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ELF/LF - Electromagnetic Fields
Experimental procedures and application ELF-EMF in regenerative medicine and cancer treatment

Pablo Andueza Munduate

As in other electromagnetic fields (EMF) frequency ranges, the medical and experimental application of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields are used to achieve a great variety of outcomes; cellular differentiation, brain activity modulation, experimental cancer treatment, and others. ...

As all exposures revised in this website, all the intensities applied in all the experiments mentioned below are of low intensity, 1mT or less (except for a very few exceptions), even cases where much less energy is experimentally used, and being of low frequency the cause of any of the effects has nothing to do with heating and nothing to do with ionizing. Moreover there are cases, for example in bacteria, that targets are highly viable in ionizing radiation up to 5000 Gy, but their division rate is on the contrary highly sensitive to non-ionizing radiation [50], with a not established mechanism that can imply calcium ion membrane flux dynamics or ion cyclotron resonances among others.

Cellular Differentiation

One of the most interesting outcomes for a future medical application, as regenerative therapy, is the promotion of cellular differentiation, in this ambit numerous positive results have been reached, showing that ELF-EMFs can promote osteogenesis, angiogenesis, or neurogenesis using cardiac stem cells, neural stem cells, and bone narrow mesenchymal cells among others.

In [1] is proposed that the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into neuronal phenotype is reached via reactive oxygen production that can cause the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation via phosphorylation and clustering, which may, in turn, lead to the activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and an increase of the CREB phosphorylation. In [51] is found that the regulation of (Zn)‐metallothionein‐3 plays a role while in [2] is found that early growth response protein 1 (Egr1) is one of the key transcription factors in that ELF-EMF-induced neuronal differentiation of the bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells.

One of the possible medical application of the neuronal differentiation promotion is to recover brain after ischemic damage, where some experiments have auspicious results. In an experiment [3] with neural progenitor cells (NPC) data shows that ELF-EMF promotes neurogenesis of ischemic NPCs and suggest that this effect may occur through the Akt pathway. On the other hand in an experimental thesis by Gao [4] in a rat model with cerebral ischemia, it's showed that the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells caused after exposure probably occur by the also detected up-regulation of Hes1, Hes5 and Notch1.

Apart from recover from ischemic damage the ELF-EMF stimulation can also affects olfactory memory by modulating neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of mice brain [52].

Neurogenesis of hippocampal neural stem cells with upregulation of Hes1 has also found in [5], along with upregulation of Neurogenin 1 and NeuroD1 that are strongly associated with the pan-neuronal gene expression and the neuronal fate determination.

Also, in an experimental setup with embryonic neural stem cells [6] increased expression of NeuroD and Neurogenin 1 proneural genes has been found, and also that:

" ... the expression of transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) was significantly up-regulated accompanied by increased the peak amplitude of intracellular calcium level."

Some genes are found recursively affected along different experiments and targets, some others are detected to be affected in a novel way, in an experiment with human embryonic kidney cells they are identified 24 genes whose expression changed after ELF-EMF exposure [7], and their results points toward an important role of the histone lysine methyltransferase (Mll2), that is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KMT2D gene.

More interestingly, in this last study [7] they found that:

" Remarkably, an EMF-free system that eliminates Earth's naturally occurring magnetic field abrogates these epigenetic changes, resulting in a failure to undergo reprogramming."

They point out that results support a model in which the environmental magnetic field promotes chromatin reorganization through the activation of Mll2, specifically, during the dynamic epigenetic changes initiated by expression of the 4 Yamanaka reprogramming factors. Anyway, it is interesting to note here that some special properties of water, as cluster formation, requires a geomagnetic natural-like EMF exposure (in particular its natural Schumann resonance frequency at 7.8Hz) to form [8], or as is argued in some experimental procedures [9] to develop its information storing properties, see sections [10,11].

Another use for regenerative medicine is the osteogenic differentiation to regenerate bone tissues. Findings in [12] suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields on rat BMSCs’ proliferation differentiation and mineralization are time duration dependent and that the MEK/ERK signaling pathway plays important role. Meanwhile in [13] it is showed that although when the EMF exposure is combined with an osteogenic differentiation medium the stimulation is more effective, the electromagnetic field stimulation alone also motivated the expression of osteogenic genes.

BMSCs can also be differentiated in astrocytes using ELF-EMFs; in [54] it’s found that this differentiation has been induced through the activation of SIRT1 and SIRT1 downstream molecules.

Muscle fibers can also regenerated applying ELF-EMFs on myoblast cells [55].

It’s an interesting review on dependence of Stem cell fate on electromagnetic fields [14] where the electromagnetic (EM) nature of the cells is also discussed.

Last but not least, in an experimental procedure that uses very low intensity electromagnetic fields tuned to the Ca2+ ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) at 7 Hz [15] (see this text below for a section on ICR) it is show that the exposure also induced neuronal differentiation.

Cancer

There is a very interesting line of investigation by Persinger and co-workers [16,17,18,19] where they are using physiologically-patterned ELF-EMF of very low intensity to treat cancer, inhibiting cancer cell grow and dissolving them, although with some difficulties that are trying to resolve as expressed in [17]:

" Exposure to a particular pattern of weak (~3 to 5 μT) magnetic fields produced by computer-generated point durations within three-dimensions completely dissolved malignant cancer cells but not healthy cells. Biomolecular analyses and confocal microscopy indicated excessive expansion followed by contraction contributed to the “explosion” of the cell. However, after months of replicable effects, the phenomenon slowly ceased."

The importance or patterns or the spacio-temporal component of magnetic field is also underlined in [56] where:

Cellular viability as a function of magnetic field exposure was significantly different, with a statistically smaller number of cells remaining viable after exposure to ELF-EMF than the static magnetic field, which showed no difference from controls.

A great advantage is that unlike chemical therapies and ionizing radiation, the ELF-EMF diminish the growth of only malignant cells but not normal cells. In the latest investigation of Persiger et al. [19] they confirm that the effects of electromagnetic fields on melanoma cells are dependent on their spatial and temporal character, with some configurations that provoke inhibition of cell proliferation and others with no effects, and all this using same intensities and frequencies (but differently activated over time).

