Radio Frequency Radiation Devices and Antennas May Violate the Right to Life Principle

" Many researchers argue that man-made EMR is potentially biologically harmful [1–3] because it differs from natural radiation (mainly originating from the Sun). Natural EMR is filtered mainly by Earth’s atmosphere, allowing man’s biology to adapt to shallow levels of radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. Natural EMR is electromagnetic (EM) waves covering a broad spectral range of wavelengths (mainly λ > 0.01 nm), including the UV, visible (the Sun’s spectral power density maximum emission), infrared, X- and gamma-rays. Furthermore, EMR is emitted by Earth’s electric fields (developing between the ionosphere and Earth’s surface) and from the Schumann resonances, the ultra-low frequency (7.83 Hz) window [4]." {Credits 1}

" ... only shallow levels, similar to 2G-5G man-made radiation sources emitted by the Sun, reach Earth’s surface. In contrast, Earth’s atmosphere transmits visible and infrared light and Schumann resonances, suggesting that human biology might be incompatible with the anthropogenic RF-EMF [5–7], because humans and other organisms have adapted well to the cosmic radiation background by synchronizing their biological clocks accordingly [8]. Natural evolution permits humans to tolerate and use visible photons to regulate the melatonin cycle or synthesise vitamin D from UV-A radiation as our eyes have adapted to visible light. Moreover, specific frequencies of natural EMFs are exploited by trillions of cells within the human body for intercommunications, e.g., the waves α (8–12 Hz), β (13–30 Hz), Δ (1–4 Hz) and θ (4–8 Hz) are used for heartbeat regulation, the nervous system’s neural signals, and electrical activities of the brain. Naturally, the evolution of man’s biology has adapted only to the cosmic EMFs that reach Earth’s surface." {Credits 1}

" The experimentally measured natural microwave levels for the nonionising cosmic EMF spectrum associated with the 2G–5G wireless frequencies (~0.8 to 12 GHz) at the Earth’s surface lay between ~10−22 and 10−20 W/m2 (~10−23 to 10−21 mW/cm2), Figure 1. The above cosmic microwave radiation levels at the specific frequencies are biologically safe because of the adaption of organisms through natural evolution over billions of years on Earth’s surface. These natural cosmic radiation levels, being the natural biological exposure limits, can be compared to the 10 W/m2 (1 mW/cm2 or 104 mW/m2) microwave and radiofrequency exposure limit set by the International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)." {Credits 1}

" Taking the least harmful exposure scenario for a citizen at a distance of 1 Km from a GSM tower antenna, the average exposure radiation power density is 10−6 W/m2 (10−7 mW/cm2) and 2 × 10−7 W/m2 (2 × 10−8 mW/cm2) when in line and not in line, respectively [14]. Even in this most favourable case,the radiation levels are 1013 to 1015-fold higher than the natural exposure EMF limit." {Credits 1}

" Up to now, non-thermal effects are wrongly and misleadingly viewed as being caused only by ionisation (where an atom/molecule acquires a negative/positive charge by gaining/losing electrons), ignoring that microwave frequencies generate free radicals from molecular bond braking via dissociative excited electronic states. In the case of water, experimental results indicate long-term changes in the structure of water after the microwave treatment. " {Credits 1}

" EM waves (photons) emitted from natural sources (Sun) are uncorrelated. They exist as independent and incoherent EM waves because their photons’ phases are not linked. ...In contrast, the energy of an artificial (man-made) coherent EM beam falling on a surface is scaled as the square of the number of photons compared with the linear scaling of an incoherent photon source [25]." {Credits 1}

" The near-field is the EMF segment emitted from an antenna or a power line wire at a distance equal to one wavelength. The near-field itself is further divided into the reactive near-field and the radiative near-field, both fractional functions of wavelength. The reactive near-field is extended at a distance of 0.159 λ from the antenna. The radiative near-field (Fresnel region) covers the remainder of the near-field region at a distance of one wavelength. Near-field RF-EMF is a complicated space mathematical multipole structure of electric and magnetic fields, mutually independent with no fixed ratio intensities. For the 3G–4G systems, a transmission distance equal to one wavelength follows the radiative nearfield length [28,29]." {Credits 1}

" In contrast, far-field dipole-type EMFs produce a fixed phase relationship between electric and magnetic components [28,29]. Consequently, RF near-fields do not emit standard coherent or incoherent EMFs. However, a phase locking of individual waves and possibly non-linear photon interactions with matter make near-fields potentially harmful to man [1]. For example, in the 3G (1.8–2.5 GHz) and 4G (2–8 GHz) wireless communications RF bands, the carrier frequencies range from just under 1 GHz to just over 2 GHz (above 0.3 to below 0.15 m, respectively), and the average near-field length is 0.225 m. Therefore, when someone holds a smartphone next to its ear or a laptop/tablet at a distance less than 0.225 m, the head and some more sensitive body parts are exposed to the near-field, and, possibly, humans experience harmful biological effects [30–32]." {Credits 1}

" The emphasis on electric field intensity (V/m)-based on current recommended radiation exposure limits underestimates the biological effects caused by the cumulative magnetic EMF component that primarily penetrates the human body [42,43]." {Credits 1}

" Furthermore, man-made RF-EMF far-fields are produced additively by individual EMF photons as being coherent or partially coherent with each other. RF-EMF far-fields are produced by photons fully synchronised to each other (in a frequency, polarization, phase, pulse, and propagation direction). In contrast to the non-synchronised photons emitted by the Sun, the intensities of man-made individual electric and magnetic fields add up coherently or partially coherent, conditions that make them possibly biologically active since coherent photons are cumulative on a macroscopic scale; thus, they possess the potency to form cores of biological effects over exposing time [42,45,46]."{Credits 1}

" The lowest power density of 1 × 10−9 W/m2 (1 × 10−6 mW/m2) with observed biological effects (oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species generation, DNA damage/repair failure) is ~1013-fold higher than a natural exposure limit of ~1 × 10−22 W/m2 (10−19 mW/m2) of exposure to the cosmic frequencies and 1010-fold lower than the today’s power density exposure limit of 10 W/m2 (1 × 104 mW/m2). Even the 3 to 6 × 10−6 W/m2 (3 to 6 × 10−3 mW/m2) limit proposed by the BioInitiative 2012 Report [148] is 1014− to 1018−fold higher than the natural exposure limit." {Credits 1}

{Credits 1} 🎪 Georgiou, C.D.; Kalaitzopoulou, E.; Skipitari, M.; Papadea, P.; Varemmenou, A.; Gavriil, V.; Sarantopoulou, E.; Kollia, Z.; Cefalas, A.-C. Physical Differences between Man-Made and Cosmic Microwave Electromagnetic Radiation and Their Exposure Limits, and Radiofrequencies as Generators of Biotoxic Free Radicals. Radiation 2022, 2, 285-302. © 2022 The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Last modified on 02-Oct-22

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