International Institute of Biophysics ([IB), Neuss
In collaboration with Lev Beloussov (IIB & Moscow State University,Moscow, Russia), Wolfgang Klimek (IIB), John Swain (IIB, CERN-GenevaNorth-Eastem University, Boston, USA) and Yu Yan (IIB).
8.1. Introductory Remarks
One of us (F-AP) remembers a discussion with Herbert Fröhlich, over 20years ago, about the question as to what experiments have to be performedin order to decide whether electromagnetic radiation from and withinbiological systems displays a high degree of coherence. Fröhlichexpressed his conviction that one cannot expect that some kind ofexperimentum crucis will solve this problem, but rather that the increasingfrequency of experimental findings will one day suffice for a generalacceptance of this property. Actually there is now a manifold ofindications for “coherent excitation’ of living systems such that one can nolonger avoid taking seriously this basic idea of an extraordinary coherencein living systems. It invites consideration of realistic models as well assuitable experimentation: for a review see Hyland (Hyland, 2002).
In 1983, at a conference on Biophysics in Vulcano (Sicily) under theguidance of Fröhlich, discussions about coherent microwaves andcoherent visible radiation (‘biophotons’) gave rise to the basic question asto how the different modes in a living system may be coupled - if at alland precisely how theextremely wide range of frequencies, covering at least 20 decades, is involved in the various biological functions. These frequencies range from a lower limit of 10-5 Hz, represented by circadian rhythms, through brain waves (102 Hz), up to oscillations of biomolecules, organelles and membranes, muscle activities, and even to vision. At the same time, it becomes more and more evident that, in all ranges, the sensitivity of the ‘biological detectors’ is limited only by the uncertainty relation (Smith, 1989, Eccles 1993), thus indicating already rather remarkable properties of macroscopic quantum coherence (Sassaroli et. al.1998).
Biological systems are governed by rather opposing influences. On the one hand, external influences may get modelled by a heat bath, since, so long as no ‘informational’ couplings are at play, the outside world is no different from the surroundings of dead materials. Although there is still the question as to Whether the heat radiation of the body is really only ‘heat’, the existence of such radiation is certainly not incompatible with this point of View. On the other hand, food supply, which is necessary for the living state, and the extremely high sensitivity due to external and internal ‘informational’ couplings point to extraordinary physical properties of open living systems that are not allied to perfect equilibrium. Herbert Fröhlich’s model [F134] [This denotes reference (134) in the Complete Bibliography of H. Fröhlich, at the end of this volume; similarly, [Fx] is reference (x) in the Bibliography] takes account of equilibrium properties by its inclusion of the Bose-Einstein-Statistics, but at the same time recognises the ‘openness’ of biological systems by including non-thermal energy supply in terms of variable chemical potentialμ(ε) whereε is the quantum energy of the mode under consideration. At the same time, he shows that a high degree of coherence can be established by Bose-condensation-like long-range interactions of single modes (Fröhlich-modes) when the chemical potentialμ(ε) of these extraordinary oscillations approaches there the quantum energyε. As a consequence, considerably high occupation densities (f(ε) >1) are the realised above the threshold. To some extent, Fröhlich’s model offers an elementary physical description of Prigogine’s dissipative structures (Prigogine, 1976) far away from thermal equilibrium. Despite a lot of attempts to explain hitherto unexplained biological functions such as cancer, brain activities, cell growth, and enzymatic reactions, the model has not yet been generally accepted by biologists, perhaps due to its too fundamental character and the difficulties biologists have in transforming elementary physics into concrete biological phenomena. A further difficulty concerns the usual separation of chemical and physical knowledge by neglecting the fact that chemical reactions are governed by physical laws and not vice versa (see also Hyland, 2002).
