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Electromagnetism & Microtubules
The special role of microtubules in generating coherent vibrations and emissions

Pablo Andueza Munduate

Microtubules are essential cellular biopolymers that have more than a structural and cytoeskeletar function, as the majority of biological molecules and structures they are electrically polar and their vibrations generate electromagnetic fields, their internal protein folds mechanically and its structures vibrate generating electromagnetic fields, electric pulses can move along microtubules, and also they can serve as waveguide for photons. ...

Microtubules are the main constituents of the cellular cytoskeleton together with microtubule associated proteins (MAPs), intermediary filaments and actin filaments and they are specially abundant on neurons. The main characteristics of microtubules are well described in the papers listed below, here only will be pointed out some of their relationship with electromagnetic (EM) fields (and with an EM mind theory).

Theoretical treatments of the microtubule structure disclose their vibrational normal modes in a wide frequency range from acoustic to GHz frequencies, but we will follow for now the main theory presented here, because of it’s capacity to integrate the resonances and vibrations detected so far, so we can see that Sahu et al. [1] have controlled the grow of microtubules and also its constituents protein (tubulin) shape controlling them electromagnetically with certain resonant frequencies:

" We report remarkable observation that the pristine tubulins form the cylindrical shape without GTP molecule even in solution using particular resonance frequency of tubulin (Some resonance peaks for tubulins are: [37,46, 91, 137, 176, 281, 430] MHz; [9, 19, 78, 160, 224] GHz; [28, 88, 127, 340] THz. Some microtubule resonance peaks are: [120, 240, 320] kHz; [12,20, 22, 30, 101, 113, 185, 204] MHz; [3, 7, 13, 18] GHz."

And the idea is that in a particular protein (tubulin for example) the electromagnetic and mechanical oscillations have a common time or frequency region where, both electromagnetic and mechanical oscillations merge, so one can be manipulated with another. Although in the paper mentioned above they present experimental results, there is also one interesting theoretical prediction of resonant frequencies of microtubules and tubulins made by Cosic et al. [2] and based on the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM), a model that have its own dedicated section on this site [3].

It has been found experimentally [9] that there exists a collective terahertz vibration in microtubule’s tubulin dimmers that can be used to long range recognition of the appropriate polymerization rates (and since microtubule stiffness variation can affect whole cell morphology and intracellular transport, this could lead to changes in the timing of neuron firing and neuron function) that could be ‘masked’ if anesthetic molecules are added.

The microtubule itself also generate electromagnetic fields in the low frequency range, in [10] authors applied the patch clamp technique to two-dimensional Brain Microtubule sheets, to characterize their electrical properties and found that they generated cation-selective oscillatory electrical currents with a prominent a fundamental frequency at 29 Hz. (and as the explain several biological oscillatory phenomena display around 30 Hz cycles). A posterior investigation from the same group [11] but using in this case bundles of microtubules also revealed that they spontaneously generate electrical oscillations and bursts of electrical activity similar to action potentials with a prominent fundamental frequency at 39 Hz, that progressed through various periodic regimes.

In [12] a model to provide a realistic picture of the localization of energy in microtubules is created:

"... We establish that the electromechanical vibrations in MTs [microtubules] can generate an electromagnetic field in the form of an electric pulse (breathers) which propagates along MT serving as signaling pathway in neuronal cells. The DBs [discrete breathers] in MT can be viewed as a bit of information whose propagation can be controlled by an electric filed. They might perform the role of elementary logic gates, thus implementing a subneuronal mode of computation. The generated DBs present us with novel possibilities for the direct interaction between the local electromagnetic field and the cytoskeletal structures in neurons. Thus, we emphasize that the effect of discreteness and electric field plays a significant role in Mts."