The capacities of applied ELF-EMF to affect cancer specifically is very probably related to the specific endogenous electromagnetic fields of cancer cells, to this issue is a complete section [20] dedicated here, where numerous facts and theories are presented. In [21] for example it is proposed that disrupted respiration of cancer cells generate incoherent EM that in turn promote DNA strand break, and in [22] it is proposed that it can be used the enhanced electromagnetism from cancer’s centrosome clusters to attract therapeutic nanoparticles, in [23] is expressed that:

" Disturbances in oxidative metabolism and coherence are a central issue in cancer development. Oxidative metabolism may be impaired by decreased pyruvate transfer to the mitochondrial matrix, either by parasitic consumption and/or mitochondrial dysfunction. This can in turn lead to disturbance in water molecules’ ordering, diminished power, and coherence of the electromagnetic field. In tumours with the Warburg (reverse Warburg) effect, mitochondrial dysfunction affects cancer cells (fibroblasts associated with cancer cells), and the electromagnetic field generated by microtubules in cancer cells has low power (high power due to transport of energy-rich metabolites from fibroblasts), disturbed coherence, and a shifted frequency spectrum according to changed power."

Some Experimental Findings

In [24] it has been found a similar down-regulatory effect of EMF on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) as would be seen in morphine treatment so ELF-EMF of very low intensities have potential to be used also as complementary or alternative treatment to morphine, reducing both pain and enhance patient quality.

In an experimental thesis [25] were physiologically patterned low frequency electromagnetic fields are used, it's show that exposure provoke the aggregation of bacteria in solutions, with changes in the structures of water that surround them, this effect is also seen around proteins were water is irradiated with infrared light [26] and the effect is related to the existence of Exclusion Zone waters, see section [27].

In [28] an ELF-EMF of 9 Hz was shown to exert the greatest effect on aqueous solutions of the hepatitis virus DNA amplicons, with changes in their hydration sell that suggest, again, that the aqueous milieu plays a key role as a primary target for weak effects. In this sense is very interesting the possible electromagnetic mediated DNA-Water interaction that is supported in this robust theoretical work [29], you can see this [30] section for more.

In [29] it's believed that:

" ... if we are in an environment with bio-inspired electromagnetic signals generated by mimicking natural earth and body cells frequencies (ELF's), then our cells will be more energetic and active, providing greater health … This innovative bio-inspired system has been applied for the health enhancement of humans, equines and pets etc. … It has been proven that this bio-inspired system can be effectively applied to many areas such as (1) human health enhancement and illness treatment, (2) pet health enhancement, (3) equine health treatment and (4) reduction or elimination of 'jet lag'."

Returning to the detected outcomes, in [31] it has found that the exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field induce mitochondrial permeability transition (that can lead to mitochondrial swelling and cell death through apoptosis or necrosis depending on the particular biological setting), presumably through the ROS/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Evidences in [32] results confirmed that the ELF-EMF affects not only the ROS product but also the enzymatic activity with the modulation of catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxid protein expression.

In [33], after exposure of human embryonic kidney cells grown in culture, it is increased both arachidonic acid (AA) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4) levels in HEK293 cells, and is concluded that 50Hz ELF-EMF inhibits T-type calcium channels (widely expressed and that play key roles in various physiological functions like neuronal burst firing, cardiac pacemaking or secretion of hormones) through AA/LTE4 signaling pathway. The effect on those channels is also found in [16] where the promoted Ca2+ influx could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca2+ channels. The results of [34] in cultured entorhinal cortex neurons, on the contrary, has found that exposure have to influences the intracellular calcium dynamics via a calcium channel-independent mechanism.

Very low intensities of ELF-EMF can also affect cells (and the brain as we will see later) in a variety of ways, for example in [57] they detect that the immune system can be stimulated with intensities of 0.005 mt, and in [58] using the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation readout in various cell lines as sensitivity detector of these cell to external ELF-MF brings the outcome that all the seven cell lines tested are sensitive to ELF-MF strengths of as low as 0.0015 mT.

Effects on Brain/Neurons

Various studies have been focused in neuronal or cerebellar cells and it is found that ELF-EMFs interact readily with the central nervous system.

In [35] Increased Na+ Currents in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells as a result of cAMP/PKA pathway modulation was detected after 50 Hz 1mT exposure, in [36] is show that ELF-MF and ischemia separately increase oxidative stress on brains, but when applied together they have capability to decrease values it.

More generally in the brain function, relative low intensity (maximum 0.3 mT) ELF-EMFs, in the frequency range used by the brain, have show to change brain's intrinsic EEG, with for example, decreased alpha band on frontal and central areas in closed-eyes state [37]. In [38] the results have led to the authors to conclude that exposure to ELF-EMF facilitates vesicle endocytosis and synaptic plasticity in a calcium-dependent manner by increasing calcium channel expression at the nerve terminal.

Exposure to 5Hz 0.1mT [39] increased the numbers of rearing, sniffing, and locomotor activity of Wistar rats, with alterations in plasma stress hormones and glucose levels bot in 1Hz and 5Hz exposure frequencies used.

In an interesting investigation [59] electroencephalographic activity of a healthy subject originally obtained from it's quantitative electroencephalograph was recorded, those records where applied by a device to another subject’s brain diagnosed with toxic encephalopathy at really low intensities, 0.001-0.007 mT, capable however to cause significant amelioration in the subject’s diagnosis:

" In this experiment a 30 year old male university student who had been diagnosed with toxic encephalopathy six years previously and who exhibited compromised concentration, focus and processing efficiency was exposed for 30 min once per week for 6 weeks to the magnetic field equivalents of another person’s normal quantitative EEG patterns that had been recorded from each of 16 sensors. The specific magnetic field equivalents from each sensor had been reapplied through each of 16 solenoids placed in the same position over the patient’s scalp. Within two sessions there was visually conspicuous normalization of the patient’s EEG, marked reduction in the d.c. transients correlated with his distraction, and increased proficiency for scholastic performance. These results strongly suggest that applying precise spatially distributed magnetic field equivalents matched for each EEG sensor through solenoids with microTesla intensities may be able to normalize aberrant electrophysiological activity and to improve cognitive deficits."

