrared (IR) radiation at wavelengths strongly absorbed by liquid water, can be used to induce and kinetically control protein (periodic) self-assembly in solution. This phenomenon is explained by considering the effect of IR light on the structuring of protein interfacial water. Our results indicate that the IR radiation can promote enhanced mutual correlations of water molecules in the protein hydration shell. We report on the radiation-induced increase in both the strength and cooperativeness of H-bonds. The presence of a structured dipolar hydration layer can lead to attractive interactions between like-charged biomacromolecules in solution (and crystal nucleation events). Furthermore, our study suggests that enveloping the protein within a layer of structured solvent (an effect enhanced by IR light) can prevent the protein non-specific aggregation favoring periodic self-assembly."
On the other hand in  it is argued that the specific environment of each cell causes one kind of effect or other and that membrane receptors are the targets:
" According to our homeostasis theory , we have suggested that the membrane receptors of cells or organelles were the primary photoreceptors of LIL, and LPBM was mediated by receptor-activated signal transduction pathways . Several signaling pathways have been identified that target COX including protein kinase A and C, receptor tyrosine kinase, and inflammatory signaling ."
Finally it is interesting to keep in mind the data provided by  that suggest that non-coherent light sources with power-densities about 1000 times lower than contemporary low-power laser settings remain effective in generating photobiostimulatory effects.
Low level laser light or LED light therapy is a globally expanding intervention method that now includes post-traumatic brain disorders, nerve regeneration, diabetic wound repair, arthritis, cancer radiation protection (oral mucositis), dental, sports medicine and skeletal muscle disorders (trauma and pain), etc.
Numerous studies are now oriented to the extracranial application of red and near infrared light and the therapeutic outcomes that can generate.
LLLT causes increased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, and better learning and memory scores in mice after traumatic brain injury , in  it is also shown that near-infrared (NIR) light (although in this case not specifically transcranialy applied) improves memory and spatial learning ability and reduces plaques moderately in mouse brain slices, being also a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. In an experimental study with humans suffering from mild traumatic brain injury  therapeutic application of LLLT provides improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions.
Similar results can be extracted from a recent review on the topic  where is concluded that application of red/near-infrared LED light in subjects with traumatic brain injury causes significant improvements in executive function and verbal memory of the subjects and fewer reports of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms.
Moreover, in another review  there are highlighted the positive outcomes of LLLT to treat various mental dysfunctions apart from traumatic disorders, like depressive disorders:
" Studies suggest the processes aforementioned are potentially effective targets for PBM to treat depression. There is also clinical preliminary evidence suggesting the efficacy of PBM in treating major depressive disorders, and comorbid anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, and traumatic brain injury."
On the other hand, red light irradiation also increases lymphocyte count in subjects in which this cell count was reduced after a stroke provoked by middle cerebral artery occlusion . Some experiment are done with in-vitro neurons showing results that are supposed to be majorly maintained when transcranial light is applied, and for example in  it has been found that low intensity NIR radiation can protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation by rescuing mitochondrial function and restoring neuronal energetics. And very similarly in  it has been found that NIR light reduces the oxidative damage (in this case provoked by sleep deprivation) in mice hippocampus and increases its mitochondrial activity.
Also in primary cultured rat cortical neurons where oxigen-glucose deprivation is provoked it's shown an augmented neurite outgrow with an increase in the levels of synaptic markers such as PSD 95, GAP 43, and synaptophysin after infrared LED treatment .
Another experimental study with in vitro neurons and, in this case, with far infrared radiation (FIR) , suggest the possible therapeutic use to treat some kind of neuronal disorders, like Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (that are characterized by progressive and selective loss of neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and/or axons in the central nervous system). In this case it’s demonstrated that FIR treatment individually rescued ataxin-3-78Q and ataxin-3-26Q expressing cells, that have decreased viability, from pathological and non-pathological mechanisms involved, by preventing mutant PolyQ protein accumulation and protecting mitochondrial function in both cells. The data also suggested that FIR triggers autophagy as a major rescue mechanism and that did not seem to involve reactive oxygen species scavenging.
As is put forward by a review of the transcranial light application experiments made by a experimental group :
" We have studied PBM for treating traumatic brain injury in mice using a NIR laser spot delivered to the head. Mice had improved memory and learning, increased neuroprogenitor cells in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone, increased BDNF and more synaptogenesis in the cortex. These highly beneficial effects on the brain suggest that the applications of LLLT are much broader than first conceived."
