Generation of Electromagnetic Field by Microtubules

" The general mechanism of controlling, information and organization in biological systems is based on the internal coherent electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field is supposed to be generated by microtubules composed of identical tubulin heterodimers with periodic organization and containing electric dipoles. We used a classical dipole theory of generation of the electromagnetic field to analyze the space–time coherence. The structure of microtubules with the helical and axial periodicity enables the interaction of the field in time shifted by one or more periods of oscillation and generation of coherent signals. Inner cavity excitation should provide equal energy distribution in a microtubule. The supplied energy coherently excites oscillators with a high electrical quality, microtubule inner cavity, and electrons at molecular orbitals and in ‘semiconduction’ and ‘conduction’ bands. The suggested mechanism is supposed to be a general phenomenon for a large group of helical systems." {Credits 1}

" The electromagnetic field may organize and control the motion and transport of molecules and their components, chemical reactions, information processes, communication inside and between cells, and many other activities. Brain activity is considered to be of electromagnetic nature as was suggested by Graddock et al. [31] and Sahu et al. [24,25]. A direct control of neuronal activity by the electromagnetic field was demonstrated by Duke et al. [32] and Yoo et al. [33]. Biophysical and neurophysiological changes including in creased neuronal excitability by exposing cell cultures to electromagnetic field at selected resonant frequencies of microtubules was studied by Rafati et al. [34]. The fast‐acting electromagnetic mechanism of neuronal communication prior to the spike, facilitating decision‐making processes in the brain, has been revealed by Singh et al. [35]. The biological electromagnetic field can provide simultaneity not only in a cell or its structures, but in the whole tissue, and should be regulated with respect to the electromagnetic activity in other tissues. Therefore, the field must be coherent and correlated in a large space region of a biological system and in the whole frequency spectrum to provide synchronous actions. Interaction of the cellular electromagnetic field with electrons on molecular orbitals seems to be of a fundamental significance." {Credits 1}

" The cellular electromagnetic field should be generated by energy‐supplied structures which are distributed inside the cell Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8215 3 of 14 with a convenient density, are of linear geometry resembling macroscopic antenna systems, and are electrically polar. The generating system must be strongly nonlinear for spectral energy transfer as predicted by Fröhlich [36]. Based on these assumptions, microtubules were predicted as generators of coherent vibrations and electromagnetic field by Pokorný et al. [37]." {Credits 1}

{Credits 1} 🎪 Pokorný, J.; Pokorný, J.; Vrba, J. Generation of Electromagnetic Field by Microtubules. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 8215. © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.

Last modified on 31-Jun-21

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