Although the intensities used in the previous experiments are low, it has been demonstrated that the brain is capable to detect even lesser intensities, in [60] experiment demonstrated that when geomagnetic activity in the earth is at slightly altered stormy condition, even a fixed "death" brain senses it in a specific manner when the provoked microvolt fluctuations causes an increases of alpha power in the right parahippocampal gyrus:

" Here we report for the first time that fixed human tissue during specific stimulation displayed significant enhancement with geomagnetic activity and the effect was prominent within the right hemisphere. In addition we demonstrate that the specific patterns of physiologically patterned magnetic fields that are most effective for producing powerful subjective experiences also elicited the greatest response from the fixed brain tissue."

One of the possible mechanism for those subtle energy detection may reside in the ion cyclotron resonance of the different bio-molecules.

Ion Cyclotron

In a somewhat extended line of research, very low intensity ELF-EMF in the order of the geomagnetic field intensity or less are used at frequencies that correspond to ion cyclotron frequencies of specific molecules, for example in case of ca2+ [40]:

" Ca2+ ions within the specific centers of Ca2+binding proteins are the primary target of the magnetic field. Bound Ca2+ is regarded as an isotropic charged oscillator, and the MF causes precession of the axis of the Ca2+ oscillator vibration. Significant changes in the character of precession, as well as in the time average value of the degree of polarization of the oscillations of Ca2+ in a plane perpendicular to MF direction, can be induced if an alternating low frequency MF with specific resonance parameters is applied ... A low frequency MF with Ca2+ ion resonance parameters (Ca2+MF) causes a change in the Ca2+ binding constant of the protein, that is, a change in the duration of Ca2+ association with the Ca2+ binding center of the molecule, by approximately one order of magnitude."

In the mentioned experimental paper using the calculated frequency of 18.5 HZ (third harmonic of the main “cyclotron” frequency) a considerable effect on the level of activity of Ca2+ dependent proteinases is achieved, which is further confirmed in [41]. Use of the Ca2+ main cyclotron frequency at 7 Hz is decided in [15] where an important change in shape and morphology with the outgrowth of neuritic-like structures together with a lower proliferation rate and metabolic activity is achieved for human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells.

In the review [42], in the first table, is visible the calculated ion cyclotron frequencies, those are for 0.001 mT “environmental” static MF intensity, for other intensities simply it must be multiply, for example the ICR for Ca2+ at 0.01 mT will be 7.6 Hz. In table 2 are listed various experiments with different outcomes where Ca2+ ICR was used with intensities ranging from 0.010 mT to 0.060 mT (as comparison, earth geomagnetic fields range proximately from 0.025 mT to 0.065 mT). As mentioned, It must be said that ICR experiments also involve a static magnetic field with a strength that is in the same order of magnitude, to emulate in a controlled way a geomagnetic static MF.

In another experiment where is used the hydronium (H3O+) ion cyclotron frequency [43] it is found that:

" ... under ICR stimulation water undergoes a transition to a form that is hydroxonium-like, with the subsequent emission of a transient 48.5 Hz magnetic signal, in the absence of any other measurable field. Our results indicate that hydronium resonance stimulation alters the structure of water, enhancing the concentration of EZ-water. These results are not only consistent with Del Giudice’s model of electromagnetically coherent domains, but they can also be interpreted to show that these domains exist in quantized spin states."

For more on Exclusion Zone (EZ) water you can see the section [27].

Further confirmation of this effects come in [44] where weak magnetic field (50 nT) hydronium ICR at the field combination of 7.84 Hz, 7.5 µT, markedly changes water structure, as evidenced by the finding of an altered index of refraction exactly at this combined field.

Ion cyclotron frequencies of higher harmonics are used in a recent Nature publication [45] where ICR related frequency components significantly increased bone formation activity and it slightly increased bone resorption activity indirectly on mice. The frequencies used in this experiment are based on the following premises:

" According to ICR model, the resonant frequencies of many biologically important ions, such as Na + , K + and Ca 2+ , are intermittent frequency points and fall within 1–100 Hz 23, 25 . Apart from the fundamental frequency of resonant frequencies, when the frequency of EMF is equal to higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequencies, the biological resonant effectiveness might also be attained 26, 27 . Moreover, these higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequencies of the biologically relevant ions is blow 3,000 Hz 24 . In addition, high frequency EMF is also capable of inducing osteogenic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells 28 . Therefore, we designed four kinds of EMF with different frequency spectrum bands (1–100 Hz, 100–3,000 Hz, 3,000–50,000 Hz and 1–50,000 Hz), among which 1–100 Hz and 100–3,000 Hz are designated as ICR frequency bands."

Ion cyclotron resonance also was used to suppress atrial fibrillation [46] in an experiment that use very low intensity fields (4 orders of magnitude less than geomagnetic fields) applied over different levels of the cardiac autonomic nervous system of dogs, and the authors believe that the effect is due to some form of subtle resonance related to neurotransmitters, they calculated ICR for vasostatin-1 a critical element in suppressing the activity of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system.

A review on ICR can be found in [47].

Related Investigations

Very related and complementary are the researches that pay more attention to the possible pernicious effects of the indiscriminate artificial ELF-EMF generated in this technological and industrial era, and that are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. There is a section dedicated to that [48], where it can be found, as example, an interesting study that speak about radiation effects on the secondary structure of proteins [49] among others.

