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Light - Various
Applied light is transmitted through living systems and can be used therapeutically

Pablo Andueza Munduate

Applied light of very low intensity (whose effects no depend on heating of tissues) is used in two kind of application; purely experimental experiments in which procedures are developed to show if a specific component of cells or organs are the possible target and what reaction mechanisms are displayed, and secondly for now established therapeutic protocols that ameliorate patients symptoms. ...

Much of the used lights in two cases, but especially in therapeutic application, is of the red to near-infrared wavelength (~650nm an over), to review these there is a specific section on this web [1]. Here a more general studies or studies that use wavelength of other spectra of the visible light are presented.

Respect to the sources that can be used to irradiate biological samples, two major light generator systems are used; Lasers that generate coherent light but are expensive, and light-emitting diode (LED) lights that are much less expensive and the studies are demonstrating that provoke very similar effects than those produced by laser [2] the effects of low level light therapy (LLLT) apparently does not depend on coherence, it is therefore possible to achieve photobiostimulation by using non-laser light-generating devices, such as inexpensive LED technology [3,4].

Anyways there can be some slight differences between two systems, in [5] it has measured the stimulating effect on sperm motility of different lights and found that the magnitude of the stimulating effect for radiation with natural polarization (LED) is significantly smaller with respect to all the parameters than when radiation with linear polarization (Laser) is used. On the contrary in [4] although both, laser and LED, increase viability of random skin flaps, LED was more effective in increasing the number of mast cells and blood vessels in the transition line of random skin flaps.

A variety of possible therapeutic uses, of light wavelength other than red to infrared (that is more stabilized and extended), are now under scrutiny.

For example, in [6], rats are exposed to different wavelength with blue, green and red LED lights, and is proved that fibroblast cells percentage (involved in collagen production, so also in wound healing) augmented when applied not only red light but also green (530 nm) light. In a similar three wavelengths experiment [7] it is found also that red and green lights show a potentiation of fibroblast cells (that is measured by means of mRNA and protein levels of cytokines secreted by fibroblasts) and found also that some specific cytokines are significantly increased only by green light.

In [8] it has found that green light (532nm), and also red light, promote proliferation of mesenchymal cells, and specifically is found that green light inserted a much profound effect at specific dosages than red light.

Blue light also can have therapeutic uses, in [9] apart from red light (that also is effective) is used blue light of 470 nm to irradiate rodents for 10 min in 5 consecutive days and is found an increased angiogenesis with with significantly improved tissue perfusion and reduced tissue necrosis.

Other kind of therapeutic application of light, application of bright light through ears channels, is oriented to treat brain diseases and there are various positive results such as to treat seasonal affective disorder [10] or jet lag symptoms [11] (although replications don't show results so more investigation is needed), another study [12] shows that:

" With extraocular bright light delivery via both ear canals, centro-parietal P300 responds differently toward emotional distractors, indicating that the human brain reacts to extraocular light. The centro-parietal P300 has been associated with attentional resource allocation [45], with emotional stimuli able to capture attentional resources [19,23,46] and modulate centro-parietal P300 amplitude [41–43]. The emotional modulation of centro-parietal P300 amplitude due to emotional distractors disappeared during extra-ocular light delivery. Thus, extraocular light modulated emotion-attention interaction."

Transcranial light via ear canals also has shown to affect plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalopsin in the mouse [13].

More invasive is low level laser light application through a transcatheter, a method used to treat Alzheimer [14] where all test group patients have demonstrated long-lasting positive outcome after the treatment.

Other series of investigation on therapeutic uses of light is oriented to the amelioration of fertility of oocytes or fertilising abilities of sperm [15]. More experimental but remaining in the therapeutic application is an experiment [16] where biophotons from sperms are measured and digitally stored in computer and later applied to womans that desire to get pregnant after intratubal insemination, achieving 3 more times success cases than controls without treatment.

Possibly low level light therapy effects exist because it explodes previously preexistent biophotonic information exchange and generation/reception mechanism inside cells, although the intensities used on externally applied light is much greater than biophotons emissions detected outside cells or bodies is also true that most probably the biophoton activity inside cells is various order of magnitudes greater, so it will be interesting to study possible equivalences (see section [17] for more info about biophotons).

