Estimation of the number of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside

" Recently, we have proposed a redox molecular hypothesis about the natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and imagery ... . Namely, the retina transforms external photon signals into electrical signals that are carried to the V1 (striate cortex). Then, V1 retinotopic electrical signals (spikerelated electrical signals along classical axonal-dendritic pathways) can be converted into regulated ultraweak bioluminescent photons (biophotons) through redox processes within retinotopic visual neurons that make it possible to create intrinsic biophysical pictures during visual perception and imagery. However, the consensus opinion is to consider biophotons as by-products of cellular metabolism. This paper argues that biophotons are not by-products, other than originating from regulated cellular radical/redox processes. It also shows that the biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside. Our simple calculations, within a level of accuracy, suggest that the real biophoton intensity in retinotopic neurons may be sufficient for creating intrinsic biophysical picture representation of a singleobject image during visual perception."

Appart from explain this theory of biophoton origin of the visual representation where the visual stimulus pass to electrical impulses in retina and are conveyed to V1 area, and here, by the mitocondrial cellular redox processes are passed again to photonic (biophotonic) form that creates a intrinsic biophysical pictures in the retinotopically organized mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase rich (CO-rich) visual areas, they do the interesting asseveration that biophotons that are detected outside the cells are only a reduced part of the biophotons that are working internally.

" It is worth noting that the term “ultraweak biophoton emission” can be misleading, since it suggests that biophotons are not important in cellular processes as mere by-products of cellular metabolism. In the following sections, we point out that biophotons originate from regulated redox/radical processes and the actual biophoton intensity can be fundamentally higher inside cells than outside. According to our rough estimation, at least 108 - 109 biophotons per second can be produced inside retinotopic visual neurons, which may be sufficient to create intrinsic biophysical picture representation during visual perception of a single-object image."

Explain that ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) are essential regulated signals (independent of its origin that authors supposed mainly in mitochondria, but are other possible candidates including water itself), controlled by genes and cell activity, that provoke a specific reaction cascades.

Also is viewed that biophotons are very related to neural activity and neurochemical processes. And they calculate that there are about 1,157,407 free radicals that are processes every second in a neuron, as the biophoton originates majorly from free radical reactions, this indicates that the actual number of biophotons - inside cells - should be significantly larger than that expected from biophoton measurements (that take place at distance of several centimeters from the cells) and that cells retain their biophotons within the cellular environment.

" Grass and Kasper’s experiments [51] indicate that living systems are able to retain photons. For example, they reported that whole blood does not reemit any biophotons after illumination. In contrast, the same measurement for serum gives intense biophoton re-emission for more than 10 minutes. According to Cliento [52], biochemical reactions take place in such a way, that a biophoton is borrowed from the surrounding electromagnetic bath, and then it excites the transition state complex, and finally returns to an equilibrium state with the surroundings."

Another very interesting fact is how the centriole (an array of microtubules) act as an eye for cells and that electromagnetic signals are the triggers for the cells’ repositioning.

" Another mystery related to these observations is the original electromagnetic radiation emitted by a living cell [65]. Using pulsating infra-red signals scattered off plastic beads AB [G. Albrecht-Buehler] mimicked the effects of the presence of another living cell in the neighbourhood. The question that still remains unanswered and which we address here is the source of infrared radiation speculated by AB to originate in the mitochondria and later on demonstrated to be correct using quantum mechanical arguments [65]. Mitochondria are not only the main source of bioluminescent biophotons generated by regulated reactive oxygen species, but they also function as photoreceptors with their natural photosensitive chromophores [66,67]. Ultraweak biophotons can be guided along the mitochondrial network [39]."

It is observed also that mitochondria and microtubules can act as optical waveguides.

Last modified on 15-Mar-16

/ EMMIND - Electromagnetic Mind