In this review document the author recompile evidences that point to the theory that during visual perception (and imagination) intrinsic biophotons are generated in the neurons of visual area of brain and that they create a physical representation of the visual stimulus. Biophotons are generated mainly by the production of radical species and are later absorbed by photoreceptors to initiate a photo-transduction cascade.
".. all living cells and neurons produce biophotons, but what the specific is regarding to V1 (and V2)? The specificity is the structure, namely good retinotopic structure of V1 and V2, they areas preserve the local spatial geometry of the retina, so patterns of activation in them depict shape. Motor or auditory cortex cannot perform biophysical picture representation via biophotons because there is the lack of structural retinotopic representation."
" .. the retina absorbs external photons during vision, and then transforms photon signals into electrical signals that are carried to the V1. Then, V1 retinotopic electrical signals (spike-related electrical signals along classical axonal-dendritic pathways) can be converted into regulated biophotons within retinotopic neurons that make it possible to create internal biophysical pictures (intrinsic re-representation of perceived external objects) during visual perception and imagery."
" .. Small groups of visual neurons can function as “visual pixels” that are appropriate to the topological distribution of the retina’s photonic signals. Thus, we can get an intrinsic computational biophysical picture of the object created by biophotons in the retinotopic V1. The long-term visual information is not stored as pictures but as epigenetic codes. We are able to identify objects since the same epigenetic processes are activated every time we see an object. Therefore, the representation stored in long-term visual memory will match the representation that is created while the object is seen again. Top-down mechanisms control the epigenetically encoded, long-term visual information during visual processing. Then, according to this retrieved epigenetic information, synchronized retinotopic neurons generate dynamic patterns of biophotons through redox reactions. Finally, biophotons within the millions of synchronized neurons (Bókkon et al., 2011a; 2011b) can create biophysical pictures in the early retinotopic visual area. During visual perception and imagery, visual information is linked and combined with different sensory modalities and higher-order associational areas during multisensory interactions. It should be emphasized that neural electrical signals are transmitted between neurons, but biophotons are generated within retinotopic visual neurons."
Last modified on 15-Mar-16