Electromagnetism & Water - Coherence Domains
Effective water domains & clusters formation mediated by electromagnetic field
It is now know that coherent oscillations of electron clouds in water molecules occur, domains where electromagnetic fields that are trapped are the cause and consequence. In addition coherent oscillations of the electric dipoles of water molecules also occur with the appearance of a extended fluctuating electric field.  ...
So it can be viewed that at a very basic scale EM fields support the existence of possible informational structures in water, hydrogen binding between water molecules is the basis of water clusters formation with different energetic levels that produce special behaviors of water, association of these molecules close together produce coherent domains (CDs) that could generate special electromagnetic fields around them as a cause of impressibility from external fields.
As described in the abstract of this  Mae-Wan Ho paper:
" The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favouring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. ... Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function."
The existence of CDs is derived from Quantum Field Theory (QFT). In the conventional approach the importance of the collective effects has been recognized, the difference between the conventional approach and the QFT approach is just in the size of the aggregates of molecules. The aggregates emerging from the ab initio calculations, which use static interaction, only have a size of a few tens of Å at the most, whereas the water Coherent Domains (CDs) span over 0.1 m and include millions of molecules, because it is taken into account the electrodynamic interactions which have much greater reach than the static one.
The theoretical formulation of how these CDs are formed is well described in 
" An ensemble of molecules interacting with the radiative em field acquires, above a density threshold and below a critical temperature, a new non-trivial minimum energy state, different from the usual one where the oscillations of the molecules are uncorrelated and the em field is vanishing. The new minimum energy state implies a configuration of the system where all molecules enclosed within an extended region, denominated Coherence Domain (CD), oscillate in unison in tune with an em field trapped within the CD. The size of this extended region is just the wavelength λ of the trapped em field. The collective coherent oscillation of the molecules component the CD occurs between the individual molecule ground state and an excited state whose volume, according to atomic physics, is wider than the ground state volume. The wavelength λ of the trapped em field depends on the excitation energy Eexc through the equation (1)."
" The CD is a self-produced cavity for the em field because of the well known Anderson–Higgs–Kibble mechanism  which implies that the photon of the trapped em field acquires an imaginary mass, becoming therefore unable to leave the CD. It is just this self-trapping of the em field that guarantees that the CD energy has a finite lower bound. Because of this self-trapping the frequency of the CD em field becomes much smaller than the frequency of the free field having the same wavelength. The above results apply to all liquids. The peculiarity of water is that the coherent oscillation occurs between the ground state and an excited state lying at 12.06 eV just below the ionization threshold (12.60 eV). In the case of liquid water, the CD (whose size is 100 nm according to Eq. (1)) includes an ensemble of almost free electrons which are able to accept externally supplied energy and transform it into coherent excitations (vortices) whose entropy is much lower than the entropy of the incoming energy. Consequently, water CDs could become dissipative structures in the sense of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes -."
Because the existence of thermal noise there is a permanent crossover of molecules between a coherent regime and a non-coherent one, so in water the space distribution of these two phases that appear and disappear is continuously changing, in near surface water, almost all biological water, surface protects the coherent structure from the thermal noise, giving rise to a stabilization of the these structures.
Water CDs store externally supplied energy in form of coherent vortices, in a unique coherent excitation able to activate molecular electron degrees of freedom, this is a form of high grade energy (low entropy) arising from a sum of many small contributions that have high entropy.
As is continued in 
" CDs oscillate on a frequency common to the em field and the water molecules and this frequency changes when energy is stored in the CD. When the oscillation frequency of the CD matches the oscillation frequency of some non aqueous molecular species present on the CD boundaries, these “guest” molecules become members of the CD and are able to catch the whole stored energy, which becomes activation energy of the guest molecules; consequently, the CD gets discharged and a new cycle of oscillation could start."
For Ynnon and Liu  various types of Coherent domains can be described:
• CDrot -- these domains are composed of ferroelectric ordered H2O. These H2O coherently oscillate between two rotational states. CDrot formation results from the dipole moments of their H2O interacting with IR EMF. CDrot have an electric dipole moment due to the ferroelectric ordering of their H2O. In bulk water at ambient conditions, CDrot do not auto-organize. However, immersing objects with sizable asymmetric charge distributions (e.g., macromolecules, hydrophylic membranes) may induce their formation. ...
• CDplasma -- these domains are composed of few solvated ions and numerous H2O. The plasma oscillations of these ions are coherent. Interactions between the ions and tetra Herz to mega Herz EMF underlie the coherence. CDplasma are very stable domains. ...
• IPDplasma -- these domains are composed of few solvated ions and numerous H2O. The plasma oscillations of these ions are in phase i.e., an IPDplasma is a special CD -- an In-Phase Domain. Also the plasma oscillations of their H2O are in phase. Interactions between its molecules and tetra Herz to mega Herz EMF underlie all these in phase plasma oscillations. IPDplasma are crystalline structured. ...
Experimental evidence of coherent domains of tens of nanometers to micron size is found [5,6,7,8] more extensive are the theoretical evidences and also the experimental evidences for the existence of Exclusion Zones - that are domains of coherence domains or macroscopic coherence domains.
Macroscopic coherent domains can be formed because CDs are negatively charged at the periphery and at the same time, positively charged protons are extruded outside the domain (as it happens in water Exclusion Zones a very related issue that has it own section in this web ), consequently, these CDs can mimic dipole interaction to form a three-dimensional potentially perfectly symmetrical giant electret (dipole) structures of tens of nanometres to millimetres in dimension that they have already been photographed .
1. Del Giudice, Emilio, et al. "The origin and the special role of coherent water in living systems." Fels, D., Cifra, M. Fields of the Cell. Trivandrum Kerala, India: Research Signpost (2014): 91-107.
4. Yinnon, T. A., and Z. Q. Liu. "Domains Formation Mediated by Electromagnetic Fields in Very Dilute Aqueous Solutions: 2. Quantum Electrodynamic Analyses of Experimental Data on Strong Electrolyte Solutions." Water 7 (2015): 48-69
6. Shui-Yin Lo, Reply to the Comment by F. Kožíšek et al. on “Evidence for the existence of stable-water-clusters at room temperature and normal pressure” [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 3872], Physics Letters A, Volume 377, Issue 39, 22 November 2013, Pages 2828-2829, ISSN 0375-9601, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physleta.2013.07.059.
8. Elia, V., R. Germano, and E. Napoli. "Permanent dissipative structures in water: the matrix of life? Experimental evidences and their quantum origin." Current topics in medicinal chemistry 15.6 (2015): 559-571.
Very related sections:
↑ text updated: 10/06/2016
↓ tables updated: 25/03/2016