Biophotons & Acupunture Meridians
The ducts of the meridians may correspond to optical fibers for biophoton transit
There are clues that link classical meridian system with biophoton phenomena, measures of optical capacities of the proposed channels and of emissions of biophotons from acupuncture points suggest that relation. It can be another way that mind can receive and send information and integrate in the whole body. ...
As described in  there are various kind of experiments where it has been achieved the physical detection of the meridians:
" Anatomical structures corresponding to the classical acupuncture meridians have been observed in mice [27e29], rats [28,30e33], rabbits [28,34e37], and pigs . … Visualization of the acupuncture meridian structures is performed, for example, by staining with acridine orange [28,30,39], propidium iodide and Alcian blue , Trypan blue [33,40e42], Janus Green B method , or by the Feulgen reaction ."
One of the method that is achieving more results (or some of the most visible results) is the infrared spectroscopy that show evidence of light channels in the body [2,3,4,5,6], They appear in the range from 3400 nm to 5000 nm, and they are based on an extraordinarily high optical coherence , for example in [8,9] various images can be seen.
Respect to the physical nature of the meridians it must be taken in consideration two aspects with their respective experimental findings; the relation of acupuncture points with connective tissue and the relation of meridians with Bonghan ducts.
In relation to the first, it is theorized that acupuncture channels are determined by connective tissue planes with findings that calcium banks in acupuncture points (APs) are physically juxtaposed with underlying connective tissue  and that more than 80% of the APs and 50% of the meridian intersections are present at intramuscular or intramuscular connective tissue planes , in regard to composition of these points in  is wrote:
" Histological and bio-mechanical features have been used to differentiate APs from surrounding tissue [11, 12, 13], and this has demonstrated that 82% of all classical APs consist of a composite that includes a blood vessel and a nerve within a sheet of loose connective (mesenchyme) tissue perforating superficial fascia separating subcutaneous from muscle tissue ."
On the other side, the Bonghan circulatory system (Primo Vascular System) is a network composed of Bonghan ducts (Primo Vessels) and Bonghan corpuscles (Primo Nodes) along the paths of acupuncture meridians, as is noted in :
" findings confirm the discovery by Bong-Han Kim, who has found special ducts and corpuscles forming a meridian network distributed throughout animal bodies (the experimental data were published in 1963). The ducts and corpuscles (Fig. 1) the discernible parts of the meridian system (described in  and ) exist in the skin of animals, in the blood and lymphatic vessels, and on the surfaces of internal organs."
As is showed in  ducts are surrounded by collagen fibers. Connective tissues is majorly made by collagen fibers and as previously mentioned these are related to acupuncture points also, taking in consideration this and the findings on infrared spectroscopy, that reveal us meridians, in  it has been made an exploration of infrared transmission on collagen fibers; with an infrared source aligned parallel to collagen fibers, spectrophotometry revealed a window of enhanced transmission between 9000 and 20000 nanometers. Another experiment  that used collagen gels and collagen fibrils, isolated from rat tails, concluded that these collagen structures both conduct and modify photon pulses coming from biological sources.
Studies have been made also on biophoton emissions (also named Ultraweak Photon Emissions or UPE) from acupuncture points, one of them  measured spectra for electromagnetic emissions from various of these points and in all cases apart from the corresponding thermal emissions 2 additional peaks were found both in the infrared range at 2000-2500 nm and 15000 nm, and as is written in :
" In view of the existence of radiant tracks that correspond with channels, the waveband filter for infrared in connective tissue, and the discovery that biophotons are emitted from acupuncture points with a wavelength in the middle of the filter range, it is likely that this energy is a reflection of something profound."
Biophotons are also normally detected at visible wavelengths not only on infrared (see section  for various detection experiments) moreover, although infrared emissions can be (in principle) a byproduct of biochemical energy (ATP-ADP or its variant reactions) visible wavelengths can not. This experiment  detect them somewhere in the range 160−630 nm and for the author the photocount statistics proves that the signal have a core quantum component in squeezed state and a peripheral classical component (to deepen in the photocount and statistical properties of biophotons see section ). Yan et al.  randomly selected 158 persons to test high luminescence of skin surface, finding that 14 high light lines of the human body surface coincided with 14 meridians.