The approach of a part of our group (F -AP, WK, YY and others) (Popp et.al., 1979, 1992, 1993, 1998, 2002a, 2002b, 2004) is completely in line with Herbert Fröhlich’s ideas, with the inessential exception that our work is focussed on the optical range (‘biophotons’) instead of microwaves. The entropy is studied at its absolute maximum (ƒ(ε) = constant), and is minimized by shrinking the degree of fieedom via mode couplings; last but not least, the degree of coherence is investigated experimentally by using photocount statistics (PCS), revealing proof ofi) a rather high degree of coherence,ii) the non-thermal character of the spectral distribution,iii) mode couplings in the optical range, andiv) the identification of some basic biological phenomena that are based on these properties. In this way, the chemical potential, together with the degree and nature of the coherence - i. e. whether it is quantum or classical - assume the role of essential order parameters of the biological system, completely different from the usual role of photon intensity. Nevertheless, rather small aberrations from ‘chaotic’ interactions may provide strong and essentially non-linear behaviour as soon as the time scales of biologically relevant interactions become macroscopically large. The extraordinarily high degree of coherence and the broadband character of modes constitute a basis for the so-called multiplicative organization principle in biology which is fundamental to the psycho-physical (Weber-Fechner) law of physiology. Already it is clear that, for reasons of saturation, a non-linear effect must be active in the living state, whereby the over-excitation leads to a decline in occupation inversion by emission. This may happen significantly even at low occupation. The modes arrive at constant phase relations (Popp, 2005) that persist over the dimensions of cells and cell populations, in consequence of the small volume of cells compared to the coherence volumes of at least 103 cm3.
The extraordinary high polarization of biological matter which has been repeatedly emphasized by Fröhlich is a permanent source of non-linear interactions where the permittivity can reach abnormally high values that are strongly dependent on the frequency of the modes under investigation. The non-linear interactions may here induce additional resonance frequencies (super- and sub-harmonics), the creation of sub-harmonics being possibly accompanied by amplification effects. Today, parametric systems are well known also in technical systems. In living tissue, all the provisions of these effects, including inhomogeneous, but specific, distributions of quasi-free charges are permanently and comprehensively available over the whole spectral range from optical frequencies (electronic excitations) down to ELF, with resonances ranging from single biomolecules up to the whole body.
In order to highlight this situation by bridging the gap between fundamental physics and biological phenomena, let us return to a rather exemplary question of Erwin Schrodinger.
8.2. Schrödinger’s Question and Realistic Answers
Schrödinger’s question addresses the surprising fact that during cell division no error occurs in the distribution of the molecules, which are exactly partitioned into two equal fractions by the daughter cells. Fig. 1 shows the completely developed spindle apparatus of a fish (Corregonus) in mitosis (Darlington and Lacour, 1960). If ‘random walk’ theory governs cell growth, one can estimate that about 105 out of 1010 molecules should be located at incorrect positions. However, no error can be discovered at all. One might suggest that some kind of crystallization takes place, such as a freezing process of the biomolecules, in which the binding energies are, on the one hand, not far from the mean thermal energy (so as to be able to provide high enough flexibility) but, on the other hand, exceed it sufficiently, in order to stabilize the local positions of the molecules under investigation. However, this process would require an extraordinarily high local accuracy and temporal regulation of the distribution of binding energies. More likely is the presence of a force which repels molecules that are in erroneous positions back to their correct place.
Figure 1. Completely developed spindle apparatus of a fish cell (Corregonus) in mitosis
The solution of finding such a source of force is easy to obtain. If one calculates the cavity resonator waves of a single cell (Popp, 1979), one gets (1) a number of relatively stable modes that cover the range of visible light (at least between 200 and 800 nm), (2) a set of orthogonal functions that by superposition can describe every kind of electromagnetic potential, including, in particular, that necessary to account for the mitotic structure shown above, whereby molecules are piloted into their correct positions. Both statement (1) and statement (2) are independent of, whether one considers conducting or dielectric cavities of cylindrical or ellipsoid shape. Most decisive, in order to get modes into the optical range, is the volume, which must be about 10-9 cm3. Table 1 presents a set of modes calculated for a right circular cylindrical cavity of radius R and the length d, of volume 10-9 cm, where R/d =0.25 for optimal storage capacity.