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10. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Water – Information transfer

11. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Water - Coherence Domains

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20. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Cancer

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27. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Water – Exclusion Zones

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30. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & DNA

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48. EMMIND › Extremely Low Frequencies Hazards › ELF-EMF Hazards Experiments

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Very related sections:

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text updated: 39/09/2018
tables updated: 28/10/2019

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Aavailable in HTMLEnhanced osteogenesis of bone marrow stem cells cultured on hydroxyapatite/collagen I scaffold in the presence of low-frequency magnetic field15 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Huaixi Wang, Xiangyu Tang, Wenkai Li, Jingyuan Chen, Hao Li, Jiyuan Yan, Xuefeng Yuan, Hua Wu, Chaoxu Liu
Aavailable in HTMLExtremely low frequency magnetic field induces human neuronal differentiation through NMDA receptor activation-No comments yet icon2019-(1)Alp Özgün, Ana Marote, Leo A. Behie, António Salgado, Bora Garipcan
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubNon-Ionizing Radiation for Cardiac Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Commitment: A Physical Strategy in Regenerative Medicine (ICR)7 Hz - 0.0025 mTCommentary icon2018-(17)Mario Ledda, Enrico D’Emilia, Maria Grazia Lolli, Rodolfo Marchese, Claudio De Lazzari, Antonella Lisi
Favailable in PDF and HTMLExtremely low frequency electromagnetic fields promote mesenchymal stem cell migration by increasing intracellular Ca2+ and activating the FAK/Rho GTPases signaling pathways in vitro7.5-50 Hz - 1mTNo comments yet icon2018-(10)Yingchi Zhang, Jiyuan Yan, Haoran Xu, Yong Yang, Wenkai Li, Hua Wu, Chaoxu Liu
Favailable in PDF and HTMLOlfactory memory is enhanced in mice exposed to extremely low- frequency electromagnetic fields via Wnt/β-catenin dependent modulation of subventricular zone neurogenesis50 Hz - 1 mTCommentary icon2018-(15)Alessia Mastrodonato, Saviana Antonella Barbati, Lucia Leone, Claudia Colussi, Katia Gironi, Marco Rinaudo, Roberto Piacentini, Christine A. Denny, Claudio Grassi
Aavailable in HTMLExtremely low-frequency electromagnetic field induces neural differentiation of hBM-MSCs through regulation of (Zn)-metallothionein-3-No comments yet icon2017-(1)Anastasia Rosebud Aikins, Sung-Won Hong, Hyun-Jung Kim, Cheol-Ho Yoon, Joo-Hee Chung, MiJung Kim, Chan-Wha Kim
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubExtremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Affect Myogenic Processes in C2C12 Myoblasts: Role of Gap-Junction-Mediated Intercellular Communication50 Hz, 0.1-1 mTCommentary icon2017-(11)Caterina Morabito, Nathalie Steimberg, Francesca Rovetta, Jennifer Boniotti, Simone Guarnieri, Giovanna Mazzoleni, Maria A. Mariggiò
Aavailable in HTMLExtremely low-frequency electromagnetic field promotes astrocytic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by modulating SIRT1 expression50 Hz, 1 mTNo comments yet icon2017-(1)Won-Yong Jeong, Jun-Beom Kim, Hyun-Jung Kim, Chan-Wha Kim
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEffects of Electromagnetic Stimulation on Gene Expression of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Repair of Bone Lesions15 Hz, 0.2 mTCommentary icon2016-(11)Maryam Jazayeri, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Nooshin Haghighipour, Bahram Bolouri, Fereshteh Mirahmadi, Mehdi Farokhi
Aavailable in HTMLElectromagnetic Fields and Stem Cell Fate: When Physics Meets Biology-Commentary icon2016-(1)Sara Hassanpour Tamrin, Fatemeh Sadat Majedi, Mahdi Tondar, Amir Sanati-Nezhad , Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi
Favailable in PDF and HTMLExtremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Promote In Vitro Neuronal Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells via Up-Regulating TRPC150 Hz - 1 mTCommentary icon2016-(21)Qinlong Ma, Chunhai Chen, Ping Deng, Gang Zhu, Min Lin, Lei Zhang, Shangcheng Xu, Mindi He, Yonghui Lu, Weixia Duan, Huifeng Pi, Zhengwang Cao, Liping Pei, Min Li , Chuan Liu, Yanwen Zhang, Min Zhong, Zhou Zhou, Zhengping Yu
Favailable in PDFThe effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in rats with cerebral ischemia50 Hz - 1 mTCommentary icon2016-(170)Gao Qiang
Aavailable in HTMLExtremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields enhance the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells cultured from ischemic brains50 Hz - 0.4 mTCommentary icon2015-(1)Yannana Cheng, Yiqina Dai, Ximina Zhu, Haochena Xu, Pinga Cai, Ruohongb Xia, Lizhenc Mao, Bing-Qiaoa Zhao, Wenyinga Fan
Favailable in PDFElectromagnetic Fields Mediate Efficient Cell Reprogramming Into a Pluripotent State50 Hz - 1 mTCommentary icon2014-(14)Soonbong Baek, Xiaoyuan Quan, Soochan Kim, Christopher Lengner, Jung-Keug Park, Jongpil Kim
Aavailable in HTMLStimulation of Neural Differentiation in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Incorporated with MNPs50 HzNo comments yet icon2014-(1)Yun-Kyong Choi, Dong Heon Lee, Young-Kwon Seo, Hyun Jung, Jung-Keug Park, Hyunjin Cho
Aavailable in HTMLEgr1 mediated the neuronal differentiation induced by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(1)Yeju Seong, Jihye Moon, Jongpil Kim
Favailable in PDFEpigenetic Modulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis by Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields50 Hz - 1 mTCommentary icon2014-(15)Lucia Leone, Salvatore Fusco,Alessia Mastrodonato, Roberto Piacentini, Saviana Antonella Barbati, Salvatore Zaffina, Giovambattista Pani, Maria Vittoria Podda, Claudio Grassi
Aavailable in HTMLThe Time-Dependent Manner of Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Fields on Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proliferation, Differentiation, and Mineralization15 Hz - 1 mTCommentary icon2014-(1)Ming-Yu Song, Ji-Zhe Yu, Dong-Ming Zhao, Sheng Wei, Yang Liu, Yue-Ming Hu, Wen-Chun Zhao, Yong Yang, Hua Wu
Favailable in PDFElectromagnetic fields induce neural differentiation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells via ROS mediated EGFR activation50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2013-(7)Jeong-Eun Park, Young-Kwon Seo, Hee-Hoon Yoon, Chan-Wha Kim, Jung-Keug Park, Songhee Jeon
Experimental application of ELF-EMF on Neurons & Brain Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffects of Non-Focused ELF-EMF Treatment on EEG: Preliminary Study1-56 Hz - 0.02 mTCommentary icon2019-(15)Alessandro Greco, Alberto Garoli
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on hippocampal long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 region15-100 Hz - 0.5-2 mTNo comments yet icon2019-(1)Yu Zheng, Jianhao Cheng, Lei Dong, Xiaoxu Ma, Qingyao Kong
Favailable in PDFThe nature of axonal arborization occurring under the action of low frequency electromagnetic fields (water)0-100 HzCommentary icon2018-(5)Y. V. Pivovarenko
Favailable in PDF and HTMLNeural Tissues Filter Electromagnetic Fields: Investigating Regional Processing of Induced Current in Ex vivo Brain Specimens2O nT (geomagnetic), 0.002-0.010 mTCommentary icon2017-(7)Nicolas Rouleau, Michael A Persinger
Favailable in PDFPersistent Improvements in the Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEG) Profile of a Patient Diagnosed With Toxic Encephalopathy by Weekly Application of Multifocal Magnetic Fields Generated by the QEEG of a Normal Person0.001-0.007 mTCommentary icon2016-(19)Kevin S. Saroka, Andrew E. Pellegrini, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDFExtremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Facilitate Vesicle Endocytosis by Increasing Presynaptic Calcium Channel Expression at a Central Synapse50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2016-(11)Zhi-cheng Sun, Jian-long Ge, Bin Guo, Jun Guo, Mei Hao Yi-chen Wu, Yi-an Lin, Ting La, Pan-tong Yao, Yan-ai Mei, Yi Feng, Lei Xue