Regeneration is also a medical field of research where red and infrared light are increasingly used as a possible therapeutic tools, for example in  is studied the effect of low intensity laser irradiation (LILI) on the growth potential and cell-cycle progression of cultured myoblasts, that are a type of myogenic progenitor cells and considered as the major candidates responsible for muscle regeneration, and it's viewed that exposure increased the expression of cellular proliferation marker and the amount of cell subpopulations in the proliferative phase and upregulated expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins:
" These results suggest that LILI at certain fluences could promote their proliferation, thus contributing to the skeletal muscle regeneration following trauma and myopathic diseases."
Also, nerve regeneration can be a therapheutical objective of LLLT, in a study where histological examination, after lesion, of rats sciatic nerve is done it is shown that low level light treatment during some days causes better organized myelin sheets with fewer areas of myelin debris . Here, related to the above mentioned possible role of water it’s interesting to note that myelin fiber has been theorized to be an optical fiber for biophotons (like microtubules), see section , and that it’s proposed that ordered water have a crucial function in this, where collective behavior of water molecules is characterized by coherent water states analogous to Bloch states, whose main feature is to trap biophotons in a collective fashion .
One of the most promising therapeutic use to be promptly standardized is to reduce inflammations of many kinds. In a review  is pointed out its utility to treat oral mucositis (an inflammation derived from cancer treatment), and there are a lot of recent experiments on this topic with more supporting results, moreover, in  experimental results shown that monochromatic light (LED) is at least as effective as low level light therapy (LLLT) in treating mucositis, and LED light is more cheap and affordable than laser, so its implementation can be faster and more extended. Another interesting review on infrared light treatment to address inflammation can be found in  were among other facts are commented various experimental findings in which the therapeutical light application have better results than classical pharmacological therapy.
Inflammation is also, as we know, part of the wound healing process and this process in general is also objective of LLLT in numerous studies, because it is known that it ameliorate the process in numerous ways, in this  experimental study it can be read:
" We demonstrated the possible utility of a GaAlInP laser with an appropriate energy density (4 J/cm2) as an adjunctive modality for wound healing in clinical practice as well as a correlation between epidermal MMP-2 expression and angiogenesis. In fact, LLLT improved wound healing, especially at 14 days, as evidenced by wound contraction, anti-inflammatory activity, neocollagenesis, and neoangiogenesis."
In  LED phototherapy with 940 nm wavelength reduced the areas of edema, the number of mononuclear cells present in the inflammatory infiltration, and increased functional recovery scores.
Other possible therapeutic use is for cancer treatment and there are some efforts in this direction . In  it is pointed that previous studies show that low level infrared radiation significantly inhibited cell proliferation in several breast cancer cells but did not affect the growth of normal breast epithelial cells, and that in this study irradiation:
" caused G2/M cell cycle arrest, remodeled the microtubule network to an astral pole arrangement, altered the actin filament formation and focal adhesion molecule localization, and reduced cell migration activity and invasion ability."
Anyways this possible use of light to treat cancer is not sufficiently certain and free of possible counterproductive effects at now, for example in  LLLT promotes cancer aggressiveness in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore more research is needed to expose the specific conditions (of the exposure or the exposure target) that causes some outcomes or others. It is mentionable that other non-ionizing electromagnetic waves like those that fall in the extremely low frequencies are also subject of study  as possible anticancer treatment, and possibly have less risks than LLLT.
Another therapeutic approach would be the improvement sperm function and reproductive performance, in this case in an experiment in  it is observed and highlighted an extremely interesting fact:
" ... effects observed rely upon the specific pattern used. In this way, it is worth noting that Procedure #1 (10-10-10; L-phase: 10 min, D-phase: 10 min and L-phase: 10 min) was the most effective. In contrast, patterns with longer exposure times to light, such as Procedures #2 (15-10-15) and #3 (20-10-20) had less effect. Additionally, our preliminary experiments conducted before setting the experimental conditions also showed that continuous light-exposure patterns without a D-phase, of 5 min, 10 min, 15 min and 20 min of continuous L-phase, were much less effective than the 10-10-10 photo-stimulation pattern. These data clearly point out that the improving effect on boar sperm function induced by red LED-based light depends on the photo-stimulation pattern. A similar phenomenon has been described when laser systems are applied to sperm from other mammalian species like dog, buffalo and human . Therefore, it seems that light-effects on mammalian sperm rely on precise rhythms and rates of application, regardless of light source and wIncluded in the therapeutic array of uses of non-thermal photobiomodulation (other of the nomenclatures of low level light therapy) are photorejuvenation oriented ones. As an example in this study  treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, better profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and improved ultrasonographically measured collagen density.Included in the therapeutic array of uses of non-thermal photobiomodulation (other of the nomenclatures of low level light therapy) are photorejuvenation oriented ones. As an example in this study  treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, better profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and improved ultrasonographically measured collagen density.avelength range."