Table 1: Modes in a right-circular cylindrical cavity (see text, Popp 1979)
Fig. 2 displays the electric field pattern of a TM11 mode at about 350 nm, which just fits the condition of stabilizing the mitotic figures of Fig. 1. Consequently, a rather satisfying, and to our knowledge, the most natural answer to Schödinger’s question that has been so far advanced is that cavity resonator waves exist in cells, which are stable enough to regulate, by satisfying the boundary conditions, both spatial and temporal organization of cell growth and cell division. If this answer is correct, photons in the range of at least 200 to 800 nm should exist in cells which (1) are correlated to cell division rate, (2) have a rather high degree of coherence, and (3) are ‘away’ from thermal equilibrium. We called them ‘biophotons’ in order to distinguish them from ordinary bioluminescence, and to express their quantum character. In the last 30 years, we have shown evidence of their existence and have carefully studied most of their properties. Some review papers about techniques, existence, properties, and applications are listed in the bibliography (under Popp et al. in the list of references). Biophotons are still subjected to intensive investigations.
Figure 2. Electric field of a TMll cavity mode in a right circular (elliptical) cavity. Comparison with Fig.1 shows that the stability of mitotic figures can be explained in terms of the high storage capacity for cavity resonator waves. For cells their wavelenghts are in the optical range. They are the sources of biophotons (see text and references).
On a rather basic level of consideration, Herbert Fröhlich's model of coherent radiation in biological systems itself provides a most valuable answer to Schrodinger's question. It concerns the coupling of modes, since just this could solve the crucial problem of regulation and coordination of many synchronous, different biological functions in the living state. The regulation of cell division, for example, involves a continuous transition between perfectly matched modes. Decisive parameters of this coherent organization are the phase relations, together with the interplay of frequencies of the interacting modes.
A key of understanding these connections is (1) the chemical potential of the Fröhlich-modes and (2) the frequency condition of coherent fields according to R.Glauber (Glauber, 1969). Following Fröhlich, the Bose-condensation-like accumulation of a mode takes place as soon as the chemical potential, perhaps surprisinglyμ(ε) approaches the quantum energyε of the mode under study. Glauber requires the coupling of the modes of a coherent field (‘standing waves’) by the general condition
wherei andk run over a definite, but arbitrarily selected, group of N and M modes, respectively. We can rewrite this condition in terms of Boltzmann factors, f1(μ1,ε1) = exp((μ1-ε1)/(kT)), as follows:
W =Πifi =Πkfk (2)
If Equ. (l) is valid, Equ. (2) can be satisfied for all N and M modes. This is then certainly the situation in the case of a stabilized coherent field that approaches thermal equilibrium, where allμ are zero. On the other hand, for an ideal open system, Eqs. (1) and (2) are certamly satisfied for allμ1 =ε1, wherel = i,k. This is the case for all Fröhlich-modes. As a consequence, one may consider that Fröhlich-modes are a branch of modes that works as a kind of hub system for establishing and connecting in a dynamical way all different modes that fulfil the actual boundary conditions of the biological system under study. Glauber’s condition and Fröhlich’ s chemical potential allow perfect synchronization and regulation of biological functions by providing the suitable activation frequency and by controlling timings through the correct phase relations between the coupled coherent excitations associated with the processes under study. It is easy to show that by satisfying Equ. (1), and in view of homeostatic regulation that keeps the total energy constant, every mode can be created and annihilated by at least two other modes, such as, for instance, those involving sub-harmonics, superharmonics, or even beat frequencies. Indeed, there is even evidence of squeezed states in living matter (Popp eta], 2002).
It will be shown that there are experimental results in favour of this kind of mode coupling and that fundamental properties of biological systems - such as, for instance, the multiplicative organizational principle of the basic Weber-Fechner-law - can be truthfully explained in terms of this model. At the same time, we show that the conversion of energy into different modes is not confined to the step-down dissipation from higher to lower mode energies (ie. subharmonics), but can move also upwards (i. e. superharmonics, or coherent multiphoton processes of different modes of lower energy - see (Swain, 2006)).