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Ischemic Stroke in a Rat Stroke Model: Clinical, Imaging, and Pathological Findings3.9-17.2 Hz - 0.05 mTCommentary icon2015-(12)Y. Segal, L. Segal, T. Blumenfeld-Katzir, E. Sasson, V. Poliansky, E. Loeb, A. Levy, A. Alter, N. Bregman
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of two different waveforms of ELF MF on bioelectrical activity of antennal lobe neurons of Morimus funereus (Insecta, Coleoptera)50 Hz - 2 mTNo comments yet icon2015-(1)Dajana Todorović, Zlatko Prolić, Branka Petković, Aleksandar Kalauzi
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubNeuronal Cellular Responses to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure: Implications Regarding Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(10)Marcella Reale, Mohammad A. Kamal, Antonia Patruno, Erica Costantini, Chiara D’Angelo, Miko Pesce, Nigel H. Greig
Aavailable in HTMLExposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields alters the calcium dynamics of cultured entorhinal cortex neurons50 Hz - 1-3 mTCommentary icon2014-(1)Fen-Lan Luoa, Nian Yanga, Chao Hea, Hong-Li Lib, Chao Lia, Fang Chena, Jia-Xiang Xionga, Zhi-An Hua, Jun Zhang
Favailable in PDFFacilitation of Declarative Memory and Congruent Brain States by Applications of Weak, Patterned Magnetic Fields: The Future of Memory Access?1 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(13)Paula L. Corradini, Mark W. G. Collins, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDFInvestigation of EEG changes during exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field to conduct brain signals3-45 Hz - 0.1 mT, 0.24 mT, 0.36 mTCommentary icon2014-(7)S. A. Shafiei, S. M. Firoozabadi, K. Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaie, M. Ghaba
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubExtremely low frequency magnetic field (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) reduces oxidative stress in the brain of gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia50 Hz - 0.5 mTCommentary icon2014-(10)Snezana Raus Balind, Vesna Selakovic, Lidija Radenovic, Zlatko Prolic, Branka Janac
Favailable in PDF and HTMLExposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Modulates Na+ Currents in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells through Increase of AA/PGE2 and EP Receptor-Mediated cAMP/PKA Pathway50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2013-(13)Yan-Lin He, Dong-Dong Liu, Yan-Jia Fang, Xiao-Qin Zhan, Jin-Jing Yao, Yan-Ai Me
Favailable in PDFEffect of low-frequency magnetic fields on brain electrical activity in human subjects60 HzNo comments yet icon2004-(7)Andrew A. Marino, Erik Nilsen, Andrew L. Chesson Jr., Clifton Frilot
Favailable in PDFOn the possibility of directly accessing every human brain by electromagnetic induction of fundamental algorithms-No comments yet icon1995-(10)Michael A. Persinger
Experimental application of ELF-EMF (Various) Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFCellular calcium concentration changes as a response to intercellular periodic signals and cell synchronization16-45 Hz - 0.000178 mTCommentary icon2019-(9)Yongjun Zhou
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEvaluation of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the growth of bacteria Escherichia colivarious - 0.1-3 mTNo comments yet icon2019-(11)Yu Chen, Zhongzhen Cai, Qian Feng, Peng Gao, Yongdong Yang, Xuemei Bai, Bruce Q. Tang
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubIon Cyclotron Resonance: Results and Prospects for Psychiatry (ICR)10-50 Hz - 0.010-0.015 mTNo comments yet icon2019-(9)Mario Betti, Marco Paolo Carlo Picchi, Marco Saettoni, Alessandro Greco
Favailable in PDF and HTMLA high throughput screening system of coils for ELF magnetic fields experiments: proof of concept on the proliferation of cancer cell lines (some Schumann resonance frequencies)7 Hz, 7.8 Hz, 14.1 Hz, 21 Hz - 0.02-0.18 mTCommentary icon2019-(10)Leonardo Makinistian, Eva Marková, Igor Belyaev
Favailable in PDFSpecific low frequency electromagnetic fields induce epigenetic and functional changes in U937 cells20-3200 Hz - 0.02-0.4 mTNo comments yet icon2018-(14)Giulia Pinton, Angelo Ferraro, Massimo Balma, Laura Moro
Favailable in PDFExtremely low- frequency electromagnetic fields accelerates wound healing modulating MMP- 9 and inflammatory cytokines50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2018-(10)A. Patruno, A. Ferrone, E. Costantini, S. Franceschelli, M. Pesce, L. Speranza, P. Amerio, C. D'Angelo, M. Felaco, A. Grilli, M. Reale
Favailable in PDFTowards a mechanism of action of a weak magnetic field on bacterial growth20-50 Hz - 0.5 mTCommentary icon2018-(49)Kevin G. Do
Favailable in PDFEffective dose analysis of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field exposure to growth of S. termophilus, L. lactis, L. acidophilus bacteria? - 0.1-0.3 mTCommentary icon2018-(11)Sudarti, T. Prihandono, Yushardi, Z. R. Ridlo, A. Kristinawati
Aavailable in HTMLNonthermal control of Escherichia coli growth using extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELF-EM) waves0.1-1 Hz - 0.0006 mTCommentary icon2018-(1)F. F. Al-Harbi, Dalal H. M. Alkhalifah, Zainab M. Elqahtani, Fadel M Ali, Shaimaa A. Mohamed, A. M. M. Abdelbacki
Aavailable in HTMLInfluences of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Germination and Early Growth of Mung Beans7.83 Hz - 0.3 mTCommentary icon2018-(1)Pao-Cheng Huang, Jing-Yau Tang, Chen-Hui Feng, Po-Yuan Cheng, Ling-Sheng Jang
Favailable in PDFInfluence of Ca2+ Cyclotron Resonance-tuned Magnetic Fields on Germination and Growth of Wheat Seedlings (ICR)11 Hz, 16 Hz - 0.1-0.3 mTCommentary icon2018-(11)Krzysztof Kornarzyński, Siemowit Muszyński
Favailable in PDFThe Role of Lipid Peroxidation and Myeloperoxidase in Priming a Respiratory Burst in Neutrophils under the Action of Combined Constant and Alternating Magnetic Fields1-16.5 Hz - 0.00086 mTNo comments yet icon2017-(5)V. V. Novikov, E. V. Yablokova, G. V. Novikov, E. E. Fesenko
Favailable in PDFEvidence of Immune Stimulation Following Short-Term Exposure to Specific Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields20-5000 Hz - 0.005 mTCommentary icon2017-(7)M. K. Wiese, L. de Jager, C. E. Brand
Favailable in PDF and HTMLActivation of Signaling Cascades by Weak Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields50 Hz - 0.001-1 mTCommentary icon2017-(14)Einat Kapri-Pardes, Tamar Hanoch, Galia Maik-Rachline, Manuel Murbach , Patricia L. Bounds, Niels Kuster, Rony Seger
Aavailable in HTMLmiRNA expression profile is altered differentially in the rat brain compared to blood after experimental exposure to 50 Hz and 1 mT electromagnetic field50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2017-(1)Mehmet Emil Erdal, Senay Görücü Yilmaz, Serkan Gürgül, Cosar Uzun, Didem Derici, Nurten Erdal
Favailable in PDFExposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field induced mitochondrial permeability transition through the ROS/GSK-3β signaling pathway50 Hz - 0.4 mTNo comments yet icon2016-(8)Baihuan Feng , Liping Qiu , Chunmei Ye , Liangjing Chen , Yiti Fu and Wenjun Sun
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe activation of melanogenesis by p-CREB and MITF signaling with extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on B16F10 melanoma30-100 Hz - 2 mTCommentary icon2016-(8)Yu-Mi Kim, Sang-Eun Cho, Young-Kwon Seo
Favailable in PDFWeak-field H3O+ ion cyclotron resonance alters water refractive index (ICR)1.82-7.85 Hz - 0.00005 mTCommentary icon2016-(25)Settimio Grimaldi, Antonella Lisi, Mario Ledda, Abraham Liboff, Livio Giuliani, Alberto Foletti
Favailable in PDFStudy of a bionic system for health enhancements (Earth frequencies & intensities)0.5-18 Hz - 0.000006-0.001 mTCommentary icon2016-(15)Shujun Zhang, Michael Clark, Donghui Chen, Luquan Ren
Favailable in PDF and HTMLThe Effect of Electromagnetic Field Treatment on Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury in a Rat Model – Clinical and Imaging Findings15.7-23 Hz - 0.05 mTNo comments yet icon2016-(6)Yaron Segal, Lear Segal, Ester Shohami, Efrat Sasson, Tamar Blumenfeld-Katzir, Abraham Cohen, Aharon Levy, Ariela Alter