Anyways as summarized in :
" Enhanced propagation of electromagnetic energy in both visible wavelengths and in the infrared range imply that this may be a mechanism of signaling. The particular role of infrared is inferred by the following: (1) thermal gradients that develop along associated channels when moxa is used at acupuncture points; (2) the finding of radiant tracks demonstrated by thermal gradient imaging; (3) the correspondence of radiant tracks with the classical course of channels; (4) the waveband filter property of connective tissue; (5) the finding of biophoton emission from acu-puncture points with 2 peaks, both in the infrared range and 1 of which is in the center of the range of enhanced propagation; and (6) the directional aspect of infrared transmission by connective tissue, offering a possible explanation for how signaling might occur along connective tissue pathways that connect acupuncture points (i.e., the channels)."
About the nature of the information that those biophotons can transmit there are various propositions, for example in  is proposed that the biophotons transmitted are signals containing information corresponding to different hierarchical levels whose base are in the electromagnetic fields emitted by Fröhlich vibrations, individually per cell, at about 100 Hz (see section  for more on those internal cellular coherent vibrations. Fröhlich also has assumed that electrodynamic activity of each organ is connected with energy condensation in a normal mode whose frequency is the same in all cells) so the bandwidth of the spectral pattern of 1cm3 of tissue will be 1011Hz (with nonlinear properties that may modify the width and the character of the spectral pattern). In this spectra may be represented information about all cells of the organ. although the idea is interesting, and anyways may be real, the fact is that biophotons are detected emitted from individual cells [see section 17].
In this regard other viewpoint is prefered by the authors of  that are assuming Popp’s postulate on DNA as a source of biophotons, and relate it to Bonghan ducts and corpuscle physiology:
" To explain biologically this postulation regarding DNA and biophotons, we still need a network or channel. Bonghan’s theory is similar to a channel and is just the answer. It provides the channels with the DNA granules running inside, and the channels are spread all over the body, linking the internal organs to the acupuncture points in the skin."
For  corpuscles may serve as a structures that collects the electromagnetic signals of the tissues from organs and transfers them to the duct, or also they can fulfill an electromagnetic resonators role.
Alternatively, for J. Han  meridian is a three-dimensional network from bio-electromagnetic radiation interference:
" An electromagnetic radiation field within a biological organism is characterized by non-local interference. The interfering beams form a unitary tridimensional network with beams of varying intensity, also called striae, which are distributed on the organism surface. These striae are equivalent to semi-reflectors. The striae carry bio-information of corresponding organs and, thus, integrate all tissues, and organs of the organism. The longitudinal striae are classified as channels, while the transverse striae are collaterals. The acupoints are seen as the points where electromagnetic interfering striae intersect or converge."
1. Pokorný, Jiří, Tomáš Martan, and Alberto Foletti. "High capacity optical channels for bioinformation transfer: acupuncture meridians." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 5.1 (2012): 34-41.
5. Ying, Jian, et al. "Study on body surface infrared radiation spectrum of points of patients with hyperplasia of mammary gland." IT in Medicine and Education, 2008. ITME 2008. IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, 2008.
6. Yang, Hong-Qin, et al. "Appearance of human meridian-like structure and acupoints and its time correlation by infrared thermal imaging." The American journal of Chinese medicine 35.02 (2007): 231-240.
8. Schlebusch, Klaus-Peter, Walburg Maric-Oehler, and Fritz-Albert Popp. "Biophotonics in the infrared spectral range reveal acupuncture meridian structure of the body." Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 11.1 (2005): 171-173.
12. van Wijk, Roeland, Jan van der Greef, and Eduard van Wijk. "Human ultraweak photon emission and the yin yang concept of Chinese medicine." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 3.4 (2010): 221-231.
13. Chikly, Bruno, P. Roberts, and J. Quaghebeur. "Primo Vascular System: A Unique Biological System Shifting a Medical Paradigm." The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 116.1 (2016): 12-21.
18. Bajpai, R. P., and M. Drexel. "Effect of colorpuncture on spontaneous photon emission in a subject suffering from multiple sclerosis." Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies 1.2 (2008): 114-120.
20. Yan, Z., et al. "Studies on high luminescence of 14 major channels." Study Acupuncture 8 (1989): 389-392. (in Chinese)
23. Han, Jinxiang. "Meridian is a three-dimensional network from bio-electromagnetic radiation interference: an interference hypothesis of meridian." Cell biochemistry and biophysics 62.2 (2012): 297-303.
Very related sections:
↑ text updated: 26/08/2016
↓ tables updated: 30/08/2016