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Biophotons Bókkon´s Theory of Vision
Photons are also internally generated to form a visual representation of reality

Pablo Andueza Munduate

It is possible that visual perception is based upon biophotonic representations of reality inside the brain. Various findings on exogenously applied light and endogenously generated biophotons make the basis for the theory, the visual sensation of light (phosphenes) is likely to be due to the inherent perception of ultraweak photon emissions of cells in the visual system. ...

In Bókkon's words the theory can summarized as follows: " the retina absorbs external photons during vision, and then transforms photon signals into electrical signals that are carried to the V1.

[ Moreover, it was demonstrated that biophotons can conduct along the neural fibers. Latest experiments provided evidence that the glutamate-induced biophotonic activities reflect biophotonic transmission along the axons and in neural circuits, which may be a new mechanism for the processing of neural information. Since regulated electrical signals of neurons can be converted into regulated biophoton signals, external photonic representation can emerge not only as electrical signals but also as regulated biophoton signals in the brain.]

Then, V1 retinotopic electrical signals (spike-related electrical signals along classical axonal-dendritic pathways) can be converted into regulated biophotons within retinotopic neurons that make it possible to create internal biophysical pictures (intrinsic re-representation of perceived external objects) during visual perception and imagery. Therefore, information in the brain appears not only as electrical (chemical) signal but also as a controlled biophoton signal of synchronized V1 neurons."

For the developers of the theory the detailed and realistic visual representation in early V1 and V2 areas cannot be guaranteed by mere electrical representations. However, the biophysical picture concept may guarantee the detailed and realistic visual representation of objects in retinotopic V1 and V2 areas by congruent patterns of regulated biophotons.

There exists some findings that underpin some aspects of the theory, a theoretical work [1] related to the retinal discrete dark noise effect, that take in consideration the rate of it, demostrated that thermal activation approach is matematecally incongruent and that the discrete components of noise are indistinguishable in shape and duration from those produced by real photon induced photo-isomerization, so propose that the retinal discrete dark noise is most likely due to ‘photons’ inside cells instead ‘heat’ for thermal activation of visual pigments.

It must be say anyway that now exist experimental evidence of biphotonic activity in the retina [2]:

" Here, we used a novel ultra-weak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) to detect biophotonic activity (emission) under dark conditions in rat and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) retinas in vitro. We found a significant temperature-dependent increase in biophotonic activity that was completely blocked either by removing intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ together or inhibiting phosphodiesterase 6. These findings suggest that the photon-like component of discrete dark noise may not be caused by a direct contribution of the thermal activation of rhodopsin, but rather by an indirect thermal induction of biophotonic activity, which then activates the retinal chromophore of rhodopsin. Therefore, this study suggests a possible solution regarding the thermal activation energy barrier for discrete dark noise, which has been debated for almost half a century."

But this not invalidate that a visual representation made by biphotons or ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) is also taking place with neurons of the V1 and V2 areas as a source.

As a curiosity: there are some propositions, although very minority, that eye itself emit energy of some kind, and that this emission is involved in visual perception, or at least in the creation of “sense of being watched” in the objective [3].

It must be taken into account, both for the theory proposed in this section and for the idea of the little note of the previous paragraph that humans can detect a single-photon, at least when incident on the cornea [4], as demonstrated in a experiment that show that the probability of reporting a single photon is modulated by the presence of an earlier photon.

Also there are interesting experiment that demonstrate that applying temporally patterned light over skull (without eyes intervention) resulted in suppression of gamma activity within the right cuneus (including the extrastriate area), beta activity within the left angular and right superior temporal regions, and alpha power within the right parahippocampal region [5]. As mentioned in the paper, that photons can traverse the skull and influence biochemical and biophysical functions within brain space has been known or suspected by many previous researchers. In [6] it is shown that transcranial light affects plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalo pain in mouse.

Extraocular light, but in this case directed trought ear canals, is also used in various experiements. In [7] extraocular light delivered via ear canals abolished normal emotional modulation of attention related brain responses. In [8] there is a large period (four weeks) experimentation to see some possible therapeutic uses and showed that transcranial bright light treatment may have antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in seasonal affective disorder patients.

All these are indicative that probably light is used endogenously inside the brain and that all the effects are indicative of an alteration of a pre-exitent mechanisms.

Another fact that make stronger the possibilities of the theory is all the endogenous light detected in relation with brain processes. For example in [9] photons (biophotons) are detected from subject imagining white light:

" The quantitative convergence of the energies associated with photon emission, change in cerebral power, and the minute decrease in the local adjacent geomagnetic field in the same plane as the photon emission, suggests that experience of an “inner light” may reflect actual photon production whose energies are shared with changes in the proximal intensity of the geomagnetic field in the plane associated with photon emission."

There are also some ideas (that with some experimental evidences are all compiled in a section [10]) that also can be take in consideration, in [11] hallucinogens are proposed to exert effect via a biophysical interference:

" of importance in this context, are the strong flurescence properties of the major hallucinogens: LSD, bufetonine, dimethyl-tryptamine, psilocybine, psilocin, iboguanin, harmine, cannabidinol and mescaline. Furthermore it has been shown that hallucinogenic properties of these substances have a direct correlation to their fluorescence properties and their readyness to donate electrons. As hypothesis we propose that the fluorescence interacts physically with the proposed Biophoton mediated cell to cell communication thus producing hallucinations."

Or as mentioned previously, the discovery that biophotons can be conducted along neural fibers [12]:

" the detected biophotonic activities in the corpus callosum and thalamus in sagittal brain slices mostly originate from axons or axonal terminals of cortical projection neurons, and that the hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau leads to a significant decrease of biophotonic activities in these two areas. Furthermore, the application of glutamate in the hippocampal dentate gyrus results in increased biophotonic activities in its intrahippocampal projection areas. These results suggest that the glutamate-induced biophotonic activities reflect biophotonic transmission along the axons and in neural circuits, which may be a new mechanism for the processing of neural information."

In this compendium [13] of various aspects of the theory, made by Bókkon himself, are mentioned various other facts that can support the theory. Also several proposals are reviewed of how this kind of visual representations can work in other situations apart of representations of the external world, for example: as a biophysical picture during visual imagery or also as the human memory (unconscious) that can operate through intrinsic dynamic pictures and then link these picture-representations to each other during language learning processes.

The relationship between an electromagnetic theory of mind and this biophysical representation is that this representation, being made by biophotons, can be the visual consciousness itself as a layer of a multilayered (or multifrequency) electromagnetic mind. Other frequencies, as classical low frequencies generated in the brain, can interact with this layer [14].

References:

1. Salari, Vahid, et al. "The Physical Mechanism for Retinal Discrete Dark Noise: Thermal Activation or Cellular Ultraweak Photon Emission?." PloS one 11.3 (2016): e0148336.

2. Li, Zehua, and Jiapei Dai. "Biophotons Contribute to Retinal Dark Noise." Neuroscience bulletin 32.3 (2016): 246-252.

3. Ross, Colin A. "Traditional beliefs and electromagnetic fields." AIBR: Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana 6.3 (2011): 269-286.

4. Tinsley, Jonathan N., et al. "Direct detection of a single photon by humans." Nature Communications 7 (2016).

5. Karbowski, Lukasz M., et al. "LORETA indicates frequency-specific suppressions of current sources within the cerebrums of blindfolded subjects from patterns of blue light flashes applied over the skull." Epilepsy & Behavior 51 (2015): 127-132.

6. Flyktman, Antti, et al. "Transcranial light affects plasma monoamine levels and expression of brain encephalopsin in the mouse." Journal of Experimental Biology 218.10 (2015): 1521-1526.

7. Sun, Lihua, et al. "Human Brain Reacts to Transcranial Extraocular Light." PloS one 11.2 (2016): e0149525.

8. Jurvelin, Heidi, et al. "Transcranial bright light treatment via the ear canals in seasonal affective disorder: a randomized, double-blind dose-response study." BMC psychiatry 14.1 (2014): 1.

9. Saroka, Kevin S., Blake T. Dotta, and Michael A. Persinger. "Concurrent photon emission, changes in quantitative brain activity over the right hemisphere, and alterations in the proximal geomagnetic field while imagining white light." International Journal of Life Science and Medical Research 3.1 (2013): 30.

10. EMMIND › Endogenous Fields & Mind › Endogenous Biophotons › Biophotons, Microtubules & Brain

11. Grass, F. "P03-33-Biophotons, hallucinogens, and fluorescence." European Psychiatry 26 (2011): 1202.

12. Tang, Rendong, and Jiapei Dai. "Spatiotemporal imaging of glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in neural circuits." PloS one 9.1 (2014): e85643.

13. Bókkon, Istvan. "Explanations step by step about Bókkon's biophysical picture representation model (also called intrinsic biophysical virtual visual reality) during visual perception and imagery." (2013)

14. Bereta, Martin, et al. "Low frequency electromagnetic field effects on ultra-weak photon emission from yeast cells." 2016 ELEKTRO. IEEE, 2016.

Very related sections:

expand this introductory text

text updated: 18/08/2016
tables updated: 05/11/2016

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