Actually, there are two main streams of thought that suggest macroscopic quantum mechanical effects are associated with the living state. One is Herbert Frohlich’s suggestion that one would expect coherent excitations in the microwave region of the spectrum due to nonlinear couplings of biomolecular dipoles - a. suggestion that is perhaps more theoretically developed than experimentally investigated; for brevity, we will refer to microwave photons in such a state as ‘Fröhlich photons’. The other line of thought is Fritz Popp’ s observation that the photocount statistics of ultraweak bioluminescence (biophotons) around the visible region of the spectrum, as well as certain other data, suggest a coherent electromagnetic component linked to the living state. Here it is important to note that one should not forget, that there are numerous reactions - in particular oxidative ones - that are part of the normal chemistry that goes on in living things, which will give rise to incoherent photoemission. Such a traditional contribution is always to be expected, but here we are considering the rather remarkable, spectrally flat (highly coherent) distribution that seems to be associated with life. We will refer to visible photons of this kind as ‘Popp photons’.
8.3. From Fröhlich photons to Popp photons: a model for up-conversion
Fröhlich’ s original model was based on phenomenological rate equations representing a set of harmonic oscillators labelled by an indexi of various frequencies,ωk, each excited with nk quanta coupled to each other. In order to be able to couple these oscillators, and still have conservation of energy, the oscillators are also coupled to a heat bath at some temperature T, which provides or accepts whatever energy is needed. In addition, an external pump source was included which could drive the oscillators.
Fröhlich showed that under rather general conditions one could, even at high temperatures, for a sufficiently strong external pump, find a macroscopic excitation of just one oscillator - the one with the lowest energy hω0 - at the expense of the other modes. It was this macroscopic quantum state, which is reminiscent of lasing or of Bose-Einstein condensation, which has been identified as possibly characteristic of the living state. While Fröhlich came upon this sort of mechanism while thinking about the very large electric fields across the membranes of living cells, it is important to keep in mind that this could occur multiple times in different systems in the same living organism, and one should be open to the idea of multiple Fröhlich state appearing in various contexts. That being said, if one imagines the dipoles in question to be large biological molecules, one is naturally led to frequencies in the microwave region, and it is far from clear what, if anything, this has to do with biophotons.
Before prematurely dismissing any connection on the grounds of the large difference in energy scales between Fröhlich and Popp photons, let us recall that large up-conversions are, in fact, well-known, although rarely treated in the standard texts. For example, consider a light bulb running from a 1.5 V battery. There are two natural energy scales involved in this system. One is 1.5 V - the total energy that an electron can give up as it crosses the filament of the bulb, and the other is zero (!) - the frequency of the input current (which is DC here). Even the 1.5 V is rather optimistic, since one expects an electron to undergo many collisions as it passes through the filament, each time giving up only a small fraction of an eV. Nevertheless, common experience shows that there is strong emission in the visible spectrum of several electron volts. Here we have an example of a macroscopic nonlinear system that, even without coherence, manages to couple many low energy quanta into one higher energy quantum of, say, blue light. A first response on hearing this argument is to trivialize it, saying ‘Well, isn’t that just blackbody radiation?’ The answer, of course, is yes, but whenever one treats the approach to blackbody radiation one has to imagine complicated couplings between many oscillators, which one subsumes into statements like ‘one lets the oscillators exchange energy until the most probable distribution (via maximizing entropy) is reached’. With this in mind, it may come as less of a surprise that a highly organized system may be more efficient at large up-conversions.