So rhythms are important… we must have in mind that this include the wavelength or frequency itself, as it can be view in numerous examples, in this  concrete example, when light is applied over cell population in vitro, variations in the frequency can provoke that that population increases or not. And in  it has been found also that pulsed waves are much more effective than continuous waves on dentinogenesis of dental pulp stem cells.
Included in the therapeutic array of uses of non-thermal photobiomodulation (other of the nomenclatures of low level light therapy) are photorejuvenation oriented ones. As an example in this study  treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, better profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and improved ultrasonographically measured collagen density.
In this last paragraph of possible therapeutic uses, only as an extract of the variety of possibles uses, it will be mentioned some more uses. As the title of  explicitly says combination of laser light and LED light “is beneficial in improvement of muscular performance (strength and muscular endurance), dyspnea, and fatigue sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”. In  improvements in functional and anatomical outcomes in dry AMD (a retinal degenerative disease) subject has reached. In  increased stem cell proliferation was observed. While other non necessarily therapeutic but interesting results include, for example, the increase in growth rate and overall length and width of C. elegans (a nemanode) after low level laser light exposure .
1. Chow, Roberta, Weixing Yan, and Patricia Armati. "Electrophysiological effects of single point transcutaneous 650 and 808 nm laser irradiation of rat sciatic nerve: a study of relevance for low-level laser therapy and laser acupuncture." Photomedicine and laser surgery 30.9 (2012): 530-535.
2. Trevors, J. T., and G. H. Pollack. "Origin of microbial life hypothesis: A gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane, with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics." Biochimie 94.1 (2012): 258-262.
5. Passarella, Salvatore, and Tiina Karu. "Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 140 (2014): 344-358.
9. Santana-Blank, Luis, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, and Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez. "Photobiomodulation of aqueous interfaces: finding evidence to support the exclusion zone in experimental and clinical studies." Photomedicine and laser surgery 31.9 (2013): 461-462.
10. Rodríguez-Santana, Elizabeth, and Luis Santana-Blank. "Emerging evidence on the crystalline water-light interface in ophthalmology and therapeutic implications in photobiomodulation: first communication." Photomedicine and laser surgery 32.4 (2014): 240-242.
14. Wu, Hsia-Pai Patrick, and Michael A. Persinger. "Increased mobility and stem-cell proliferation rate in Dugesia tigrina induced by 880nm light emitting diode." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 102.2 (2011): 156-160.
15. Xuan, Weijun, et al. "Transcranial low-level laser therapy enhances learning, memory, and neuroprogenitor cells after traumatic brain injury in mice." Journal of biomedical optics 19.10 (2014): 108003-108003.
16. Naeser, Margaret A., et al. "Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study." Journal of neurotrauma 31.11 (2014): 1008-1017.
17. Naeser, Margaret A., et al. "Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Therapy to Improve Cognition in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury." Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 34.12 (2016): 610-626.
18. Cassano, Paolo, et al. "Review of transcranial photobiomodulation for major depressive disorder: targeting brain metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurogenesis." Neurophotonics 3.3 (2016): 031404-031404.
21. Choi, Dong-Hee, et al. "Effect of 710nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 422.2 (2012): 274-279.
22. Chang, Jui-Chih, et al. "Far-infrared radiation protects viability in a cell model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia by preventing polyQ protein accumulation and improving mitochondrial function." Scientific Reports 6 (2016).
23. Zhang, Cui-Ping, et al. "Stimulative effects of low intensity He-Ne laser irradiation on the proliferative potential and cell-cycle progression of myoblasts in culture." International Journal of Photoenergy 2014 (2014).
30. de Medeiros, Melyssa Lima, et al. "Effect of low-level laser therapy on angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase-2 immunoexpression in wound repair." Lasers in Medical Science 32.1 (2017): 35-43.
34. Rhee, Yun-Hee, et al. "Low-Level Laser Therapy Promoted Aggressive Proliferation and Angiogenesis Through Decreasing of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Increasing of Akt/Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer." Photomedicine and laser surgery 34.6 (2016): 229-235.
38. Wunsch, Alexander, and Karsten Matuschka. "A controlled trial to determine the efficacy of red and near-infrared light treatment in patient satisfaction, reduction of fine lines, wrinkles, skin roughness, and intradermal collagen density increase." Photomedicine and laser surgery 32.2 (2014): 93-100.
39. Miranda, Eduardo Foschini, et al. "Phototherapy with combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes is beneficial in improvement of muscular performance (strength and muscular endurance), dyspnea, and fatigue sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." Lasers in medical science 30.1 (2015): 437-443.
