Cytoskeletal Filaments Deep Inside a Neuron Are not Silent They Regulate the Precise Timing of Nerve Spikes Using a Pair of Vortices

" By inserting a coaxial probe deep inside a neuron, we have re-peatedly shown that the filaments transmit electromagnetic signals ~200 μs before an ionic nerve spike sets in. To understand its origin, here, we mapped the electromagnetic vortex produced by a filamentary bundle deep inside a neuron, regulating the nerve spike’s electrical-ionic vortex. We used monochromatic polarized light to measure the transmitted signals beating from the internal components of a cultured neuron. A nerve spike is a 3D ring of the electric field encompassing the perimeter of a neural branch. Several such vortices flow sequentially to keep precise timing for the brain’s cognition. The filaments hold millisecond order time gaps between membrane spikes with microsecond order signaling of electromagnetic vortices. Dielectric resonance images revealed that ordered filaments inside neural branches instruct the ordered grid-like network of actin–beta-spectrin just below the membrane. That layer builds a pair of electric field vortices, which coherently activates all ion-channels in a circular area of the membrane lipid bilayer when a nerve spike propagates. When biomaterials vibrate resonantly with microwave and radio-wave, simultaneous quantum optics capture ultra-fast events in a non-demolition mode, revealing multiple correlated time-domain operations beyond the Hodgkin–Huxley paradigm." {Credits 1}

" In the last hundred years, researchers have found several instances of wireless communication between neurons [6,7]. If the rate of spike timing changes, at certain values, the endogenous electric field undergoes significant changes, and information edits itself in a neuron [8]. Neuron’s non-synaptic firing responses, like a living life form, have been reported repeatedly [9], and even epileptic seizure-like uncontrolled firing has been attributed to it [10]. One route to understanding alternate forms of signal transmission was to probe the membrane using different forms of energy. For example, electromagnetic radiation is able to initiate or stop a neuron’s firing. Nerves emit infrared bursts [11,12,13]." {Credits 1}

" The orthogonal, transistor-like measurement of transmissions across tubulin protein, microtubules, and neurons shows that all these elements have a similar, favorable time-domain pattern. Discrete-time zones group in a triplet of triplet arrangement." {Credits 1}

" In reality, a nerve spike is a ring of electric fields around the circular perimeter of an axonal branch, as shown in Figure 1A." {Credits 1}

" Three distinct structures in the neural branches have three distinct assemblies of optical vortices that are spatially different in their assembly of optical vortices. Figure 5 shows four of many important ordered sub-structures inside a neuron. We were able to isolate and recreate them separately in the solution and observe the optical vortices produced. The vortex assembly of individual sub-structures appears nearly similar. However, the diameter, angular momentum, and the number of dark spots on the rings help match the database of Figure 5 with the final hologram of a complete neuron in Figure 6." {Credits 1}

" By combining two results, the quantum optics and dielectric resonance imaging, we have proposed the time-tuning mechanism shown in Figure 3C. The electromagnetic vortices move randomly along the core and store a pair of EM field rings in the actin grid. The pair moves, and ion channels in between release ions. Thus, the electric vortex passing through the membrane does not dissipate in shape and holds precise millisecond timing via microsecond vortex operators in a two-step mechanism."{Credits 1}

{Credits 1} 🎪 Singh, P.; Sahoo, P.; Saxena, K.; Manna, J.S.; Ray, K.; Ghosh, S.; Bandyopadhyay, A. Cytoskeletal Filaments Deep Inside a Neuron Are not Silent: They Regulate the Precise Timing of Nerve Spikes Using a Pair of Vortices. Symmetry 2021, 13, 821. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Last modified on 12-May-21

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