Interesting as inputs for the main proposition of this web (that is, the electromagnetic nature of mind) are some more experimental studies of light radiation on biological samples, specially brains and neurons, because one of the aspects that are differently treated on these experiments with respect the therapeutic application oriented experiments is the theoretical construct of what are the possible light targets that later provoke all the response cascades, therapeutic investigations are more conservative and put in the scope various possible biochemical mechanisms:

" To date, several mechanisms of biological action have been proposed, although none have been clearly established. These include augmentation of cellular ATP levels [18–20], manipulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity [21–25], suppression of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha [19,26–28], IL-1beta [28–30], IL-6 [28,31–34] and IL-8 [28,31,32,35], upregulation of growth factors, such as PDGF, IGF-1, NGF and FGF-2 [30,36–38], alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential [39–42], due to chromophores found in the mitochondrial respiratory chain [43–45], stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) activation [46], manipulation of NF-kappaB activation [47], induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [48,49], modification of extracellular matrix components [50], inhibition of apoptosis [39], stimulation of mast cell degranulation [51] and upregulation of heat shock proteins [52]." [18]

But various experimental investigations propose a more extended and systemic target, water, as a main target of light irradiation taking in consideration the capacities of coherent domains and exclusion zones in water (see section [19]) and that incident light has a powerful effect on the size of the interfacial exclusion zone. In [20] it's discovered that:

" For UV and visible ranges, all incident wavelengths brought appreciable expansion (Figure 4A). The degree of expansion increased with increasing wavelength, the exception being the data point at 270 nm, which was higher than the local minimum at 300 nm. The higher absorption may reflect the signature absorption peak at 270 nm characteristic of the EZ.18 Clear wavelength sensitivity was also found in the IR region, the most profound expansion occurring at 3.1 µm (Figure 4B). Recognizing that the optical power available for use in the IR region was 1/600 of that in the visible and UV regions, one can assume that with comparable incident power, the IR curve would shift considerably upward—continuing the upward trend evident in Figure 4A. Hence, the most profound effect is in the mid-IR region, particularly at 3.1 µm."

This, at minimum, can provoke variations in the Brownian motion, but here are underpinned theories with more profound implications like that proposed by Santana et al. [21] that

" Though existing data have not yet proven the role of EZ water in photobiomodulation, research shows that EZ water can store charge and can later return it in the form of current flow, with as much as 70% of the input charge being readily obtainable. Macroscopic separation of charges can be stable for days to weeks and has unusual electric potential. Water is, thus, an unexpectedly effective charge separation and storage medium."

Concluding that:

" EZ may be selectively targeted in photobiomodulation as an efficient energy reservoir, which cells can use expeditiously to fuel cellular work, triggering signaling pathways and gene expression in the presence of injury-induced redox potential."

Externally applied light may target the collective organization of water to influence biomolecules. The section dedicated to influence of red to near-infrared radiatión [1] explore this evidence more profoundly following various experiment with radiations in those wavelengths. Only to mention here one preliminary evidence of the theory that can be found in [22].

One of the more striking investigation lines can be the one that studies effects of light applied directly over skull of a head because it was found that light could traverse cerebral space and, for example, can be discerned by photomultipliers and affect the power of specific bands of quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) activity on the opposite side of the skull [23]. So, brain function may be modulated by light, especially if the light is patterned with a series of impulses, in [24] serial 5-min on to 5-min off presentations of patterned blue light resulted in suppression of gamma activity within the right cuneus (including the extrastriate area), beta activity within the left angular and right superior temporal regions, and alpha power within the right parahippocampal regions.

To add some adequate perspective in all that, is mentionable the recent discovery that only one photon (in principle through eyes) can affect the brain response [25].

References:

1. EMMIND › Applied Fields - Experimental › Light & Near-Light Effects › Light - Red and Near-infrared

2. Chaves, Maria Emília de Abreu, et al. "Effects of low-power light therapy on wound healing: LASER x LED." Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 89.4 (2014): 616-623.

3. Buravlev, E. A., et al. "Effects of laser and LED radiation on mitochondrial respiration in experimental endotoxic shock." Lasers in medical science 28.3 (2013): 785-790.