Very related sections:
↑ text updated: 06/10/2018
↓ tables updated: 01/10/2019
Applied Fields - Experimental
Light - Red and near-infrared - (630-1000 nm)
Various Experimental findings and Proposals of red and near-infrared light Targets ║ Transcraneal red and near-infrared light exposure and/or Neuronal functional recovery ║ Red and infra-red light for Inflamation Reduction ║ Posibble Anti-Cancer properties (or not) of low-level red and infrared light ║ Other Therapeutic Uses of low-level red and infrared light
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Wavelenght - Intensity
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|A||The 808 nm and 980 nm infrared laser irradiation affects spore germination and stored calcium homeostasis: A comparative study using delivery hand-pieces with standard (Gaussian) or flat-top profile (water)||808-980 nm - (100-2000 mW/cm2)||2019-(1)||Sara Ferrando, Dimitrios Agas, Serena Mirata, Antonio Signore, Nicola De Angelis, Silvia Ravera, Anatoliy S. Utyuzh, Steven Parker, Maria Giovanna Sabbieti, Stefano Benedicenti, Andrea Amaroli|
|F||Revisiting the Photon/Cell Interaction Mechanism in Low-Level Light Therapy (no mitocon.)||-||2019-(6)||Andrei P. Sommer|
|A||Photobiomodulation enhancement of cell proliferation at 660 nm does not require cytochrome c oxidase (no mitocon.)||660 nm||2019-(1)||Paula L. V. Lima, Claudia V. Pereira, Nadee Nissanka, Tania Arguello, Giulio Gavini, Carlos Magno da Costa Maranduba, Francisca Diaz, Carlos T. Moraes|
|F||Effect of Infrared Light on Protein Behavior in Contact with Solid Surface (protein interfacial water)||-||2018-(44)||Magdalena Kowacz, Piotr Warszyński|
|F||Beyond esterase-like activity of serum albumin. Histidine-(nitro)phenol radical formation in conversion cascade of p-nitrophenyl acetate and the role of infrared light (water)||2900 nm||2018-(21)||Magdalena Kowacz, Piotr Warszyński|
|F||The Regulatory Effect of Low-Intensity Radiation in the Near-Infrared Region on the Early Development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)||630-930 nm - 0.0000024 J/cm2, 0.0024-2.4 J/cm2||2018-(7)||V. I. Yusupov, N. B. Simonova, G. M. Chuiko, E. I. Golovkina, V. N. Bagratashvili|
|A||Effect of red light and near infrared laser on the generation of reactive oxygen species in primary dermal fibroblasts||638 nm, 825 nm - 5-25 J/cm2||2018-(1)||Sajan George, Michael R. Hamblin, Heidi Abrahamse|
|A||Photobiomodulation effects on mRNA levels from genomic and chromosome stabilization genes in injured muscle||904 nm - 3J/cm2||2018-(1)||Larissa Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima Trajano, Luiz Philippe da Silva Sergio, Adilson Fonseca Teixeira, Andre Luiz Mencalha, Ana Carolina Stumbo, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca|
|A||Near-infrared laser photons induce glutamate release from cerebrocortical nerve terminals||-||2018-(1)||Andrea Amaroli, Manuela Marcoli, Arianna Venturini, Mario Passalacqua, Luigi F. Agnati, Antonio Signore, Mirco Raffetto, Guido Maura, Stefano Benedicenti, Chiara Cervetto|
|F||Non-mammalian Hosts and Photobiomodulation: Do All Life-forms Respond to Light?||(review)||2018-(14)||Michael R Hamblin, Ying-Ying Huang, Vladimir Heiskanen|
|F||Effects of pulsing of light on the dentinogenesis of dental pulp stem cells in vitro||810 nm - (0.00128 mW/cm2)||2018-(11)||Hong Bae Kim, Ku Youn Baik, Hoon Seonwoo, Kyoung-Je Jang, Myung Chul Lee, Pill-Hoon Choung , Jong Hoon Chung|
|F||Effect of Red-to-Near Infrared Light on the Reaction of Isolated Cytochrome c Oxidase with Cytochrome c (no mitocon.)||660 nm - (4.6 mW/cm2)||2016-(7)||Brendan J. Quirk, Harry T. Whelan|
|F||‘‘Quantum Leap’’ in Photobiomodulation Therapy Ushers in a New Generation of Light-Based Treatments for Cancer and Other Complex Diseases: Perspective and Mini-Review (water)||(review)||2016-(1)||Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez, Heberto Reyes|
|A||Infrared light-induced protein crystallization. Structuring of protein interfacial water and periodic self-assembly (water)||2900-3200 nm||2016-(7)||Magdalena Kowacz, Mateusz Marchel, Lina Juknaité, José M.S.S. Esperança, Maria João Romão, Ana Luísa Carvalh, Luís Paulo N. Rebelo|