On the other side, Georgiev et al. [4] predicted that the local electromagnetic fields support information that could be converted into specific protein tail tubulin conformational states, and in their paper include concepts like water order in the microtubule cavity and biophotonic emissions:

" Among the long-range order creating phenomena induced by the interaction between the water dipoles and the local electromagnetic field we may find a specific one in which the collective dynamics of the water electric dipole (WEDP) field in the spatial region of linear dimension up to 50 µm can give rise to a cooperative emission of coherent photons with induced energy by certain systems external to the quantum system of the electromagnetic field and the WEDP field."

As Pokorny et al. [5] reviews:

" Organization of bodies with macroscopic dimensions and synchronization of mutually dependent activity requires forces of corresponding extension. Excitation of coherent electromagnetic (EMG) field is considered to be an essential mechanism of biological functions. .. Sahu et al. [5, 6] measured resonant frequencies of isolated microtubules in the classical frequency range below 20 GHz, in the far infrared region in the range of 300–1500 cm−1 , and the UV absorption-emission spectrum. The frequency spectrum from 20 GHz to 100 GHz should be also analyzed."

In regard to the ultraviolet spectrum and microtubules we can speak about "biophotons and microtubules", and in this topic (and their relation to brain activity) there is an entire section on this site [6].

For example Nistreanu [7] described an hypothesis (also outlined in other papers) where

" Microtubules are considered as quantum cavities. Their role is to provide a single mode of biophoton field, in such a way that water molecules to be considered not as independent individuals, but rather as whole, in this manner water molecules are embedded in and interacting with a common radiation field. In the model proposed, collective behavior of water molecules is characterized by coherent water states analogous to Bloch states, whose main feature is to trap biophotons in a collective fashion."

Returning to current section, can be mentionable also the idea proposed by Zhao [8] where centrioles, that are formed by one microtubule in the center and nine triplicate around connected by motor proteins, functions as molecular dynamo rotating around the central micotubule:

" The rotation and electric oscillation of each centriole will generate a dynamic electromagnetic field that mimic the physical structure of the centriole, and the orthogonal arrangement of centrioles of each centrosome will result in the microtubules of the barrel structure of each centriole to cut the electromagnetic field generated by the other centriole when rotating (Figure 1). Such a natural design makes centrosome to function as a molecular dynamo, generating directional electron flow through the dipolar structure of each individual microtubule in the centrosome, transforming the energy from ATP to electric current."


1. Sahu, Satyajit, et al. "Live visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubule." Scientific reports 4 (2014).

2. Cosic, Irena, Katarina Lazar, and Drasko Cosic. "Prediction of Tubulin resonant frequencies using the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM)." IEEE transactions on nanobioscience 14.4 (2015): 491-496.

3. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › EM & Resonant Recognition Model

4. Georgiev, D.D., et al. "Solitonic effects of the local electromagnetic field on neuronal microtubules". (2013).

5. Pokorný, Jirı, et al. "Measurement of Electromagnetic Activity of Living Cells.". PIERS Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, July 6–9, 2015.

6. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Biophotons › Biophotons, Microtubules & Brain

7. Nistreanu, A. "Collective Behavior of Water Molecules in Microtubules." 3rd International Conference on Nanotechnologies and Biomedical Engineering. Springer Singapore, 2016.

8. Zhao, Yue. "Centrosome Functions as a Molecular Dynamo in the Living Cell." Advances in bioscience and biotechnology (Print) 6.7 (2015): 452.

9. Craddock, Travis JA, et al. "Anesthetic alterations of collective terahertz oscillations in tubulin correlate with clinical potency: Implications for anesthetic action and post-operative cognitive dysfunction." Scientific reports 7.1 (2017): 9877.

10. del Rocío Cantero, María, et al. "Electrical oscillations in two-dimensional microtubular structures." Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 27143.

11. del Rocío Cantero, María, et al. "Bundles of Brain Microtubules Generate Electrical Oscillations." Scientific reports 8.1 (2018): 11899.

12. Kavitha, L., et al. "Localized discrete breather modes in neuronal microtubules." Nonlinear Dynamics 88.3 (2017): 2013-2033.

