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Electromagnetism & Morphogenesis
Fields guiding the positioning of organelles in cells, cells in organs and organs in bodies

Pablo Andueza Munduate

It’s being discovered that electromagnetic (EM) fields have a lot of to do with the creation and maintenance of form in biological systems, and that they work in all scales, from cellular to body, guiding morphogenesis. As an electromagnetic mind theory must include facts like cellular mind [1] it's proposed that a kind of basic EM mind is always present, because of those morphogenetic fields. ...

In this sense there are especially valuable the works of Pietak [2,3] although they are no experimentally proven, where the three dimensional architectures of developing plant flower buds show striking parallels with the resonance patterns that electromagnetic energies can form.

But is not the principal line of investigation on the morphogenetic - EM fields relation, there are more experimentally proved issues like electric currents that guide the migration of cells: for example Cao et al. [4] reported electric field dependent migration of neuroblasts, and as reviewed by Levin et al. [5] specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo and, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm.

Or as also Levin et al. [6] mentioned:

" The genome is tightly linked to bioelectric signaling, via ion channel proteins that shape the gradients, downstream genes whose transcription is regulated by voltage, and transduction machinery that converts changes in bioelectric state to second-messenger cascades. However, the data clearly indicate that bioelectric signaling is an autonomous layer of control not reducible to a biochemical or genetic account of cell state."

Or as also he wrote in [7]:

" Early frog embryos exhibit a characteristic hyperpolarization of cells lining the neural tube; disruption of this spatial gradient of the transmembrane potential (Vmem) diminishes or eliminates the expression of early brain markers, and causes anatomical mispatterning of the brain, including absent or malformed regions. This effect is mediated by voltage-gated calcium signaling and gap-junctional communication."

Wells [8] focused on plasma membrane patterns that generate endogenous electric fields that provide three-dimensional coordination systems for embryo development. In a review by Funk [9] he distinguishes two type of issues: low magnitude membrane potentials and related electric fields (bioelectricity), and cell migration under the guiding cue of electric fields (EF). He described for example how in osteoblasts, the directional information of EFs is captured by charged transporters on the cell membrane and transferred into signaling mechanisms that modulate the cytoskeletal and motor proteins, resulting in a persistent directional migration along an EF guiding cue.

Among others, EF activate a number of channels and that variations in the extracellular and intracellular environment as well as the distribution of channels on the membrane contribute to the galvanotactic response [13].

Michael Levin (as it can be seen one of the scientific more prolific in this research topic) and Maria Lobikin realized a review [10] where is well described the issues related to endogenous bioelectric currents, just as they wrote in the abstract:

" Complex pattern formation requires mechanisms to coordinate individual cell behavior towards the anatomical needs of the host organism. Alongside the well-studied biochemical and genetic signals functions an important and powerful system of bioelectrical communication. All cells, not just excitable nerve and muscle, utilize ion channels and pumps to drive standing gradients of ion content and transmembrane resting potential. In this chapter, we discuss the data that show that these bioelectrical properties are key determinants of cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. We also highlight the evidence for spatio-temporal gradients of transmembrane voltage potential as an instructive cue that encodes positional information and organ identity, and thus regulates the creation and maintenance of large-scale shape. In a variety of model systems, it is now clear that bioelectric prepatterns function during embryonic development, organ regeneration, and cancer suppression."

Electric fields, magnetic fields and electromagnetic fields can determine how cells move and adhere to surfaces; how the migration of multiple cells are coordinated and regulated; how cells interact with neighboring cells, and also be associated to changes in their microenvironment [14].

It must be said, that the relationship of those facts with the electromagnetic mind (and life) theory resides in that the form is what the things do to be as they are, and function as they do, and that if this is dependent, of the EMFs in general we can have a some kind of clue in this direction; hypothetically electromagnetism, having two component, they can each of them represent some kind of basic life or mind process, complementary between them (it is very philosophical issue but it can be related also to the works of Pietak [2,3] when each of this two components are interchangeable but always representing opposite position/function like the seeds on one side and external walls on the other):

" ..Similar to the abutilon ovary and squash male flower bud, cells in the female squash ovary in regions that correlate to highest electric field strength have changed into placental tissue cells, while the six places of high magnetic field strength are also the six places where ova form in the squash ovary (Figure 5).."

" Overall, the structural evidence and physical uniqueness of EM mode patterns indicates developing plant organs can support EM resonances, whereby the electric and magnetic field components guide symmetry-breaking and therefore resemble the first pattern to emerge in primordia. Rich in positional information, the EM resonant mode represents a possible physical manifestation of the morphogenetic field."