Favailable in PDF and HTMLElectromagnetic fields in the treatment of chronic lower back pain in patients with degenerative disc disease0.92-9.6 Hz - 0.0033 - 0.0343 nTNo comments yet icon2016-(8)Amarjit S. Arneja, Alan Kotowich, Doug Staley, Randy Summers, Paramjit S. Tappi
Aavailable in HTMLThe effects of low-frequency magnetic field exposure on the growth and biochemical parameters in lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.)16Hz, 50Hz - 0.2 mTCommentary icon2016-(1)M. Mroczek-Zdyrska, K. Kornarzyński, S. Pietruszewski, M. Gagoś
Aavailable in HTMLThe effect of a low-frequency electromagnetic field on DNA molecules in aqueous solutions7.5-30 Hz - 0.03-0.05 mTCommentary icon2016-(1)E. E. Tekutskaya, M. G. Barishev, G. P. Ilchenko
Favailable in PDFEstablishing a Mechanism for the Effects of Specific Patterned Electromagnetic Fields at the Molecular Level Using Fragmented Bacteria (water)6-25 Hz - 0.0003-0.0038 mTCommentary icon2015-(26)Ryan Bidal
Aavailable in HTMLEffects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Metabolism of Lubricin of Rat Chondrocytes75 Hz - 2.3 mTCommentary icon2015-(1)Wei Wang, Wenkai Li, Mingyu Song, Sheng Wei, Chaoxu Liu, Yong Yang, Hua Wu
Favailable in PDFEffect of electromagnetic field on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a human mu-opioid receptor cell model5 Hz - 0.0015 mTNo comments yet icon2015-(9)Christina L. Ross, Thaleia Teli, Benjamin S. Harrison
Favailable in PDFNon‐thermal extremely low frequency magnetic field effects on opioid related behaviors: Snails to humans, mechanisms to therapy-Commentary icon2015-(17)Frank S. Prato
Favailable in PDFModulation of Ca2+ Dependent Proteolysis under the Action of Weak Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ICR)18.5 Hz - 0.044 mT + SmF - 0.024 mTCommentary icon2015-(6)N. P. Kantserova, L. A. Lysenko, N. V. Ushakova, V. V. Krylov, N. N. Nemova
Favailable in PDFThe Use of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields to Suppress Atrial Fibrillation (ICR)0.92 Hz - 0.0034 nTCommentary icon2015-(29)Lilei Yu, John W. Dyer, Benjamin J. Scherlag , Stavros Stavrakis, Yong Sha, Xia Sheng, Paul Garabelli, Jerry Jacobson, Sunny S. Po
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of low-frequency magnetic field on formation of pigments of Monascus purpureus0.4 mTNo comments yet icon2015-(1)Jialan Zhang, Dongjie Zeng, Cui Xu, Mengxiang Gao
Aavailable in HTMLExtremely low-frequency magnetic fields affect pigment production of Monascus purpureus in liquid-state fermentation0.1 - 1.2 mTCommentary icon2014-(1)J. Zhang, K. Zhou, L. Wang, M. Gao
Favailable in PDF and HTMLMagnetic Field Configurations Corresponding to Electric Field Patterns That Evoke Long-Term Potentiation Shift Power Spectra of Light Emissions from Microtubules from Non-Neural Cells0.001 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(8)Blake T. Dotta, David A. E. Vares, Carly A. Buckner, Robert M. Lafrenie, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF and HTMLExposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields inhibits T-type calcium channels via AA/LTE4 signaling pathway50 Hz - 0.2 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(11)Yujie Cui, Xiaoyu Liu, Tingting Yang, Yan-Ai Mei, Changlong Hu
FLorentz force in water: evidence that hydronium cyclotron resonance enhances polymorphism (ICR)33.72 Hz - 0.042 mT + SmF - 0.010 mTCommentary icon2014-(13)E. D’Emilia, L. Giuliani, A. Lisi, M. Ledda, S. Grimaldi, L. Montagnier, A.R. Liboff
Favailable in PPTXWater: a universal amplifier for the signals of life (ICR)-No comments yet icon2014-(23)Livio Giuliani, Enrico D’emilia, Nikolaj Blom
Favailable in PDFIon Cyclotron Resonance interactions in living systems (ICR)-Commentary icon2013-(14)Abraham R. Liboff
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubNon Ionising Radiation as a Non Chemical Strategy in Regenerative Medicine: Ca2+-ICR ‘‘In Vitro’’ Effect on Neuronal Differentiation and Tumorigenicity Modulation in NT2 Cells (ICR)7 Hz - 0.002 mT + SmF - 0.010 mTCommentary icon2013-(12)Mario Ledda, Francesca Megiorni, Deleana Pozzi, Livio Giuliani, Enrico D’Emilia, Sara Piccirillo, Cristiana Mattei, Settimio Grimaldi, Antonella Lisi
Favailable in PDFModulation of Ca2+ Dependent Protease Activity in Fish and Invertebrates by Weak LowFrequency Magnetic Fields (ICR)18.5 Hz - 0.044 mT + SmF - 0.024 mTCommentary icon2013-(5)N. P. Kantserovaa,, N. V. Ushakovab, V. V. Krylovb, L. A. Lysenkoa, N. N. Nemova
Favailable in PDFExposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields inhibits T-type calcium channels via AA / LTE4 signaling pathway50 Hz - 0.2 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(34)Yujie Cui, Xiaoyu Liu, Tingting Yang, Yan-Ai Mei, Changlong Hu
Favailable in PDF and HTMLCombined Effects of 50 Hz Magnetic Field and Magnetic Nanoparticles on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of PC12 Cells50 HzNo comments yet icon2014-(9)Hong Li Jia, Chao Wang, Yue Li, Yan Lu, Ping Ping Wang, Wei Dong Pan, Tao Song
Favailable in PDFEffects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells50 Hz - 1 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(7)Antonia Patruno, Shams Tabrez, Mirko Pesce, Shazi Shakil, Mohammad A. Kamal, Marcella Reale
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubEffects of Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure on Stress Related Behaviors and Stress Hormones in Male Wistar Rats1-5 Hz - 0.1 mTCommentary icon2014-(7)Seyed Mohammad Mahdavi, Hedayat Sahraei, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Hassan Tavakoli
Aavailable in HTMLEMOST: elimination of chronic constipation and diarrhea by low-frequency and intensity electromagnetic fields-No comments yet icon2014-(1)István Bókkon, Attila Erdőfi-Szabó, Attila Till, Tünde Lukács, Éva Erdőfi-Nagy
Favailable in PDFDNA and Cell Reprogramming Via Epigenetic Information Delivered by Magnetic Fields, Sound Vibration and Coherent Water-No comments yet icon2013-(18)Carlo Ventura, Rollin McCraty
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubInhibition of Angiogenesis Mediated by Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MFs)50 Hz - 2 mTNo comments yet icon2013-(11)Simona Delle Monache, Adriano Angelucci, Patrizia Sanita, Roberto Iorio, Francesca Bennato, Fabrizio Mancini, Giancaterino Gualtieri, Rosella Cardigno Colonna
Favailable in PDFHuman osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) systems: a comparative study-No comments yet icon2013-(9)Claudio Corallo, Nila Volpi, Daniela Franci, Daniela Vannoni, Roberto Leoncini, Giacomo Landi, Massimo Guarna, Antonio Montella, Antonietta Albanese,...
Favailable in PDFTherapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields in the treatment of muskuloskeletal disorders-Commentary icon2012-(11)C. Corallo, M. Rigato, E. Battisti, A. Albanese, S. Gonnelli, N. Giordano
Favailable in PDFExtra-Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields alter Cancer Cells through Metabolic Restriction60 HzNo comments yet icon2012-(20)Ying Li, Paul Héroux
Favailable in PDFThe Effects of Hypoxia, Metabolic Restriction and Magnetic Fields on Chromosome Instability and Karyotype Contraction in Cancer Cell Lines-No comments yet icon2012- (169)Ying Li
Favailable in PDFBioelectromagnetic medicine: The role of resonance signaling (ICR)(review)-No comments yet icon2012-(16)Alberto Foletti, Settimio Grimaldi, Antonella Lisi, Mario Ledda, Abraham R. Liboff
Favailable in PDFAnalgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine-Commentary icon2012-(10)Ioannis I. Verginadis, Yannis V. Simos, Anastasia P. Velalopoulou, Athina N. Vadalouca, Vicky P. Kalfakakou, Spyridon Ch. Karkabounas, Angelos M. Evangelou
Aavailable in HTMLEffect of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure on DNA transposition in relation to frequency, wave shape and exposure time25-75 HzNo comments yet icon2011-(1)Gianfranco Giorgi, Pamela Marcantonio, Ferdinando Bersani, Entelë Gavoçi, and Brunella Del re
Favailable in PDFIon Cyclotron Bioresonance in Regenerative Medicine (ICR)-No comments yet icon2009-(3)Alberto Foletti, Settimio Grimaldi
Favailable in PDFTherapeutic efficacy of TAMMEF (Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Field) system in carpal tunnel syndrome-Commentary icon2005-(5)E. Battisti, A. Albanese, F. Ginanneschi, L. Bianciardi, M. Rigato, A. Orsi, N. Giordano
ELF-EMF used as Anti-Cancer treatment Go to submenu

