Although overall the paper is very interesting the parts that are more interesting for the web's concept is the parts where there are reviewed facts related to electromagnetic fields (EMF) (also it must be taken in consideration that the mechanical vibration of dipolar molecules, or the regular movement of charged particles are also a source of EMF).
" In this review, we will provide evidence that, from the cellular level to the whole organism, every signaling event is fashioned by rhythms—as vibratory patterns—and that synchronization of coupled oscillators and dynamical systems is a crucial issue in the orchestration of essential processes of life. We will show that changes in the rhythms and modes of interaction of subcellular oscillators can result in remarkable modulation of gene expression and cellular dynamics, playing an essential role in states of wellness and disease. Within this context, we will discuss the use of EMFs and sound energy as tools for restoring healthy cellular dynamics, reprogramming DNA structure, and eliciting self-healing mechanisms. We will highlight how EMFs and sound energies can “sing” with stem cells, and even with non-stem-adult somatic cells to reprogram cell gene expression and fate, activate natural repairing abilities, and counteract cellular aging processes, paving the way toward unprecedented strategies of regenerative medicine. Particular emphasis will be placed on the large body of evidence demonstrating that cytoskeletal structures are dynamic modulators of subcellular, cellular, and intercellular information that coordinate biological regulation across the atomic/molecular to organismic levels, giving rise to the notion of a field of dynamic bio-information or “biofield.” While molecular and gene expression rhythms affect the entire individual, it has been shown that the reverse also occurs."
They indicate some of the rhythms that are known to exist; for example transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, that rather than occurring in a manner corresponding to diffusion and passive transport, is orchestrated in real-time by subcellular pacemaker sites producing Ca2+ waves and oscillations. Or also cell proliferation and differentiation that are antagonistic regulated by multiple activator and repressor genes, whose activity is fashioned according to specific oscillatory patterns in gene transcription, specific genes functioning as biological clocks, acting through both short and long lived oscillatory pathways and often involving tonic feed-forward and feedback mechanisms.
They also note the existence of couplings between oscillators giving rise to collective behaviors such as phase synchronization (for example in circadian rhythms at the suprachiasmatic nucleus, or the brain waves that also couple and are interdependent).
There is a review of the effects of externally applied weak (non-thermal) electromagnetic fields on biological systems in a resonantic way.
" In recent years, it has been firmly established that amplitude and frequency resonances can occur for μT-range EMF exposures in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems, such as brainwaves and neuronal calcium efflux, membrane transport, 45Ca incorporation in human lymphocytes, calcium flux in bone cells, liposome permeability, calcium signal transduction in the lymphocytes, neurite outgrowth in PC-12 cells, myosin phosphorylation, calcium efflux though lipid vesicles, glutamic acid currents in aqueous solution, IGF-II expression for human osteosarcoma bone cells, survival curve for mice infected with Ascites Ehrlich carcinoma, and cytokine release from osteoblasts in response to different intensities of EMF stimulation."
And also of how earth magnetic fields have biological effect.
Next they start a section dedicated to endogenously generated EMF, and their possible targets (as nitric oxide (NO) messenger molecule, but it must be taken in account other even more ubiquitous molecule in biological systems: water).
" Because all biochemical reactions require the transfer of electrical charges, a wide variety of EMF sources exist within all biological systems, and observations that EMFs can be involved in intercellular communication also raise questions as to the role of those EMFs that occur naturally within the body. These endogenous EMFs and electrical currents are essential for a variety of activities, such as controlling ion transport and cell membrane electrical potential, coordinating cell migration and wound healing, and regulating ionic triggers modulating cellular activities."
Microtubules of the cytoskeletal matrix are also mentioned as a player on those electromagnetic interactions (in this web there are two sections dedicated to microtubules, one to general electromagnetic interaction or generation in microtubules, and other where the microtubules as a waveguides for biophotons are suggested, and it can be note also that there are interesting intent to integrate the different frequencies into a one multiscale or multilayer framework: see here or here).
And next they mention biophotons (briefly), to later mention water:
" Functionally important protein molecular dynamics are slave to the thermal fluctuations of the aqueous medium, and hydration has been shown to play a fundamental role in conformational dynamics controlling protein function, suggesting that EMF interactions within the aqueous medium itself could modulate protein function. Along these lines, theoretical work has suggested that liquid water is an ensemble of phase-correlated molecules kept in tune by an endogenous EMF generated within the ensemble.This endogenous EMF governs the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and is in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules, suggesting a holistic framework for energetic/informational regulation of the complex dynamics of biochemical events. In a similar direction, in vivo observations of electric field absorption and emission suggest endogenous EMFs as an indicator of the physiological state of living organisms."
There is a section about electromagnetic energy to modulate stem cell gene expression, potentiality and fate, where are viewed a lot of effects, and finally:
" To reiterate, it has been clearly demonstrated that the microtubular cytoskeleton has functional electronic properties beyond the stabilization of cellular shape, that endogenous EMFs generated by the intracellular network of micro-tubules, centrosomes and chromosomes play a fundamental role in regulating the dynamics of mitosis and meiosis, and that endogenous EMFs in the nuclear DNA-containing chromatin also play a key role in chromosome packing during the mitotic cell-cycle phase."
Last modified on 20-Mar-16