4. Nishioka, Michele A., et al. "LED (660 nm) and laser (670 nm) use on skin flap viability: angiogenesis and mast cells on transition line." Lasers in medical science 27.5 (2012): 1045-1050.

5. Barulin, Nikolai V., and Vitaly Yu Plavskii. "Effect of Polarization and Coherence of Optical Radiation on Sturgeon Sperm Motility." World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering 6.7 (2012): 455-459.

6. de Sousa, Ana Paula Cavalcanti, et al. "Effect of LED phototherapy of three distinct wavelengths on fibroblasts on wound healing: a histological study in a rodent model." Photomedicine and laser surgery 28.4 (2010): 547-552.

7. Fushimi, Tomohiro, et al. "Green light emitting diodes accelerate wound healing: characterization of the effect and its molecular basis in vitro and in vivo." Wound Repair and Regeneration 20.2 (2012): 226-235.

8. Soltani, Samereh Dehghani, et al. "Different effects of energy dependent irradiation of red and green lights on proliferation of human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal cells." Lasers in medical science 31.2 (2016): 255-261.

9. Dungel, Peter, et al. "Low level light therapy by LED of different wavelength induces angiogenesis and improves ischemic wound healing." Lasers in surgery and medicine 46.10 (2014): 773-780.

10. Jurvelin, Heidi, et al. "Transcranial bright light treatment via the ear canals in seasonal affective disorder: a randomized, double-blind dose-response study." BMC psychiatry 14.1 (2014): 1.

11. Jurvelin, Heidi, Jari Jokelainen, and Timo Takala. "Transcranial bright light and symptoms of jet lag: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial." Aerospace medicine and human performance 86.4 (2015): 344-350.

12. Sun, Lihua, et al. "Human Brain Reacts to Transcranial Extraocular Light." PloS one 11.2 (2016): e0149525.

13. Flyktman, Antti, et al. "Transcranial light affects plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalopsin in the mouse." Journal of Experimental Biology 218.10 (2015): 1521-1526.

14. Maksimovich, I. V. (2015). Dementia and Cognitive Impairment Reduction after Laser Transcatheter Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. World Journal of Neuroscience, 5(03), 189.

15. Abdel-Salam, Z., and M. A. Harith. "Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: A brief review." Journal of advanced research 6.3 (2015): 311-317.

16. Menaldo, G., et al. "Biophotonic Energy in an intratubal insemination program." COGI Lisbon, November (2012): 8-11.

17. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Biophotons ›

18. Kushibiki, Toshihiro, et al. "Regulation of miRNA expression by low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT)." International journal of molecular sciences 14.7 (2013): 13542-13558.

19. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Water & Electromagnetic Fields › Electromagnetism & Water - Exclusion Zones

20. Chai, Binghua, Hyok Yoo, and Gerald H. Pollack. "Effect of radiant energy on near-surface water." The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113.42 (2009): 13953-13958.

21. Santana-Blank, Luis, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Santana, and Karin E. Santana-Rodríguez. "Photobiomodulation of aqueous interfaces as selective rechargeable bio-batteries in complex diseases: personal view." Photomedicine and laser surgery 30.5 (2012): 242-249.

22. Rodríguez-Santana, Elizabeth, and Luis Santana-Blank. "Emerging evidence on the crystalline water-light interface in ophthalmology and therapeutic implications in photobiomodulation: first communication." Photomedicine and laser surgery 32.4 (2014): 240-242.

23. Persinger, Michael A., Blake T. Dotta, and Kevin S. Saroka. "Bright light transmits through the brain: Measurement of photon emissions and frequency-dependent modulation of spectral electroencephalographic power." (2013).

24. Karbowski, Lukasz M., et al. "LORETA indicates frequency-specific suppressions of current sources within the cerebrums of blindfolded subjects from patterns of blue light flashes applied over the skull." Epilepsy & Behavior 51 (2015): 127-132.

25. Tinsley, Jonathan N., et al. "Direct detection of a single photon by humans." Nature Communications 7 (2016).

Very related sections:

expand this introductory text

text updated: 05/09/2016
tables updated: 10/08/2017

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