|F||Water's Many Roles in Laser Photobiomodulation (water)||(review)||2015-(5)||Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez, Jesús A. Santana-Rodríguez, Heberto Reyes|
|F||Action-Dependent Photobiomodulation on Health, Suboptimal Health, and Disease (enviro.)||(review)||2014-(11)||Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Long Liu, Jing-Gang Chen, Peng Zeng, Xiang-Bo Yang|
|F||Microenvironment Dependent Photobiomodulation on Function-Specific Signal Transduction Pathways (enviro.)||(review)||2014-(8)||Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, De-Feng Wu, Ling Zhu, P. Peng, Long Liu, Xiang-Bo Yang|
|F||Lightening up Light Therapy: Activation of Retrograde Signaling Pathway by Photobiomodulation (mitocon. water)||(review)||2014-(6)||Hong Pyo Kim|
|F||Photobiostimulation in C. elegans as a Model for Low Level Light Therapy||920-980 nm - 5 J/cm2||2014-(16)||Michael J. Spoto, Daryl D. Hurd|
|A||Absorption of monochromatic and narrow band radiation in the visible and near IR by both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial photoacceptors results in photobiomodulation (various)||(review)||2014-(1)||Salvatore Passarella, Tiina Karu|
|A||Emerging evidence on the crystalline water-light interface in ophthalmology and therapeutic implications in photobiomodulation: first communication (water)||(review)||2014-(1)||Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana|
|F||Water-light interaction: A novel pathway for multi hallmark therapy in cancer (water)||(review)||2013-(6)||Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Heberto Reyes, Jesús A. Santana- Rodríguez, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez|
|F||Laser photobiomodulation: A new promising player for the multi-hallmark treatment of advanced cancer (water)||(review)||2013-(3)||Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Heberto Reyes, Jesús A. Santana- Rodríguez, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez|
|A||Photobiomodulation of Aqueous Interfaces: Finding Evidence to Support the Exclusion Zone in Experimental and Clinical Studies (water)||(review)||2013-(1)||Luis Santana-Blank, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez|
|F||Increased mobility and stem-cell proliferation rate in Dugesia tigrina induced by 880 nm light emitting diode||630-880 nm (LEDs) - (0.00012 mW/cm2)||2011-(5)||Hsia-Pai Patrick Wu, Michael A. Persinger|
|A||Signalling effect of NIR pulsed lasers on axonal growth||-||2010-(1)||Manoj Mathew, Ivan Amat-Roldana, Rosa Andrés, Susana I.C.O. Santos, David Artigas, Eduardo Soriano, Pablo Loza-Alvarez|
|A||Biomodulation with low-level laser radiation induces changes in endothelial cell actin filaments and cytoskeletal organization||685 nm - 8 J/cm2||2009-(1)||R. Ricci, M. C. Pazos, R. Eller Borges, C. Pacheco-Soares|
|A||The Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation at 610 nm and 710 nm on Murine T-Cell Subset Populations||610-710 nm (LEDs) - 0.043 mW||2009-(1)||Jeong H. Lim, Jongmin Lee, Jida Choi, Jaewoo Hong, Hyunjhung Jhun, Jinsoo Han, and Soohyun Kim|
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Wavelenght - Intensity
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|F||Pulsed Transcranial Red/Near-Infrared Light Therapy Using Light-Emitting Diodes Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognitive Function in Veterans with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Series||629-850 nm - (6.4 mW/cm2)||2018-(8)||S. Gregory Hipskind, Fred L. Grover Jr., T. Richard Fort, Dennis Helffenstein, Thomas J. Burke, Shane A. Quint, Garrett Bussiere, Michael Stone, Timothy Hurtado|
|F||Photobiomodulation improves the frontal cognitive function of older adults||633-870nm||2018-(9)||Agnes S. Chan, Tsz Lok Lee, Michael K. Yeung, Michael R. Hamblin|
|F||Near infrared light to promote synaptic resilience to Alzheimer’s Disease neuropathology||670 nm - 4 J/cm2||2018-(123)||Michele M. Comerota|
|A||Transcranial near-infrared photobiomodulation attenuates memory impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress in sleep-deprived mice||810 nm||2018-(1)||Farzad Salehpour, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Marjan Erfani, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Michael R. Hamblin, Pouran Karimi, Seyed Hossein Rasta, Javad Mahmoudi|