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Aavailable in HTMLThe Effects of Bio-inspired Electromagnetic Fields on Normal and Cancer Cells0.5 Hz - 0.035-0.037 mTCommentary icon2019-(1)Xuelei Liu, Zongming Liu, Zhenning Liu, Shujun Zhang, Kamal Bechkoum, Michael Clark, Luquan Ren
Aavailable in HTMLAntitumor effects of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the 1H-NMR spectrum of Ph3Sn(Mercaptonicotinic)SnPh3 complex-No comments yet icon2019-(1)Ioannis I. Verginadis, Spyridon Ch. Karkabounas, Yannis V. Simos, Anastasia P. Velalopoulou, Dimitrios Peschos, Antonis Avdikos, Ioannis Zelovitis, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Evangelia Dounousi, Vasilios Ragos, Angelos M. Evangelou
Aavailable in HTMLThe extremely low frequency electromagnetic stimulation selective for cancer cells elicits growth arrest through a metabolic shift-No comments yet icon2019-(1)Loredana Bergandi, Umberto Lucia, Giulia Grisolia, Riccarda Granata, Iacopo Gesmundo, Antonio Ponzetto, Emilio Paolucci, Romano Borchiellini, Ezio Ghigo, Francesca Silvagno
Favailable in PDFApplication of dynamic magnetic fields to B16-BL6 melanoma cells linked with decrease in cellular viability after short exposures10-100 Hz - 0.0001-0.00025 mTNo comments yet icon2018-(11)Lucas W.E. Tessaro, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Robert M. Lafrenie, Michael A. Persinger
Aavailable in HTMLThe effects of electromagnetic fields on B16-BL6 cells are dependent on their spatial and temporal character6-25 HzNo comments yet icon2016-(1)Carly A. Buckner, Alison L. Buckner, Stan A. Koren, Michael A. Persinger, Robert M. Lafrenie
Favailable in PDFElimination of Frequency Modulated Magnetic Field Suppression of Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Simultaneous Exposure to a Pattern Associated With Memory in Mammals-No comments yet icon2016-(5)Nirosha J. Murugan, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF and HTMLSeeking the Source of Transience for a Unique Magnetic Field Pattern That Completely Dissolves Cancer Cells in Vitro0.003 - 0.005 mTCommentary icon2015-(13)Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Murugan, Stanley A. Koren, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF and HTMLInhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels6-25 Hz - 0.002- 0.010 mTNo comments yet icon2015-(15)Carly A. Buckner, Alison L. Buckner, Stan A. Koren, Michael A. Persinger, Robert M. Lafrenie
Favailable in PDF and HTMLEvidence of "Trapped" Voltage Spectrum Residuals within Mouse Melanoma Tumors for about 30 Minutes following brief Exposures to Treatment-Related, Physiologically-Patterned Magnetic Fields1-40 Hz - 0.001 mTCommentary icon2015-(5)Kevin S. Saroka, Lukasz M. Karbowski, Nirosha J. Muruga, Michael A. Persinger
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubElectromagnetic field investigation on different cancer cell lines50 Hz - 10 mTNo comments yet icon2014-(10)Nenad Filipovic, Tijana Djukic, Milos Radovic, Danijela Cvetkovic, Milena Curcic, Snezana Markovic, Aleksandar Peulic, Branislav Jeremic
Experimental findings on the application of Low Frequency (LF) EMF Go to submenu