Let us now slightly generalize Fröhlich’s model (J. Swain, August 2005 - talk at the Frohlich Symposium, IIB, Neuss, Germany) by adding one more term to his rate equations. This will be a coupling of the whole Fröhlich system (which is a large number of oscillators all coupled together with the lowest energy oscillator coherently excited) to one external oscillator of frequencyΩ. The system is already coupled to an entire heat bath of oscillators, so this is just one more oscillator. The difference is that the entire heatbath of oscillators in Fröhlich’s model are constrained to have their energy thermally distributed at a temperature, whilst the additional oscillator is taken not be a part of a thermal ensemble. Thinking in concrete terms, this can be an oscillator corresponding to the QED vacuum, its occupation number representing the number of photons in that state. It could also be an oscillator corresponding to the excitation energy for some chemical reaction, or some other process. Such an additional coupling outside the original Fröhlich model will drain energy from the system, which we can compensate for by an increase in pumping so as to not lose the coherent Fröhlich excitations.
Now let us consider the probability thatN Fröhlich photons of frequencyω0can couple to a Popp photon of frequencyω0 (=Nω0). Here is it useful to think of Feynman diagrams that represent quantum mechanical amplitudes for such photons to couple. Consider then a line that diagrammatically represents a charged particle in a living system; the particle can be an electron, or a dressed quasiparticle. In keeping the Fröhlich’s original work, which stressed the generality of a possible mechanism, rather than details of a specific model, we will refer to this as an electron, keeping in mind that generalizations are possible. Diagrams contributing to the process we want have N incoming photon lines and one outgoing photon line. The amplitude for the process has a factor of electron charge (e) for each photon, and the transition probability is obtained byi) adding all diagrams with all permutations of incoming photons,ii) finding the squared magnitude of the resulting complex quantity, andiii) multiplying the result by the amount of phase space available for the outgoing photons. In general, this is a difficult problem to work out, and one expects (assuming that different diagrams have different phases, and are thus unlikely to constructively interfere) a result of order an , whereα =e2 /hc is the fine structure constant - a pure number roughly equal to 1/137. Clearly, coupling of a large numbern of photons will be very unlikely, and it is this sort of intuition which tends to make one immediately dismiss large up-conversions as impossible or unlikely.
The Fröhlich state, however, is a special one in that it is a coherent state in which all the photons carry the same energy. In fact, as a coherent state, it has not got a well-defined number of photons at all, but for the following we can consider projecting out a certain number,N, by the requirement thatN must be combined in order to get the single photon of frequencyΩ [Details will appear elsewhere (Swain, 2006).] Now we haveN indistinguishable photons coming in andN! diagrams, all of which must be counted; all of these have the same numerical value, and thus interfere constructively. This is nothing more than Bose-symmetrization for N indentical incoming photons. Now the original naïve estimate of a rate proportional toαN must be replaced byαNN!. For smallN, theN! term is negligible compared to the rapid falloff in powers of the fine structure constant, but forN of about 400,αNN! becomes unity and the factorial term begins to dominate, and the perturbative concepts become unreliable. AsN goes to infinity, the probability of this process grows without bound, and violates unitarity, signalling that one has pushed perturbation theory beyond its limit. This sort of breakdown of perturbation theory is, in fact, to be expected, since it is well-known that the perturbative QED expansion is divergent; in fact, it is still quite mysterious that the results of low order perturbation theory are as good as they are! It should be noted here that one cannot extend the argument to suggest the outgoing photon energies would grow without limit. With perturbation theory breaking down one would need additional non-perturbative effects to set in and enforce unitarity. Qualitatively, however, one would expect a low probability for a few photons to couple, a large probability for about 400, and a flattening off thereafter with increasing numbers.
In all honesty one must be aware that here one is really using the structure of perturbation theory only as a guide, with no attempt at a full non-perturbative calculation. Illuminating though it is, a non-perturbative treatment is in preparation (Swain, 2006), which suggests a similar result from a different point of view.
