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Electromagnetic Mind - Other supporting
Fields participate in the synchronous firing of neurons and other facts to add

Pablo Andueza Munduate

Following the steps initialized in section dedicated to propose and describe how mind is constructed from a variety of electromagnetic (EM) fields [1], here are indicated various more facts and theories from where they can be extracted points that a complete EM based theory of mind maybe should add. ...

One important aspect that comprises various sections is how the synchronous neuronal firing, which generates coherent EM fields , is a strong correlate of attention, awareness and consciousness [2], how this synchronous firing generate cross-frequency interactions and coordinations also related to mind function [3] and how endogenous brain EM field is able to influence neuron firing in return [4].

For example, Watrous et al [5] advances the idea that oscillations provide a reference frame for phase-coded item representations during memory encoding and that shifts in oscillatory frequency and phase coordinate ensemble activity during memory retrieval. Georgiou et al. [6] show that a growing body of evidence suggests that oscillatory synchrony plays a crucial role in the selective communication of neuronal populations that encode the attended stimuli.

As mentioned, all those synchrony patterns are coordinated in a cross-frequency way, Bonnefond and Jensen [8] show that in visual tasks during the anticipatory pre-distractor period the phase of alpha oscillations was coupled with the power of high (80-120Hz) gamma band activity suggesting a mechanism of gating controlled by the gamma activity in relation to the phase of the alpha activity in the visual system. Or transcribing other examples, Mizuhara et al. [8] show that

" The slow EEG power was enhanced in association with the better accuracy of working memory retention, and accompanied cortical activities in the mnemonic circuits for the natural scene. Fast oscillation showed a phase-amplitude coupling to the slow oscillation, and its power was tightly coupled with the cortical activities for representing the visual images of natural scenes."

Voloh et al. [9] show that exists a

" .. robust increases of 5–10 Hz (theta) to 35–55 Hz (gamma) phase–amplitude correlation between Anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortex during successful attention shifts but not before errors."

etc, etc...

Need to be mentioned that endogenously generated fields are not just an “epiphenomenon" but play a fundamental role in neuronal processes. For example, electromagnetic fields from brain cells feed back to their generating cells and to other cells (ephaptic coupling) and for example, modulate the spiking timing of them, so EM consciousness is not a "ghost in the machine". Deng et al. [10] wrote:

" Endogenous field, evoked by structured neuronal network activity in vivo, is correlated with many vital neuronal processes. In this paper, the effects of endogenous fields on stochastic resonance (SR) in a randomly connected neuronal network are investigated. The network consists of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and the axonal conduction delays between neurons are also considered. Numerical results elucidate that endogenous field feedback results in more rhythmic macroscope activation of the network for proper time delay and feedback coefficient. The response of the network to the weak periodic stimulation can be notably enhanced by endogenous field feedback. Moreover, the endogenous field feedback delay plays a vital role in SR. We reveal that appropriately tuned delays of the feedback can either induce the enhancement of SR, appearing at every integer multiple of the weak input signal’s oscillation period, or the depression of SR, appearing at every integer multiple of half the weak input signal’s oscillation period for the same feedback coefficient."

And Anastassiou et al. [11] wrote

" The electrochemical processes that underlie neural function manifest themselves in ceaseless spatiotemporal field fluctuations. However, extracellular fields feed back onto the electric potential across the neuronal membrane via ephaptic coupling, independent of synapses. The extent to which such ephaptic coupling alters the functioning of neurons under physiological conditions remains unclear. To address this question, we stimulated and recorded from rat cortical pyramidal neurons in slices with a 12-electrode setup. We found that extracellular fields induced ephaptically mediated changes in the somatic membrane potential that were less than 0.5 mV under subthreshold conditions. Despite their small size, these fields could strongly entrain action potentials, particularly for slow (< 8 Hz) fluctuations of the extracellular field. Finally, we simultaneously measured from up to four patched neurons located proximally to each other. Our findings indicate that endogenous brain activity can causally affect neural function through field effects under physiological conditions."

On the other hand, in this section, are also enlisted a variety of papers that pointed to various interesting points that can be added to an electromagnetic mind theory, for example Goodman and Bercovich [12] propose a mutual electromagnetic induction in the axon-glial sheath association. Prevenslik [13] propose that QED induced radiation in EM signaling across the cleft between presynaptic and postsynaptic cells is shown to offer a reasonable alternative to chemical signaling problems that he describes in the paper. Or, as last example, Swain [14] propose a large upconversions and mode coupling between Fröhlich states (described in [15]) and biophotons (described and associated to neuronal function in section [16] of this site).

References:

1. Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › EM Mind - Principal

2. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › EM Mind - Other supporting › Brain Frequencies Various Phase Synchrony

3. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › EM Mind - Other supporting › Brain Frequencies Cross-Frequency

4. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › EM Mind - Other supporting › Ephaptic coupling

5. Watrous, Andrew J., et al. "More than spikes: common oscillatory mechanisms for content specific neural representations during perception and memory." Current opinion in neurobiology 31 (2015): 33-39.

6. Gregoriou, Georgia G., Sofia Paneri, and Panagiotis Sapountzis. "Oscillatory synchrony as a mechanism of attentional processing." Brain research 1626 (2015): 165-182.

7. Bonnefond, Mathilde, and Ole Jensen. "Gamma activity coupled to alpha phase as a mechanism for top-down controlled gating." PloS one 10.6 (2015): e0128667.

8. Mizuhara, Hiroaki, Naoyuki Sato, and Yoko Yamaguchi. "Cortical networks dynamically emerge with the interplay of slow and fast oscillations for memory of a natural scene." NeuroImage 111 (2015): 76-84.

9. Voloh, Benjamin, et al. "Theta–gamma coordination between anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex indexes correct attention shifts." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.27 (2015): 8457-8462.

10. Deng, Bin, et al. "Endogenous fields enhanced stochastic resonance in a randomly coupled neuronal network." Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 68 (2014): 30-39.

11. Anastassiou, Costas A., et al. "Ephaptic coupling of cortical neurons." Nature neuroscience 14.2 (2011): 217-223.

12. Goodman, G., and D. Bercovich. "Electromagnetic induction between axons and their schwann cell myelin-protein sheaths." Journal of integrative neuroscience 12.04 (2013): 475-489.

13. Prevenslik, Thomas. "Synapse by QED Induced Radiation."

14. Swain, John. "On the possibility of large upconversions and mode coupling between frohlich states and visible photons in biological systems." arXiv preprint physics/0603137 (2006).

15. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Electromagnetic Fields › EM & Fröhlich Modes

16. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Biophotons › Biophotons, Microtubules & Brain

Very related sections:

expand this introductory text

text updated: 28/04/2016
tables updated: 20/04/2017

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