The question of which can be the sources of those endogenous EM fields are treated in other sections, for example Fröhlich propose and theorize a EM production in the range from 1011 to 1112 Hz (the same frequency range as proposed in the above mentioned Pietak papers) and this have a specific section on this site [11], water and its interactions in coherent domains [12] or microtubule vibrations [13] can also be sources, and of course it must be taken into account that we are all living under a giant EM resonator that is our planet earth-ionosphere cavity and maybe we are using/adapting it also.


1. Jon Lieff → Cellular Intelligence

2. Pietak, Alexis Mari. "Electromagnetic resonance and morphogenesis." Fields of the Cell (2015): 303–320. ISBN: 978-81-308-0544-3.

3. Pietak, Alexis Mari. "Structural evidence for electromagnetic resonance in plant morphogenesis." Biosystems 109.3 (2012): 367-380.

4. Cao, Lin, et al. "Endogenous electric currents might guide rostral migration of neuroblasts." EMBO reports 14.2 (2013): 184-190.

5. Tseng, AiSun, and Michael Levin. "Cracking the bioelectric code: probing endogenous ionic controls of pattern formation." Communicative & integrative biology 6.1 (2013): 13192-200.

6. Levin, Michael. "Endogenous bioelectrical networks store non‐genetic patterning information during development and regeneration." The Journal of physiology 592.11 (2014): 2295-2305.

7. Pai, Vaibhav P., et al. "Endogenous gradients of resting potential instructively pattern embryonic neural tissue via notch signaling and regulation of proliferation." The Journal of Neuroscience 35.10 (2015): 4366-4385.

8. Wells, Jonathan. "Membrane patterns carry ontogenetic information that is specified independently of DNA." BIO-complexity 2014 (2014).

9. Funk, Richard HW. "Endogenous electric fields as guiding cue for cell migration." Frontiers in physiology 6 (2015): 143.

10. Lobikin, Maria, and Michael Levin. "Endogenous bioelectric cues as morphogenetic signals in vivo." Fields of the Cell (2015): p. 283–302. ISBN: 978-81-308-0544-3.

11. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Water - Coherence Domains

12. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Microtubules

13. Iwasa, Stephanie N., Robart Babona-Pilipos, and Cindi M. Morshead. "Environmental factors that influence stem cell migration: an “electric field”." Stem cells international 2017 (2017).

14. Ross, Christina L. "The use of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic field for directed cell migration and adhesion in regenerative medicine." Biotechnology progress 33.1 (2017): 5-16.

Very related sections:

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text updated: 08/09/2018
tables updated: 16/06/2020