|F||Near infra-red light treatment of Alzheimer's disease||1040-1090 nm (LEDs) - (15 mW/cm2)||2018-(8)||Mengmeng Han, Qiyan Wang, Xue Wang, Yuhui Zeng , Yong Huang , Qingqiang Meng , Jun Zhang, Xunbin We|
|A||Photobiomodulation and the brain: a new paradigm||(review)||2016-(14)||Madison Hennessy, Michael R. Hamblin|
|A||Acute Effects of Near Infrared Light Therapy on Brain State in Healthy Subjects as Quantified by qEEG Measures||903 nm (LEDs) - (16.67 mW/cm2)||2016-(1)||Fred Grover Jr, Jon Weston, Michael Weston|
|A||Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Therapy to Improve Cognition in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury||633-810 nm - (22.2 mW/cm2 each)||2016-(1)||Margaret A. Naeser, Paula I. Martin, Michael D. Ho, Maxine H. Krengel, Yelena Bogdanova, Jeffrey A. Knight, Megan K. Yee, Ross Zafonte, Judith Frazier, Michael R. Hamblin, Bang-Bon Koo|
|A||Transcranial infrared laser stimulation improves rule-based, but not information-integration, category learning in humans||-||2016-(1)||Nathaniel J. Blancoa,, Celeste L. Saucedoa, F. Gonzalez-Lima|
|F||Improved cognitive functions and behavioural response after exposure to low-level near-infrared laser in snails (Ariophanta laevipes)||650 nm||2016-(8)||Contzen Pereira|
|F||Review of transcranial photobiomodulation for major depressive disorder: targeting brain metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurogenesis||(review)||2016-(10)||Paolo Cassano, Samuel R. Petrie, Michael R. Hamblin, Theodore A. Henderson, Dan V. Iosifescu|
|F||Far-infrared radiation protects viability in a cell model of Spinocerebellar Ataxia by preventing polyQ protein accumulation and improving mitochondrial function||-||2016-(11)||Jui-Chih Chang, Shey-Lin Wu, Fredrik Hoel, Yu-Shan Cheng, Ko-Hung Liu, Mingli Hsieh, August Hoel,3 Karl Johan Tronstad, Kuo-Chia Yan, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Wei-Yong Lin, Shou-Jen Kuo, Shih-Li Su, Chin-San Liu|
|A||Near infrared radiation rescues mitochondrial dysfunction in cortical neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation||-||2015-(1)||Zhanyang Yu, Ning Liu, Jianhua Zhao,Yadan Li, Thomas J. McCarthy, Clark E. Tedford, Eng H. Lo, Xiaoying Wang|
|F||Augmentation of cognitive brain functions with transcranial lasers (mitocon.)||(review)||2014-(4)||F. Gonzalez-Lima, Douglas W. Barrett|
|F||Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study||630-870 nm (LEDs) - (22.2 mW/cm2 each)||2014-(10)||Margaret A. Naeser, Ross Zafonte, Maxine H. Krengel, Paula I. Martin, Judith Frazier, Michael R. Hamblin, Jeffrey A. Knight, William P. Meehan III, Errol H. Baker|
|F||Transcranial low-level laser therapy enhances learning, memory, and neuroprogenitor cells after traumatic brain injury in mice||810 nm - (25 mW/cm2) 18 J/cm2||2014-(15)||Weijun Xuan, Fatma Vatansever, Liyi Huang, Michael R. Hamblinb|
|A||Effect of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult||710 nm (LEDs) - (50mW/cm2) 4 J/cm2||2012-(1)||Dong-Hee Choi, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Moon Young Kim, Jeong Hoon Lim, Jongmin Lee|
|A||Effect of 710-nm Visible Light Irradiation on Neuroprotection and Immune Function after Stroke||710 nm||2012-(1)||Dong-Hee Choi, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Ji-Hye Kim, Moon Young Kim, Jeong Hoon Lim, Jongmin Lee|
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Wavelenght - Intensity
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|F||Low-Level Laser Therapy Reduces Lung Inflammation in an Experimental Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Involving P2X7 Receptor||660 nm - 3 J/cm2||2018-(9)||Gabriel da Cunha Moraes, Luana Beatriz Vitoretti, Auriléia Aparecida de Brito, Cintia Estefano Alves, Nicole Cristine Rigonato de Oliveira, Alana dos Santos Dias, Yves Silva Teles Matos, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Luis Vicente Franco Oliveira, Renata Kelly da Palma, Larissa Carbonera Candeo, Adriana Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestine Horliana, João Antonio Gimenes Júnior, Flavio Aimbire, Rodolfo Paula Vieira, Ana Paula Ligeiro-de-Oliveira|
