A complex mathematical work but that remark the possibility of microtubules as photonic waveguides: " The QBD is nothing but quantum electrodynamics (QED) with water electric dipole fields. When electric dipoles are aligned in the same directions coherently, the polaritons, NG bosons in SSB of rotational symmetry, emerge. The dynamical order in the vacua in SSB is maintained by long-range correlation of the massless NG bosons. In QED, the NG bosons are absorbed by photons and then photons acquire mass due to the Higgs mechanism and can stay in coherent domains. The massive photons are called evanescent photons. The size of a coherent domain is in the order of 50µm . Furthermore, two quantum mechanisms of information transfer and integration among coherent domains are suggested. The first one is to use the super-radiance and the self-induced transparency via microtubules connecting two coherent domains [31]. Super-radiance is the phenomenon indicating coherent photon emission with correlation among not only photons but also atoms (or dipoles) [33–37]. The atoms (or dipoles) cooperatively decay in a short time interval due to correlation; coherent photons with intensity proportional to the square of the number of atoms (or dipoles) are emitted. The pulse wave photons in super-radiance propagate through microtubules without decay. Then the self-induced transparency appears, since microtubules are perfectly transparent in the propagation. The second one is to use the quantum tunneling effect among coherent domains surrounded by incoherent domains [32]. The effect is essentially equivalent to the Josephson effect between two superconducting domains separated by a normal domain" {Credits 1} {Credits 1} 🎪 Nishiyama, A., Tanaka, S., & Tuszynski, J. A. (2019). Non-Equilibrium Quantum Brain Dynamics: Super-Radiance and Equilibration in 2+ 1 Dimensions. Entropy, 21(11), 1066. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. |
Last modified on 09-Jan-21 |