A similar factor ofN! was anticipated on phenomenological grounds by Popp (Slawinski &. Popp, 1987), but here finds its expression rooted in a microscopic model linking Fröhlich and Popp photons. Rather remarkably, the factor of of around 400 derived above is about what one would want to get from Fröhlich frequencies in the microwaves to visible Popp photons! The picture that emerges then, subject to more (nonperturbative) theoretical work and, of course, experimental verification is the following:
a) There are at least two types of quantum electromagnetic systems associated with the living state. One is in the microwaves frequency range as suggested by Frofihlich, and one is around the visible region as suggested by Popp.,
b) There is a coupling of these two systems that is natural within the context of known physics, assuming that the Fröhlich mechanism takes place.
c) The model presented above is predictive in that it suggests coherent excitations in the microwave region followed by small excitations at integer multiples of the Fröhlich frequency, which decrease in intensity but rise again at about 400 times the Fröhlich frequency, after which they level off, and eventually fall in order to preserve unitarity. Exact details are beyond perturbation theory, and require different mathematical methods. The physics involved is, however, experimentally accessible, at least over part of the frequency range, with the THz region still being quite challenging in terms of instrumentation.
There is even a degree of reversibility in the system, and one can imagine coupling what we have so-far considered as an outgoing photon mode to an external visible photon that could, in turn, be down-converted into Fröhlich photons. This offers the possibility of influencing Fröhlich dynamics inside a cell via visible photons injected from outside, as well as the possibility of a long-range coupling of internal cellular Fröhlich dynamics between cells via visible Popp photons.
One might well ask what use such a setup with two such disparate frequency ranges is in living things. An immediate suggestion is that living things require a large range of energy quanta to drive various reactions. This is akin to going shopping, where one needs to make purchases using a wide range of sums of money. In order to ensure the correct energy for each reaction (correct change, in the monetary analogy), one would do well to store one’s energy (money) in small quanta (small coins). There is a smallest sensible quantum to store (smallest coin to keep), which is set by what quantity can be had or lost for essentially nothing. For a biological system which is bathed in thermal quanta this energy iskT (a penny in the money analogy since nobody really cares about getting or losing one). Storing energy in microwaves ensures that one can be very close to just about any amount of energy that would be needed to drive an electronic transition (chemical reaction) as needed. Storing in lower energy excitations makes no sense, and higher frequencies would, not be expected (perhaps surprisingly) to couple as easily to the required energy scale. Even a degree of automatic specificity is expected, since a reaction which is all set to go but for the energy required constitutes a resonance (extra phase space) into which the outgoing quantum can couple. This is complementary to Frohlich’s ‘selective long-range dispersion forces between large systems’ [F150]. The use of single photons as part of cell-to-cell signalling is also fascinating, and the sort of system described here could allow for a high degree of selectivity with little cross-talk by choosing slightly different optical fiequencies for different communications. Of course, what nature actually does can only be decided experimentally, and this is likely to provide even more surprises!
8.4. A medical application: Electromagnetic Man and Regulation Diagnostics
That the coherence condition is of practical significance can be demonstrated by the fundamental psycho-physical law of physiology, called, after its inventors, the Weber-Fechner-law. It states that the relation between the intensity of a signal and its sensorial uptake does not work linearly, but logarithmically. At the same time, physiological values like blood pressure, pulse fiequency, tolerability of medicaments or simple physiological parameters, such as skin resistance, do not‘follow a random (Gaussian) frequency distribution but an lognormal one (Gebelein Heite, 1950; Zhang and F.A.Popp, 1994; Klimek, 2004). This is demonstrated, for instance, in Fig.3.
Figure 3. The conductivity values of the human skin (or the resistance values) are not distributed according to a Normal (Gaussian) distribution, but follow for healthy people a Log-normal distribution. Fig. 3 displays the measurements of 20 000 values on the skin of healthy people.
If the probabilities of occupation numbers of different modes were additive and random, one would get a Gaussian distribution of the coupled physiological parameters. However, in view of the multiplicative organizational principle we have, according to Eq. (2)
log W =∑ log fi=∑ log fk (3)
Consequently, stochastic fluctuations of the ƒi yield a Gaussian distribution for log ƒi, which means that the frequency distribution of physiological functions follows a lognormal-distn'bution instead of a Gaussian one. From whole-body biophoton measurements, correlations between biological rhythms and biophoton emission are known already some years ago (Cohen, 1997).