Very related sections:

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text updated: 09/09/2018
tables updated: 19/08/2018

Endogenous Fields & Mind
EM & Microtubules

Endogenous Electromagnetism & Microtubules

(F) Full or (A) Abstract

Available Formats



Publication Year (and Number of Pages)

Favailable in PDF and HTMLBundles of Brain Microtubules Generate Electrical OscillationsCommentary icon2018-(10)María del Rocío Cantero, Cecilia Villa Etchegoyen, Paula L. Perez, Noelia Scarinci, Horacio F. Cantiello
Aavailable in HTMLStationary multi-wave resonant ensembles in a microtubuleNo comments yet icon2018-(1)S.P. Nikitenkova, D.A. Kovriguine
Favailable in PDFTowards non-invasive cancer diagnostics and treatment based on electromagnetic fields, optomechanics and microtubulesNo comments yet icon2017-(11)V. Salari, Sh. Barzanjeh, M. Cifra, C. Simon, F. Scholkmann, Z. Alirezaei, J. A. Tuszynski
Favailable in PDF and HTMLAnesthetic Alterations of Collective Terahertz Oscillations in Tubulin Correlate with Clinical Potency: Implications for Anesthetic Action and Post-Operative Cognitive DysfunctionCommentary icon2017-(12)Travis J. A. Craddock, Philip Kurian, Jordane Preto, Kamlesh Sahu, Stuart R. Hamerof, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack A. Tuszynski
Aavailable in HTMLLocalized discrete breather modes in neuronal microtubulesCommentary icon2017-(1)L. Kavitha, E. Parasuraman, A. Muniyappan, D. Gopi, S. Zdravković
Favailable in PDF and HTMLElectrical Oscillations in Two-Dimensional Microtubular StructuresCommentary icon2016-(16)María del Rocío Cantero, Paula L. Perez, Mariano Smoler, Cecilia Villa Etchegoyen, Horacio F. Cantiello
Favailable in PDF and HTMLCentrosome Functions as a Molecular Dynamo in the Living CellNo comments yet icon2015-(4)Yue Zhao
Favailable in PDFAn improved nanoscale transmission line model of microtubule: The effect of nonlinearity on the propagation of electrical signalsNo comments yet icon2015-(10)Dalibor L. Sekulić, Miljko V. Satarić
Favailable in PDFMeasurement of Electromagnetic Activity of Living CellsNo comments yet icon2015-(5)Jirı Pokorny , Jan Pokorny , Jan Vrba, Jan Vrba Jr.
Favailable in PDF and HTMLLive visualizations of single isolated tubulin protein self-assembly via tunneling current: effect of electromagnetic pumping during spontaneous growth of microtubuleNo comments yet icon2014-(9)S. Ghosh, S. Sahu, D. Fujita, A. Bandyopadhyay
Favailable in PDFPrediction of Tubulin Resonant Frequencies Using the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM)No comments yet icon2014-(7)Irena Cosic, Katarina Lazar, Drasko Cosic
Aavailable in HTMLMulti-mode electro-mechanical vibrations of a microtubule: In silico demonstration of electric pulse moving along a microtubuleNo comments yet icon2014-(1)Daniel Havelka, Michal Cifra, Ondřej Kučera
Favailable in PDF, HTML and EpubElectro-Acoustic Behavior of the Mitotic Spindle: A Semi-Classical Coarse-Grained ModelNo comments yet icon2014-(13)Daniel Havelka, Ondrej Kucera, Marco A. Deriu, Michal Cifra
Favailable in PDFCalculation of vibration modes of mechanical waves on microtubules presented like strings and barsCommentary icon2014-(14)Atanas Todorov Atanasov
Favailable in PDFSolitonic effects of the local electromagnetic field on neuronal microtubulesCommentary icon2013-(25)Danko D. Georgiev, Stelios N. Papaioanou, James F. Glazebrook
Favailable in PDFElectric field generated by longitudinal axial microtubule vibration modes with high spatial resolution microtubule modelCommentary icon2011-(9)Michal Cifra, Daniel Havelka, Marco A. Deriu



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