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Favailable in PDFHelical water wires (ICR)-No comments yet icon2017-(6)A. R. Liboff, C. Poggi, P. Pratesi
Aavailable in HTMLReduced viability of two prokaryotic organisms treated by low frequency electromagnetic field1-2 kHzCommentary icon2016-(1)Jan Barabas, Michal Zabovsky, Katarina Zabovska, Ladislav Janoušek, Roman Radil, Ivona Malíková
Favailable in PDFImpact of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Candida Albicans (ICR)1.4 kHz - 1.6 mTCommentary icon2015-(5)Ivona Malíková, Ladislav Janoušek, Vladyslava Fantova, Jaroslav Jíra, Vítĕzslav Kříha
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubModification of S. cerevisiae Growth Dynamics Using Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in the 1-2kHz Range1-2 kHz - 2.37-2.49 mTNo comments yet icon2015-(6)Ján Barabáš, Roman Radil, Ivona Malíková
Favailable in PDFModulation effect of low-frequency electric and magnetic fields on CO2 production and rates of acetate and pyruvate formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell culture0.2-4.0 kHz - 0.13-0.72 mTNo comments yet icon2015-(12)Vladimir I. Makarov, Igor Khmelinskii
Aavailable in HTMLUsing medaka embryos as a model system to study biological effects of the electromagnetic fields on development and behavior3.2 kHz - 0.015-0.060 mTCommentary icon2014-(1)Wenjau Lee, Kun-Lin Yang
Favailable in PDFExternal control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields10-40 kHz - 2.6 mTCommentary icon2014-(15)Vladimir I. Makarov, Igor Khmelinskii
Aavailable in HTMLExternal control of the Drosophila melanogaster lifespan by combination of 3D oscillating low-frequency electric and magnetic fields-No comments yet icon2014-(1)Vladimir I. Makarov, Igor Khmelinskii

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