Fig 4. displays an actual example of measurements of 200 values on the skin of a rather healthy man.
Figure 4. Distribution of 200 conductivity values of the skin of a rather healthy man. The full line is the best approximated Log-normal distribution, the dashed one the best approach of a Gaussian distribution. The A-index is a measure of the agreement of the Log-normal distribution, the B-index a measure of the disagreement of the Gaussian distribution and the C-index concerns A/B.
In addition, if biophotons are coherent and connected to physiological functions, the mode coupling between the log-normally distributed resistance values and the photon should provide significant correlations. Fig.4 shows evidence of this connection.
A surprising, but according to these considerations not unexpected new, discovery is then the recent observation that biophoton emission of the human body is significantly correlated to the electrical parameters of the body’s skin (Fig.5). This holds not only for the resistance (conductivity-) values, but even for the agreement (or otherwise) of the distribution function of skin-resistance values with (or from) either a Gaussian or lognormal distribution.
A subject (a girl) has been subjected to measurements of biophoton emission, and, at the same time, to measurements of . skin-resistance values, where both hands were subjects of the measurements of (la) spontaneous biophoton-emission (SE) and (1b) delayed luminescence (DL) in complete darkness, as well as (2a) 500 hundred skin-resistance values (R), and (2b) distribution functions of skin resistance values (A and B). The value A is a measure of the agreement of the frequency of skin resistance values to a lognormal distribution, Whilst B measures the deviation of this distribution function from a Gaussian function. The measurements were performed over every day from 10 am. to 4 pm, every 2 hours for 2 weeks. Fig.Sa displays the original values of SE, separated for left and right hand; Fig.5b shows the same for the Fourier coefficients (periodogram) of Fig. 5a. It turns out that not only are the (expected) correlations of all the parameters SE, DL, R, A and B between left- and right-hand and between SE and DL- values observable, but - and this is most astonishing - but also that there are significant correlations between SE + DL values and R, A, and B parameters. Table 2a and Table 2b quantitatively demonstrate the correlation coefficients within and between the different groups of measurements.
Figure 5a: The temporal course of measurement results of biophoton emission (SE, spontaneous photon counts per second, left hand and right hand, SE-li Hi, SE-re Hi), delayed luminescence (DL in counts per 50 ms, left hand and right hand, DL-liHi, DL-reHi), A-values as a measure of the agreement of the lognormal distribution of resistance values of the hands with the actually measured distribution function of left and right hand (Ali, Are), B-values as a measure of the disagreement of the Gaussian distribution of the resistance values of left and right hand (Bli, Bre) and the mean values of the resistance of both hands (Rli and Rre). The measurements were performed every two hours over three weeks. Table 2a displays the correlation coefficients between all these measurements.
Figure 5b. displays the periodogram of all these measurements, and Table 2b the corresponding correlations coefficients.
Table 2a: Correlation coefiicients between biophoton emission and skin-resistance values.
Table 2b: Correlation coefficients between the periodogram of biophoton emission and skin-resistance values.
The results confirm again evidence of the following results:
8.5. Couplings between optical and 10-1 - 10-3 Hz Modes in Biology
In this last part of the paper we report two main interrelated (but not identical) findings. First, we can see that photon emission of different biological objects demonstrates a pronounced periodicity, at least in the range 10-1 - 10-3 Hz, which is lacking in non-biological samples (such as a nutritive medium for cell cultures), in spite of the same average intensity. As shown by studies of fish eggs/embryos emission, these periodic (Fourier) patterns show clear stage-dependence. Also, the periodicity is greatly and rapidly enhanced under stress conditions (mechanical pressure, destruction of the cytoskeleton and cell contacts structures, application to growth factors, cessation of optical interactions, cooling, transfer to hunger medium).