|A||Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Acute Inflammatory Response in Mice: the Role of Cannabinoid Receptors/ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel/p38-MAPK Signalling Pathway||660 nm - 50 J/cm2||2017-(1)||Lais Mara Siqueira das Neves, Elaine Cristina Dalazen Gonçalves, Juliana Cavalli, Graziela Cleuza Vieira, Larissa R. Laurindo, Róli Rodrigues Simões, Igor dos Santos Coelho, Adair Roberto Soares dos Santos, A. Marcolino, Maira Miranda Cola, Rafael Dutra less|
|F||Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation||(review)||2017-(25)||Michael R Hamblin|
|F||Comparative study among three different phototherapy protocols to treat chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters||635 nm (LEDs), 660 nm||2016-(10)||Luana Campos, Érika P. Cruz, Filipi S. Pereira, Victor E. Arana-Chavez, Alyne Simões|
|F||The role of near-infrared light-emitting diodes in aging adults related to inflammation||(review)||2015-(12)||Onyekachi Ibe, Erin Morency, Pablo Sosa, Lori Burkow-Heikkinen|
|F||Effect of Prophylactic Low Level Laser Therapy on Oral Mucositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis||(review)||2014-(10)||Sapna Oberoi, Gabriele Zamperlini–Netto, Joseph Beyene, Nathaniel S. Treister, Lillian Sung|
|A||808 nm Wavelength Light Induces a Dose-Dependent Alteration in Microglial Polarization and Resultant Microglial Induced Neurite Growth||808 nm - 0.2-30 J/cm2||2013-(1)||Ramona E. von Leden, Sean J. Cooney, Teresa M. Ferrara, Yujia Zhao, Clifton L. Dalgard, Juanita J. Anders, Kimberly R. Byrnes|
|F||Systematic review of laser and other light therapy for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients||(review)||2013-(9)||Cesar Migliorati, Ian Hewson|
|F||Effects of 940 nm light-emitting diode (led) on sciatic nerve regeneration in rats||940 nm (LEDs) - (9.5 mW/cm2) 4 J/cm2||2011-(7)||Karla Guivernau Gaudens Serafim, Solange de Paula Ramos, Franciele Mendes de Lima, Marcelo Carandina, Osny Ferrari, Ivan Frederico Lupiano Dias, Dari de Oliveira Toginho Filho, Cláudia Patrícia Cardoso Martins Siqueira|
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Wavelenght - Intensity
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|A||Low-Level Laser Therapy May Have Cancer Fighting Role||-||2016-(0)||Lars Hode|
|A||Low-Level Laser Therapy Promoted Aggressive Proliferation and Angiogenesis Through Decreasing of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Increasing of Akt/Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer (counterproducent, pro-cancer)||(100 mW/cm2) 15-30 J/cm2||2016-(1)||Rhee Yun-Hee, Moon Jeong-Hwan, Choi Sun-Hyang, Ahn Jin-Chul|
|A||Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Middle Infrared Radiation-Interfered Networks in Breast Cancer Cells||3000-5000 nm||2015-(1)||Hsin-Yi Chang, Ming-Hua Li, Tsui-Chin Huang, Chia-Lang Hsu, Shang-Ru Tsai, Si-Chen Lee, Hsuan-Cheng Huang, Hsueh-Fen Juan|
|A||Selective cytotoxic effects of low-power laser irradiation on human oral cancer cells||810 nm - 10-60 J/cm2||2015-(1)||Wei-Zhe Liang, Pei-Feng Liu, Earl Fu, Hao-Sheng Chung, Chung-Ren Jan, Chih-Hsuan Wu, Chih-Wen Shu, Yao-Dung Hsieh|
|F||Cancer Phototherapy via Selective Photoinactivation of Respiratory Chain Oxidase to Trigger a Fatal Superoxide Anion Burst (mitocon.)||635 nm - 112 mW/cm2, etc.||2014-(14)||Shengnan Wu, Feifan Zhou, Yanchun Wei, Wei R. Chen, Qun Chen, Da Xing|
(F) Full or (A) Abstract
Wavelenght - Intensity
Publication Year (and Number of Pages)
|A||Light-emitting diode irradiation using 660 nm promotes human fibroblast HSP90 expression and changes cellular activity and morphology||660 nm||2019-(1)||Sun‐Hyang Choi, So‐Young Chang, Raktim Biswas, Phil‐Sang Chung, Sangjoon Mo Min Young Lee, Jin Chul Ahn|
|A||Photobiomodulation of the microbiome: implications for metabolic and inflammatory diseases||660 nm, 808 nm||2018-(1)||Brian Bicknell, Ann Liebert, Daniel Johnstone, Hosen Kiat|