Endogenous Fields & Mind
EM & Morphogenetics

Endogenous Electromagnetism & Morphogenesis

(F) Full or (A) Abstract

Available Formats



Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Favailable in PDF and HTMLElectric-Induced Reversal of Morphogenesis in HydraCommentary icon2019-(10)Erez Braun, Hillel Ori
AFrom non-excitable single-cell to multicellular bioelectrical states supported by ion channels and gap junction proteins: Electrical potentials as distributed controllersCommentary icon2019-(1)Javier Cervera, Vaibhav P.Pai, Michael Levin, Salvador Mafe
AThe Centrosome as a Geometry OrganizerCommentary icon2019-(1)Marco Regolini
ASynchronization of Bioelectric Oscillations in Networks of Non-Excitable Cells: From Single-Cell to Multicellular StatesCommentary icon2019-(1)Javier Cervera, Jose Antonio Manzanares, Salvador Mafe, Michael Levin
Favailable in PDF and HTMLCalcium oscillations coordinate feather mesenchymal cell movement by SHH dependent modulation of gap junction networksCommentary icon2018-(15)Ang Li, Jung-Hwa Cho, Brian Reid, Chun-Chih Tseng, Lian He, Peng Tan, Chao-Yuan Yeh, Ping Wu, Yuwei Li, Randall B. Widelitz, Yubin Zhou, Min Zhao, Robert H. Chow, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Favailable in PDF and HTMLGenome-wide analysis reveals conserved transcriptional responses downstream of resting potential change in Xenopus embryos, axolotl regeneration, and human mesenchymal cell differentiationNo comments yet icon2015-(23)Vaibhav P. Pai, Christopher J. Martyniuk, Karen Echeverri, Sarah Sundelacruz, David L. Kaplan, Michael Levin
Favailable in PDFElectromagnetic resonance and morphogenesisNo comments yet icon2015-(18)Alexis Mari Pietak
Favailable in PDFEndogenous bioelectric cues as morphogenetic signals in vivoNo comments yet icon2015-(20)Maria Lobikin, Michael Levin
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEndogenous Gradients of Resting Potential Instructively Pattern Embryonic Neural Tissue via Notch Signaling and Regulation of ProliferationNo comments yet icon2015-(20)Vaibhav P.Pai, Joan M. Lemire, Jean-Francois Pare, Gufa Lin, Ying Chen, Michael Levin
Favailable in PDF and HTMLGap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala FlatwormsNo comments yet icon2015-(32)Maya Emmons-Bell, Fallon Durant, Jennifer Hammelman, Nicholas Bessonov, Vitaly Volpert, Junji Morokuma, Kaylinnette Pinet, Dany S. Adams, Alexis Pietak , Daniel Lobo, Michael Levin
AThe phantom leaf effect: A replication (Part 1)Commentary icon2015-(1)John Hubacher
Favailable in PDFMembrane Patterns Carry Ontogenetic Information That Is Specified Independently of DNANo comments yet icon2014-(38)Jonathan Wells
Favailable in PDF and HTMLBioelectric Signaling Regulates Size in Zebrafish FinsNo comments yet icon2014-(11)Simon Perathoner, Jacob M. Daane, Ulrike Henrion, Guiscard Seebohm, Charles W. Higdon, Stephen L. Johnson, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Matthew P. Harris
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEndogenous bioelectrical networks store non-genetic patterning information during development and regenerationNo comments yet icon2014-(11)Michael Levin
AThe Work Surfaces of Morphogenesis: The Role of the Morphogenetic FieldNo comments yet icon2014-(1)Sheena E. B. Tyler
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubCracking the bioelectric code: Probing endogenous ionic controls of pattern formationNo comments yet icon2013-(8)AiSun Tseng, Michael Levin
Favailable in PDFLiving Energy Resonators: Transcending the Gene to a New Story of Light and LifeNo comments yet icon2013-(4)Alexis Mari Pietak
Favailable in PDFStructural evidence for electromagnetic resonance in plant morphogenesisCommentary icon2012-(14)Alexis Mari Pietak
Favailable in PDFBiomechanical and coherent phenomena in morphogenetic relaxation processesNo comments yet icon2012-(10)Abir U. Igamberdiev
Favailable in PDFMorphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: Non-local control of complex patterningNo comments yet icon2012-(19)Michael Levin
AElectrodynamic eigenmodes in cellular morphologyCommentary icon2012-(1)M. Cifra
Favailable in PDFEndogenous Electromagnetic Fields in Plant Leaves: A New Hypothesis for Vascular Pattern FormationNo comments yet icon2010-(32)Alexis Mari Pietak
Favailable in PDFBioelectromagnetics in MorphogenesisNo comments yet icon2003-(21)Michael Levin
 At the cellular level:
Favailable in PDF and HTMLElectrochemical gradients are involved in regulating cytoskeletal patterns during epithelial morphogenesis in the Drosophila ovaryNo comments yet icon2019-(17)Isabel Weiß, Johannes Bohrmann
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe Bioelectric Circuitry of the CellCommentary icon2019-(14)Jack A. Tuszynski
Favailable in PDFMultiscale Memory And Bioelectric Error Correction In The Cytoplasm-Cytoskeleton-Membrane SystemCommentary icon2017-(30)Chris Fields, Michael Levin
 On cell migration:
Favailable in PDF and HTMLCharge-Balanced Electrical Stimulation Can Modulate Neural Precursor Cell Migration in the Presence of Endogenous Electric Fields in Mouse BrainsCommentary icon2019-(42)Stephanie N. Iwasa, Abdolazim Rashidi, Elana Sefton, Nancy X. Liu, Milos R. Popovic, Cindi M. Morshead
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEnvironmental Factors That Influence Stem Cell Migration: An “Electric Field”Commentary icon2017-(1)Stephanie N. Iwasa, Robart Babona-Pilipos, Cindi M. Morshead
AThe use of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic field for directed cell migration and adhesion in regenerative medicineNo comments yet icon2016-(1)Christina L. Ross
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEndogenous electric fields as guiding cue for cell migrationNo comments yet icon2015-(8)Richard H. W. Funk
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEndogenous electric currents might guide rostral migration of neuroblastsNo comments yet icon2013-(7)Lin Cao, Dongguang Wei, Brian Reid, Siwei Zhao, Jin Pu, Tingrui Pan, Ebenezer Yamoah, Min Zhao
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffects of Physiological Electric Fields on Migration of Human Dermal FibroblastsNo comments yet icon2010-(8)Aihua Guo, Bing Song, Brian Reid ,Yu Gu, John V. Forrester, Colin A.B. Jahoda, Min Zhao



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