Next, as shown by autocorrelation analysis, Fourier spectra possess an obvious internal order, in the sense that the main frequencies are themselves arranged periodically. In the other words, they are multiples of each other, so creating a set of harmonics. Such a structure is also stage- and stress-dependent. In several cases, the corresponding AC-FS patterns differ from each other by a width and smoothness of the spectral maxima. Sometimes (Fig.6, line 2 from above; Fig. 9D) the maxima are narrow, while in other cases (F ig.6, lowest line; Fig. 9B), they are not so pronounced, but more extended. One may conclude that, in the latter cases, the spectral maxima are acting like dominating centres that entrain the oscillators to similar frequencies. As a result of such an entrainment,each individual oscillator’s amplitude becomes inversely proportional to its spectral distance from a dominating centre. In a rough approximation, this may be illustrated by a simple physical example. Suppose that we have a set of strings of the different flexibility, which are and bound to each other (by some kind of friction) to different degrees. If a given string has a great flexibility, and one can neglect its bounding with other strings,it will produce, after being excited, a series of pure overtones (harmonics).
Figure 16. Analysis of AC-FS patterns by means of ‘computer surgery’. A: a typical record for a postfertilization period of M. fossilis eggs (cf Fig. 6, row second from above) Arrows point to three main emission bursts. B: AC-FS pattern for this record. C: same, after erasing the main peak. D: same, after shifting a lefi peak to 3 measurements’ units out fiom the main peak. E,F: same, after ‘transplanting’ all the 3 peaks to other positions removed from their natural positions to 100 and 200 units correspondingly. The mutualdistances between all the peaks are preserved.
This corresponds to a series of narrow peaks, which are best of all seen in the autocorrelograms. On the other hand, a string that is less flexible, but which is bound more firmly with other oscillators, will produce smoother spectral patterns. As development of the fish embryos proceeds, the first kind of ‘strings’ seem to be exchanged by the second one.
An objection can be made that the AC-FS patterns are more or less an artifact of Fourier analysis, in the sense that they reflect nothing more than a presence of single solitary peaks of biophoton emission. To test this point, we took a typical emission record fromM. fossilis eggs at the postfertilization stage (which demonstrates a perfect periodicity of autocorrelation maxims, see Fig. 6, row 2nd from above), and made some ‘computer surgery’ procedures by erasing, or transplanting in other positions, some of the most outstanding peaks (Fig. 16A, arrows). Erasing of the main peak indeed led to an almost complete smoothing out of AC pattern (Fig. 16, of B and C). However, an extensive deterioration of the AC pattern took also place when the main peak was left intact, but a smaller one (left arrow) shifted no more than three units to the left of the main one (Fig, 16D), or even when an entire group of three outstanding peaks is shifted out of its ‘natural’ position without changing the distances between these three (Fig.16E, F). Therefore, the presence of a single outstanding photon emission peak anywhere within a recorded set is itself a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for obtaining a pronounced AC-FS periodicity. To obtain the latter, the positions of all peaks must be finely adjusted, not only in relation to each other, but also, according to a set of the minor emission bursts. One may conclude, that AC-F S patterns indicate a real holistic temporal structure of biophoton emission.
In this paper we showed that Fröhlich’s basic idea of coherent excitations in biological systems becomes more and more substantiated as soon as one takes Fröhlich’s example as a paradigm, and takes into account other spectral ranges of oscillations in the living state. The inclusion of Glauber’s coherent states, the extension to the optical range, the concentration on the coupling of Fröhlich modes, and the rather efficient transfer of non-thermal energy over the extremely broad band of biological oscillations all provide a completely new understanding of biological regulation. We showed that there is already surprising experimental evidence in support of the correctness of Fröhlich’s great and deep picture of the living state as a harmonic concert rather than as astupid sequence of random chemical events, but under one provision: Onehas to dare to look seriously through this fascinating window.
Last modified on 15-Mar-16