|F||Mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion) and collagen production in a rat model of diabetic wound healing treated by photobiomodulation: comparison of 904 nm laser and 850 nm light-emitting diode (LED)||850 nm, 904 nm - 14-18 J/cm2||2018-(7)||José Carlos Tatmatsu-Rocha, Carla Roberta Tim, Lucimar Avo, Rubens Bernardes-Filho, Patricia Brassolatti, Hueliton Wilian Kido, Michael R. Hamblin, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto|
|F||The influence of low level laser irradiation on vascular reactivity||10-110 mW||2018-(4)||Magdelena Mackiewicz-Milewska, Elżbieta Grześk, Andrzej C. Kroszczyński, Małgorzata Cisowska-Adamiak, Hanna Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Lilianna Baran, Iwona Szymkuć-Bukowska, Michał Wiciński, Wojciech Hagner, Grzegorz Grześk|
|A||Effect of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of donor site in patients with grade 3 burn ulcer after skin graft surgery (a randomized clinical trial)||655 nm - 2J/cm2||2018-(1)||Reza Vaghardoost, Mahnoush Momeni, Nooshafarin Kazemikhoo, Soheila Mokmeli, Mostafa Dahmardehei, Fereshteh Ansari, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Parisa Sabr joo, Sara Mey Abadi, Soheila Naderi Gharagheshlagh, Saeed Sassani|
|A||Far infrared promotes wound healing through activation of Notch1 signaling||-||2017-(1)||Yung-Ho Hsu, Yuan-Feng Lin, Cheng-Hsien Chen, Yu-Jhe Chiu, Hui-Wen Chiu|
|A||Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation||(review)||2017-(1)||Shang-Ru, Tsai, Michael R. Hamblin|
|F||A Role for Photobiomodulation in the Prevention of Myocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Injury: A Systematic Review and Potential Molecular Mechanisms||(review)||2017-(13)||Ann Liebert , Andrew Krause, Neil Goonetilleke, Brian Bicknell, Hosen Kiat|
|F||Photobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age-related macular degeneration||590-790 nm 0.1-7.68 J/cm2||2016-(8)||Graham F. Merry, Marion R. Munk, Robert S. Dotson, Michael G. Walker, Robert G. Deven|
|F||Specific LED-based red light photo-stimulation procedures improve overall sperm function and reproductive performance of boar ejaculates||620-630 nm||2016-(13)||Marc Yeste, Francesc Codony, Efrén Estrada, Miquel Lleonart, Sam Balasch, Alejandro Peña, Sergi Bonet, Joan E. Rodríguez-Gil|
|F||Effect of low-level laser therapy on angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase-2 immunoexpression in wound repair||660 nm - 4 J/cm2||2016-(9)||Melyssa Lima de Medeiros, Irami Araújo-Filho, Efigênia Maria Nogueira da Silva,Wennye Scarlat de Sousa Queiroz, Ciro Dantas Soares, Maria Goretti Freire de Carvalho, Maria Aparecida Medeiros Maciel|
|F||Phototherapy with combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes is beneficial in improvement of muscular performance (strength and muscular endurance), dyspnea, and fatigue sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease||640 nm + 875 nm + 905 nm||2015-(7)||Eduardo Foschini Miranda, Luís Vicente Franco de Oliveira, Fernanda Colella Antonialli, Adriane Aver Vanin, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal-Junior|
|F||Effect of Low Power Laser Irradiation on the Ability of Cell Growth and Myogenic Differentiation of Myoblasts Cultured In Vitro (regeneration)||632.8 nm - (6 mW/cm2) 0.3-6.3 J/cm2||2014-(8)||Cui-Ping Zhang, Shao-Dan Li, Yan Chen, Yan-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Chang-Zhen Wang, Xiao-Bing Fu, Hong-Xiang Kang, Ben-Jian Shen, Jie Liang|
|F||Stimulative Effects of Low Intensity He-Ne Laser Irradiation on the Proliferative Potential and Cell-Cycle Progression of Myoblasts in Culture (regeneration)||632.8 nm - (6 mW/cm2)||2014-(9)||Cui-Ping Zhang, Shao-Dan Li, Yan Chen, Yan-Ming Jiang, Peng Chen, Chang-Zhen Wang, Xiao-Bing Fu, Hong-Xiang Kang, Ben-Jian Shen, Jie Liang|
|F||A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase (rejuvenation)||611–650, 570–850 nm - 9 J/cm2||2014-(8)||Alexander Wunsch, Karsten Matuschka|
|F||Photobiomodulation on Bax and Bcl-2 Proteins and SIRT1/PGC-1α Axis mRNA Expression Levels of Aging Rat Skeletal Muscle||810 nm - (125 mW/cm2) 3.75 J/cm2||2014-(9)||Fang-Hui Li, Yan-Ying Liu, Fei Qin, Qing Luo, Hai-Ping Yang, Quan-Guang Zhang, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu|