An extensive review of the investigations made up to now on the celular endogenous electromagnetism, how is this generated and perceived.
" .. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic fi eld can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electro- magnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fi elds and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular inter- actions in the modern scienti fi c literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating."
It is viewed that EMF are an integral part of biological systems and are thus part of purposeful processes.
The authors begin describing various processes that can generate (experimentally proven) EMF on cells; on neurons, membrane depolarization (a neuron firing at several hundred Hz) generates oscillations of electric charges with higher harmonics, creating an EMF with a frequency up to 10 kHz, for all types of cells there is described another EMF generation mechanism: coherent longitudinal vibrations of electrically polar structures (proposed initially by Frohlich et al), where majority of the protein are electrically polar structures [and water!]. the structures reach a steady-state of non-linear vibrations (caused by a strong static electric field) with energy stored in a highly ordered fashion. Frohlich also proposed the existence of a selective resonant interaction of similar frequencies of biomolecular EMFs between two systems. There are numerous experimental data that proves the existence of this kind of vibrations [see the section dedicated to this theory in the web],and apart from the membrane as a source for this phenomenon [the original proposition] now microtubules (MT) are taking much attention as a candidate for this EMF generation [see also the section dedicated to microtubules EMF] where the static electric field of mitocondria cause no-linearity of MT vibrations. Membrane in all type of cells can be also source of EMF; mechanic resonance at cell membranes (both perpendicular and parallel to membrane surface), deformations and asymmetries of polar cellular membrane as a mechanism for generation of acousto-electrical waves whose EM radiative component depends on deviation from the healthy state, etc. Other theories propose that cellular EMFs can be generated by the coupling of oscillating chemical reactions to physically mobile ions.
They continue describing as possible sources of electromagnetic field other theories related this time to the generation of Ultraweak Photon Emissions (UPE, or also Biophotons) [various sections of the web dedicated to this phenomenon). There are various experiments that propose mitocondria as a source of all kind of biophotons (ultraviolet, visible and near infrared) as a source of ROS production [but is not the only one, in this web are pointed out other possible sources, can be water ? [1,2,3] is sufficiently systemic and general to my taste ;)]. The authors of the paper pointed out also (as I mentioned) water as a possible source of those EMF. Also there is a proposition for a possibility of photo-emission from collective molecular interactions such as relaxation of superhelical DNA, indeed Popp et al. proposed DNA at the nucleus as the main source for UPE and also suggested that DNA is suitable as a photon storage system due to its spatial conformation. I cut and paste this paragraph because I think is significant:
" It is generally accepted that the main sources of cellular UPE are excited molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can release their energy in rather random chemical reactions as photons. However, ROS can also provide energy to macromolecular structures which can store the energy and release it in a more coherent fashion."
They explain how some scientists treated to make a possible connection between generation KHz-GHz EMF (by the vibration of electrical polar structures) and UPE (by the electronic excitation of molecules).
This review continues with evidences of how cells are affected by all kind of electromagnetic radiations, so there must be some kind of possible targets in the cells [as a example of how this is a real fact, you can found a extensive lists with links to the latest experiments and papers of applied electromagnetic fields in research of both intentional (experimentally and therapeutically) and not intentional (electromagnetic contamination) effects that cause on biological systems]
Those effect are provoked by low intensity electromagnetic fields so they must somewhat surpass the naturally occurring thermal energy (the kT problem) but as they explain in the text this is a problem only if the system is near-equilibrium and is not applicable to organisms. In the latest the thermalization time may be significantly greater than in systems in thermal equilibrium. Thus, it is not surprising that EMFs can induce a significant change in energy in some degrees of freedom before dissipation or redistribution of the energy.
They mention Ion cyclotron resonance theory by Liboff and also that Frohlich modes mentioned upward are posible target of external EMF. And also water (by generation of intrinsic resonant frequencies by water clusters) is a possible candidate to effects of 50-70 GHz radiation fields.
They also describes three mechanisms through which EMFs can be extracted from a noisy background by biological systems. Also describe models where membrane macromolecules and membrane-bound enzymes and pumps are considered as receptors for EMF, or where simple biomolecules are the receptors. Another theory is that EMF affect electron transport in DNA interacting directly with electrons and changing the biosynthesis of proteins. Finally among the interactions into the EMF in the visible range they describe the Cosic model of Resonant Recognition where charge moving through a protein backbone can produce EMF radiation or absorption with spectral characteristics corresponding to the potential energy profile of the protein [there is a section with experimetal proofs of this model in this web].
Lastly the describe more experimental results, in this case of EMF interactions in the range of visible and ultraviolet between cells.
Last modified on 15-Mar-16